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D is for Debacle - The Sun, Vitamin D, 25(OH)D and Health

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The Story of Vitamin D, and the Debacle of Human Health Impact that has unfolded over the past 50 years, as we allowed the population necessary levels to collapse. For individuals, parents, families, mothers - don't miss this understanding - this is probably the most important single factor for your health and longevity.

Published in: Health & Medicine
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D is for Debacle - The Sun, Vitamin D, 25(OH)D and Health

  1. 1. “D” is for DebacleThe Crucial Story of 25(OH)D www.thefatemperor.com 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI
  2. 2. A Thank-You to Some Experts: Prof. Michael HolickEndocrinologist and Professor of Medicine, Physiology and Biophysics. Currently director at Boston University Medical Center. Internationally recognized expert on all aspects of vitamin D. Dr. Edward GorhamAssociate Professor in the Department of Family and Preventive Medicine at the University of California Prof. Robert P Heaney Clinical Endocrinologist, Professor of Medicine and John A. Creighton University Professor Emeritus, Creighton University School of Medicine. Internationally recognized expert on vitamin D. Dr. Cedric F Garland AdjtProf. Family and Preventative Medicine, Division of Epidemiology, University of San Diego. Internationally recognized expert on the disease implications of vitamin D. Dr. Chris Masterjohn PhD in Nutritional Science and Assistant Professor of Health and Nutrition Sciences at Brooklyn College. Dr. Bruce Hollis PhD Professor of Pediatrics, Biochemistry and Molecular Biology at The Medical University of South Carolina as well as the Director of Pediatric Nutritional Sciences. Vitamin D research for the past 35 years and has published >200 peer reviewed articles. Prof. Reinhold Vieth Professor in the Department of Nutritional Sciences, and the Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, University of Toronto.Internationally recognized expert on the clinical nutrition of vitamin D as well as its pharmacology and safety. Dr. David Grimes consultant Gastroenterologist at Blackburn Hospital in the UK. Expert in Vitamin D for the developing foetusand the implications for infections, diabetes, heart disease, liver disease and Crohn'sdisease.
  3. 3. Prelude 1.The Centrality of the Sun 2.25(OH)D –The Creation 3.25(OH)D –The Power 4.25(OH)D –The Human Cost 5.Anatomy of a Debacle 6.The Solution Epilogue Q&A The “D”ebacleContent: 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) C(Eng) MIEI
  4. 4. Prelude 1.The Centrality of the Sun 2.25(OH)D –The Creation 3.25(OH)D –The Power 4.25(OH)D –The Human Cost 5.Anatomy of a Debacle 6.The Solution Epilogue Q&A 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) C(Eng) MIEI
  5. 5. The Literature is Exploding
  6. 6. Prelude –Critical Human Hormone D3 –The Hormone Precursor 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI •“Vitamin” D3 (Cholecalciferol) is the hormone- precursor molecule required to synthesize 25(OH)D •This is the crucial element provided mostly by UVB light on skin, but can be taken in supplement form & diet
  7. 7. •25(OH)Dis the pre-hormone substrate. •Is produced in the Liver from D3 Cholecalciferol •Enabled us to leave the seas, and a lot more besides •Is used all over the body for critical functions •An analogy might be “Ammunition Pack” Prelude –Critical Human Hormone 25(OH)D –The Pre-Hormone D3 –The Hormone Precursor 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI •“Vitamin” D3 (Cholecalciferol) is the hormone- precursor molecule required to synthesize 25(OH)D •This is the crucial element provided mostly by UVB light on skin, but can be taken in supplement form & diet
  8. 8. •25(OH)Dis the pre-hormone substrate. •Is produced in the Liver from D3 Cholecalciferol •Enabled us to leave the seas, and a lot more besides •Is used all over the body for critical functions •An analogy might be “Ammunition Pack” •1,25 (OH)2 Dis the active Hormone •Is produced in the Kidney and elsewhere from 25(OH)D •Is at 1000x lower concentration than 25(OH)D •An analogy might be “precision bullet” 1,25 (OH)2 D –The Active Form Prelude –Critical Human Hormone 25(OH)D –The Pre-Hormone D3 –The Hormone Precursor 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI •“Vitamin” D3 (Cholecalciferol) is the hormone- precursor molecule required to synthesize 25(OH)D •This is the crucial element provided mostly by UVB light on skin, but can be taken in supplement form & diet
  9. 9. Prelude –The Implications of Low… 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) C(Eng) MIEI
  10. 10. 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) C(Eng) MIEI Prelude –The Implications of Low… USA 25(OH)D Distribution (NHANES III Seasonal Sampling)
  11. 11. ~70% of US Population Insufficient ( 15 Years Previously was ~50% ) 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) C(Eng) MIEI Prelude –The Implications of Low… USA 25(OH)D Distribution (NHANES III Seasonal Sampling)
  12. 12. 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) C(Eng) MIEI ~70% of US Population Insufficient ( 15 Years Previously was ~50% ) Prelude –The Implications of Low… Requires Engineering USA 25(OH)D Distribution (NHANES III Seasonal Sampling)
  13. 13. Requires Engineering 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) C(Eng) MIEI RICKETS Prelude –The Implications of Low… USA 25(OH)D Distribution (NHANES III Seasonal Sampling)
  14. 14. Prelude 1.The Centrality of the Sun 2.25(OH)D –The Creation 3.25(OH)D –The Power 4.25(OH)D –The Human Cost 5.Anatomy of a Debacle 6.The Solution Epilogue Q&A 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI
  15. 15. Skin Pigmentation Hypotheses –to ~40kYrs ago Evolutionary Drivers LOSS OF BODY HAIR (~1M Yrsago) •Striding Bipedalism •Sweat Gland System •Whole Body Cooling •Critical Brain Cooling 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) C(Eng) MIEI ~1 million years…
  16. 16. Skin Pigmentation Hypotheses –to ~40kYrs ago Evolutionary Drivers •Skin generally non- pigmented •Hairlessareas pigmented •Sun Protection Robust Overall •Vitamin D accessed via Grooming, as for dogs etc •Captive animals require D Supplementation! 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) C(Eng) MIEI LOSS OF BODY HAIR (~1M Yrsago) •Striding Bipedalism •Sweat Gland System •Whole Body Cooling •Critical Brain Cooling ~1 million years…
  17. 17. Skin Pigmentation Hypotheses –to ~40kYrs ago Evolutionary Drivers •Skin generally non- pigmented •Hairlessareas pigmented •Sun Protection Robust Overall •Vitamin D accessed via Grooming, as for dogs etc •Captive animals require D Supplementation! Hair Loss –Key Downside: •Human Origin had Equatorial Sun •Ubiquitous powerful UV penetrates to Blood Vessels and damages Folate (photolysis) •Lack of folate causes Neural Tube Birth Defects •Other Reproductive Impacts from excessive UV •Also need to protect hugely increased Sweat Gland System from damage And 25(OH)D Synthesis? •Equatorial Sun still provides adequate amounts of UV in spite of pigmented skin •Engineering “Tradeoff” thus achieved 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) C(Eng) MIEI LOSS OF BODY HAIR (~1M Yrsago) •Striding Bipedalism •Sweat Gland System •Whole Body Cooling •Critical Brain Cooling ~1 million years…
  18. 18. Skin Pigmentation Hypotheses –to ~40kYrs ago Evolutionary Drivers •Skin generally non- pigmented •Hairlessareas pigmented •Sun Protection Robust Overall •Vitamin D accessed via Grooming, as for dogs etc •Captive animals require D Supplementation! Hair Loss –Key Downside: •Human Origin had Equatorial Sun •Ubiquitous powerful UV penetrates to Blood Vessels and damages Folate (photolysis) •Lack of folate causes Neural Tube Birth Defects •Other Reproductive Impacts from excessive UV •Also need to protect hugely increased Sweat Gland System from damage And 25(OH)D Synthesis? •Equatorial Sun still provides adequate amounts of UV in spite of pigmented skin •Engineering “Tradeoff” thus achieved 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI LOSS OF BODY HAIR (~1M Yrsago) •Striding Bipedalism •Sweat Gland System •Whole Body Cooling •Critical Brain Cooling ~1 million years…
  19. 19. Skin Pigmentation Hypotheses –to ~40kYrs ago Evolutionary Drivers •Skin generally non- pigmented •Hairlessareas pigmented •Sun Protection Robust Overall •Vitamin D accessed via Grooming, as for dogs etc •Captive animals require D Supplementation! Hair Loss –Key Downside: •Human Origin had Equatorial Sun •Ubiquitous powerful UV penetrates to Blood Vessels and damages Folate (photolysis) •Lack of folate causes Neural Tube Birth Defects •Other Reproductive Impacts from excessive UV •Also need to protect Homo Sapiens’ hugely increased Sweat Gland System from damage And 25(OH)D Synthesis? •Equatorial Sun still provides adequate amounts of UV in spite of pigmented skin •Engineering “Tradeoff” thus achieved 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI LOSS OF BODY HAIR (~1M Yrsago) •Striding Bipedalism •Sweat Gland System •Whole Body Cooling •Critical Brain Cooling ~1 million years…
  20. 20. Skin Pigmentation Hypotheses –to ~40kYrs ago Evolutionary Drivers •Skin generally non- pigmented •Hairlessareas pigmented •Sun Protection Robust Overall •Vitamin D accessed via Grooming, as for dogs etc •Captive animals require D Supplementation! Hair Loss –Key Downside: •Human Origin had Equatorial Sun •Ubiquitous powerful UV penetrates to Blood Vessels and damages Folate (photolysis) •Lack of folate causes Neural Tube Birth Defects •Other Reproductive Impacts from excessive UV •Also need to protect Homo Sapiens’ hugely increased Sweat Gland System from damage And 25(OH)D Synthesis? •Equatorial Sun still provides adequate amounts of UV in spite of pigmented skin 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI LOSS OF BODY HAIR (~1M Yrsago) •Striding Bipedalism •Sweat Gland System •Whole Body Cooling •Critical Brain Cooling ~1 million years…
  21. 21. Skin Pigmentation Hypotheses –to ~40kYrs ago Evolutionary Drivers •Skin generally non- pigmented •Hairlessareas pigmented •Sun Protection Robust Overall •Vitamin D accessed via Grooming, as for dogs etc •Captive animals require D Supplementation! Hair Loss –Key Downside: •Human Origin had Equatorial Sun •Ubiquitous powerful UV penetrates to Blood Vessels and damages Folate (photolysis) •Lack of folate causes Neural Tube Birth Defects •Other Reproductive Impacts from excessive UV •Also need to protect Homo Sapiens’ hugely increased Sweat Gland System from damage And 25(OH)D Synthesis? •Equatorial Sun still provides adequate amounts of UV in spite of pigmented skin •Engineering “Trade-off” thus achieved 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI LOSS OF BODY HAIR (~1M Yrsago) •Striding Bipedalism •Sweat Gland System •Whole Body Cooling •Critical Brain Cooling ~1 million years…
  22. 22. Skin Pigmentation Hypotheses –~30-40k Yrsto present Evolutionary Drivers 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI Migration from Equator •Increasing weakness of UVB •Use of Clothing increases •Adaptive Pressure Deployed •Fishing Ability Offsets <40k years…
  23. 23. Evolutionary Drivers •Skin Heavily Pigmented •Protection Robust Overall •Vitamin D synthesis adequate •Trade-off Optimised 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI Migration from Equator •Increasing weakness of UVB •Use of Clothing increases •Adaptive Pressure Deployed •Fishing Ability Offsets Skin Pigmentation Hypotheses –~30-40k Yrsto present <40k years…
  24. 24. Evolutionary Drivers •Skin Heavily Pigmented •Protection Robust Overall •Vitamin D synthesis adequate •Trade-off Optimised Trade-offs change with Latitude: •Studies strongly link availableUV on Earth’s surface to indigenous Skin Coloration •Increasing Loss of Vitamin D Synthesis as we leave Equator –combined with poor nutrition, Rickets and many other issues ensue –we’ll look at those shortly •In Northern Hemisphere particularly severe effect •Acknowledgement: alternative hypotheses suggest many things: “simply lost pigmentation because unneeded” etc) 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI Migration from Equator •Increasing weakness of UVB •Use of Clothing increases •Adaptive Pressure Deployed •Fishing Ability Offsets Skin Pigmentation Hypotheses –~30-40k Yrsto present <40k years…
  25. 25. Evolutionary Drivers •Skin Heavily Pigmented •Protection Robust Overall •Vitamin D synthesis adequate •Trade-off Optimised Trade-offs change with Latitude: •Studies strongly link availableUV on Earth’s surface to indigenous Skin Coloration •Increasing Loss of Vitamin D Synthesis as we leave Equator –combined with poor nutrition, Rickets and many other issues ensue –we’ll look at those shortly 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI Migration from Equator •Increasing weakness of UVB •Use of Clothing increases •Adaptive Pressure Deployed •Fishing Ability Offsets Skin Pigmentation Hypotheses –~30-40k Yrsto present <40k years…
  26. 26. Evolutionary Drivers •Skin Heavily Pigmented •Protection Robust Overall •Vitamin D synthesis adequate •Trade-off Optimised Trade-offs change with Latitude: •Studies strongly link availableUV on Earth’s surface to indigenous Skin Coloration •Increasing Loss of Vitamin D Synthesis as we leave Equator –combined with poor nutrition, Rickets and many other issues ensue –we’ll look at those shortly •In Northern Hemisphere particularly severe effect •Acknowledgement: alternative hypotheses suggest many things: “simply lost pigmentation because unneeded” etc) 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI Migration from Equator •Increasing weakness of UVB •Use of Clothing increases •Adaptive Pressure Deployed •Fishing Ability Offsets Skin Pigmentation Hypotheses –~30-40k Yrsto present <40k years…
  27. 27. Evolutionary Drivers •Skin Heavily Pigmented •Protection Robust Overall •Vitamin D synthesis adequate •Trade-off Optimised Trade-offs change with Latitude: •Studies strongly link availableUV on Earth’s surface to indigenous Skin Coloration •Increasing Loss of Vitamin D Synthesis as we leave Equator –combined with poor nutrition, Rickets and many other issues ensue –we’ll look at those shortly •In Northern Hemisphere particularly severe effect •Note: alternative hypotheses suggest many things: “simply lost pigmentation because unneeded” etc 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI Migration from Equator •Increasing weakness of UVB •Use of Clothing increases •Adaptive Pressure Deployed •Fishing Ability Offsets Skin Pigmentation Hypotheses –~30-40k Yrsto present <40k years…
  28. 28. Evolutionary Drivers •Skin Heavily Pigmented •Protection Robust Overall •Vitamin D synthesis adequate •Trade-off Optimised Trade-offs change with Latitude: •Studies strongly link availableUV on Earth’s surface to indigenous Skin Coloration •Increasing Loss of Vitamin D Synthesis as we leave Equator –combined with poor nutrition, Rickets and many other issues ensue –we’ll look at those shortly •In Northern Hemisphere particularly severe effect •Note: alternative hypotheses suggest many things: “simply lost pigmentation because unneeded” etc •But Timeframe and Logic indicate Key Driver, & emerging hypotheses suggest Sun is critical beyond D 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI Migration from Equator •Increasing weakness of UVB •Use of Clothing increases •Adaptive Pressure Deployed •Fishing Ability Offsets Skin Pigmentation Hypotheses –~30-40k Yrsto present <40k years…
  29. 29. Human Evolutionary Environment: Assmann G, Schulte H. Am J Cardiol. 1992;70:733–737. We originally evolved in an intense UVB environment –part of our design Migration over millennia drove commensurate skin pigmentation adaptation Tradeoff: Between UV Excess (e.g. Folate), and adequate synthesis of 25(OH)D Key Takeaways: 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI
  30. 30. Luxwoldaand Muskiet, Submitted Manuscript 60 MAASAI MEDIAN 25(OH)D = 42ng/ml MAASAI BANTU 20 40 30 50 25(OH)D ng/ml
  31. 31. Wyoming Woman Athletes 25(OH)D 0 40 20 60 100 80 25(OH)D (ng/ml) 120
  32. 32. Why is Breast Milk now D Deficient? MIMIC EVOLUTIONARY SUN Mother: 6400 IU/day Baby: Only Breast Milk MODERN REALITY Mother: 400 IU/day Supplement Baby: 300 IU/day Supplement 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI
  33. 33. Why is Breast Milk now D Deficient? MIMIC EVOLUTIONARY SUN Mother: 6400 IU/day Baby: Only Breast Milk MODERN REALITY Mother: 400 IU/day Supplement Baby: 300 IU/day Supplement 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI
  34. 34. Why is Breast Milk now D Deficient? MIMIC EVOLUTIONARY SUN Mother: 6400 IU/day Baby: Only Breast Milk MODERN REALITY Mother: 400 IU/day Supplement Baby: 300 IU/day Supplement 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI
  35. 35. Why is Breast Milk now D Deficient? MIMIC EVOLUTIONARY SUN Mother: 6400 IU/day Baby: Only Breast Milk MODERN REALITY Mother: 400 IU/day Supplement Baby: 300 IU/day Supplement 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI
  36. 36. Why is Breast Milk now D Deficient? MIMIC EVOLUTIONARY SUN Mother: 6400 IU/day Baby: Only Breast Milk MODERN REALITY Mother: 400 IU/day Supplement Baby: 300 IU/day Supplement
  37. 37. Why is Breast Milk now D Deficient? “MIMIC EVOLUTIONARY SUN” Mother: 6400 IU/day Baby: Only Breast Milk MODERN REALITY Mother: 400 IU/day Supplement Baby: 300 IU/day Supplement 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI
  38. 38. Why is Breast Milk now D Deficient? MIMIC EVOLUTIONARY SUN Mother: 6400 IU/day Baby: Only Breast Milk MODERN REALITY Mother: 400 IU/day Supplement Baby: 300 IU/day Supplement 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI
  39. 39. Why is Breast Milk now D Deficient? MIMIC EVOLUTIONARY SUN Mother: 6400 IU/day Baby: Only Breast Milk MODERN REALITY Mother: 400 IU/day Supplement Baby: 300 IU/day Supplement 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI
  40. 40. Why is Breast Milk now D Deficient? MIMIC EVOLUTIONARY SUN Mother: 6400 IU/day Baby: Only Breast Milk MODERN REALITY Mother: 400 IU/day Supplement Baby: 300 IU/day Supplement 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI V5= ~620 V5= ~70
  41. 41. Why is Breast Milk now D Deficient? MIMIC EVOLUTIONARY SUN Mother: 6400 IU/day Baby: Only Breast Milk MODERN REALITY Mother: 400 IU/day Supplement Baby: 300 IU/day Supplement Thus with Mediocre Nutrition in Northern Latitudes, we needed to rapidly devolve Pigmentation to enhance D3 synthesis for Infant Needs 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI V5= ~620 V5= ~70
  42. 42. Evolution…….Matters. 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI Bone Mineral Density (g/cm2) Fracture (RR) Colon Cancer (RR) 8’ Walk Time (s) Attachment Loss (mm) Median 25(OH)D Concentration (ng/ml) 16 12 20 24 32 28 36 40 44 Estimation of optimal serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D for multiple health outcomes1–3. Am J ClinNutr2006;84:18 –28. Printed in USA. © 2006 American Society for Nutrition. Adapted from : And: Nutrients, Endpoints, and the Problem of Proof –Prof. Robert P. Heaney -2008
  43. 43. Another Evolutionary View… 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI Bone Mineral Density (g/cm2) Fracture (RR) Colon Cancer (RR) 8’ Walk Time (s) Attachment Loss (mm) Median 25(OH)D Concentration (ng/ml) 16 12 20 24 32 28 36 40 44 Estimation of optimal serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D for multiple health outcomes1–3. Am J ClinNutr2006;84:18 –28. Printed in USA. © 2006 American Society for Nutrition. Adapted from : And: Nutrients, Endpoints, and the Problem of Proof –Prof. Robert P. Heaney -2008
  44. 44. Another Evolutionary View… 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI Bone Mineral Density (g/cm2) Fracture (RR) Colon Cancer (RR) 8’ Walk Time (s) Attachment Loss (mm) Median 25(OH)D Concentration (ng/ml) 16 12 20 24 32 28 36 40 44 Estimation of optimal serum concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D for multiple health outcomes1–3. Am J ClinNutr2006;84:18 –28. Printed in USA. © 2006 American Society for Nutrition. Adapted from : And: Nutrients, Endpoints, and the Problem of Proof –Prof. Robert P. Heaney -2008
  45. 45. Prelude 1.The Centrality of the Sun 2.25(OH)D –The Creation 3.25(OH)D –The Power 4.25(OH)D –The Human Cost 5.Anatomy of a Debacle 6.The Solution Epilogue Q&A 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) C(Eng) MIEI
  46. 46. 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI How This Most Critical Hormone is Made 7 DeHydroxyCholesterol Primary Source is Sun UVB (Sunscreen Prevents Synthesis)
  47. 47. 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI How This Most Critical Hormone is Made 7 DeHydroxyCholesterol Cholecalciferol (“Vitamin” D3) Primary Source is Sun UVB Catalyzes “Cholesterol” to D3 (Sunscreen Prevents Synthesis)
  48. 48. 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI How This Most Critical Hormone is Made 7 DeHydroxyCholesterol D3/D2 Supplements Cholecalciferol (“Vitamin” D3) Dietary contribution is limited Primary Source is Sun UVB Catalyzes “Cholesterol” to D3 (Sunscreen Prevents Synthesis) Dietary Fatty Fish, Organ Meats, etc
  49. 49. How This Most Critical Hormone is Made 7 DeHydroxyCholesterol D3/D2 Supplements Cholecalciferol (“Vitamin” D3) Dietary Fatty Fish, Organ Meats, etc Dietary contribution is limited Liver then makes 25(OH)D Primary Source is Sun UVB Catalyzes “Cholesterol” to D3 (Sunscreen Prevents Synthesis) 21stCentury Science: In-Cell Local 1,25 D Production on Demand 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI 25(OH)D !
  50. 50. How This Most Critical Hormone is Made 7 DeHydroxyCholesterol D3/D2 Supplements Cholecalciferol (“Vitamin” D3) Dietary Fatty Fish, Organ Meats, etc 25(OH)D ! Dietary contribution is limited Liver then makes 25(OH)D 25(OH)D is The KEY METRIC Primary Source is Sun UVB Catalyzes “Cholesterol” to D3 (Sunscreen Prevents Synthesis) 21stCentury Science: In-Cell Local 1,25 D Production on Demand 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI
  51. 51. How This Most Critical Hormone is Made 7 DeHydroxyCholesterol D3/D2 Supplements Cholecalciferol (“Vitamin” D3) Dietary Fatty Fish, Organ Meats, etc 25(OH)D ! 1,25 D Dietary contribution is limited Liver then makes 25(OH)D 25(OH)D is The KEY METRIC Kidney then makes 1,25 DihydroxyVitamin D Primary Source is Sun UVB Catalyzes “Cholesterol” to D3 (Sunscreen Prevents Synthesis) 21stCentury Science: In-Cell Local 1,25 D Production on Demand 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI
  52. 52. How This Most Critical Hormone is Made 7 DeHydroxyCholesterol D3/D2 Supplements Cholecalciferol (“Vitamin” D3) Dietary Fatty Fish, Organ Meats, etc 25(OH)D ! 1,25 D 1,25 is ACTIVE Form of D Dietary contribution is limited Liver then makes 25(OH)D : 25(OH)D is The KEY METRIC Kidney then makes 1,25 DihydroxyVitamin D Primary Source is Sun UVB Catalyzes “Cholesterol” to D3 (Sunscreen Prevents Synthesis) 21stCentury Science: In-Cell Local 1,25 D Production on Demand 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI
  53. 53. How This Most Critical Hormone is Made 7 DeHydroxyCholesterol D3/D2 Supplements Cholecalciferol (“Vitamin” D3) Dietary Fatty Fish, Organ Meats, etc 25(OH)D ! 1,25 D 1,25 is ACTIVE Form of D Dietary contribution is limited Liver then makes 25(OH)D 25(OH)D is The KEY METRIC Kidney then makes 1,25 DihydroxyVitamin D Primary Source is Sun UVB Catalyzes “Cholesterol” to D3 (Sunscreen Prevents Synthesis) 21stCentury Science: In-Cell Local 1,25 D Production on Demand 20th Century Science: Mainly CaRegulation 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI
  54. 54. How This Most Critical Hormone is Made 7 DeHydroxyCholesterol D3/D2 Supplements Cholecalciferol (“Vitamin” D3) Dietary Fatty Fish, Organ Meats, etc 25(OH)D ! 1,25 D 1,25 is ACTIVE Form of D Dietary contribution is limited Liver then makes 25(OH)D 25(OH)D is The KEY METRIC Kidney then makes 1,25 DihydroxyVitamin D 1,25 does far more than Ca++ regulation !!! Primary Source is Sun UVB Catalyzes “Cholesterol” to D3 (Sunscreen Prevents Synthesis) 21stCentury Science: In-Cell Local 1,25 D Production on Demand 20th Century Science: Mainly CaRegulation 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI
  55. 55. What the Most Critical Hormone Regulates ValdivielsoJ M et al. Am J PhysiolRenal Physiol2009;297:F1502-F1509 Low 25(OH) D Invites in: Cancer (esp. Colon/Breast) TB/Influenza/Infections General Various Blood Disorders T1 (and T2) Diabetes Osteomalacia/Osteoporosis Asthma / Autoimmune Diseases Multiple Sclerosis Heart Disease in General Thyroid Issues / Chronic Fatigue Inflammation Obesity/Hypertension Metabolic Syndrome Pre & Post Natal Issues 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI
  56. 56. What the Most Critical Hormone Regulates ValdivielsoJ M et al. Am J PhysiolRenal Physiol2009;297:F1502-F1509 Low 25(OH) D Invites in: Cancer (esp. Colon/Breast) TB/Influenza/Infections General Various Blood Disorders T1 (and T2) Diabetes Osteomalacia/Osteoporosis Asthma / Autoimmune Diseases Multiple Sclerosis Heart Disease in General Thyroid Issues / Chronic Fatigue Inflammation Obesity/Hypertension Metabolic Syndrome Pre & Post Natal Issues 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI
  57. 57. Prelude 1.The Centrality of the Sun 2.25(OH)D –The Creation 3.25(OH)D –Control System Criticality 4.25(OH)D –The Consequences 5.Anatomy of a Debacle 6.The Solution Epilogue Q&A 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI
  58. 58. Central Control System of the Human Machine UNIQUE DNA CODE 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI
  59. 59. Central Control System of the Human Machine 35 TRILLION CELLS ! UNIQUE DNA CODE 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI
  60. 60. Central Control System of the Human Machine 35 TRILLION CELLS ! UNIQUE DNA CODE 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI
  61. 61. Central Control System of the Human Machine 35 TRILLION CELLS ! BLOOD SERUM 25(OH)D 25(OH)D UNIQUE DNA CODE 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI
  62. 62. Central Control System of the Human Machine 35 TRILLION CELLS ! BLOOD SERUM 25(OH)D 25(OH)D 1,25 D UNIQUE DNA CODE 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI ON DEMAND
  63. 63. Central Control System of the Human Machine 35 TRILLION CELLS ! VDR RXR BLOOD SERUM 25(OH)D 25(OH)D 1,25 D UNIQUE DNA CODE 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI ON DEMAND
  64. 64. Central Control System of the Human Machine 35 TRILLION CELLS ! VDR RXR BLOOD SERUM 25(OH)D 25(OH)D 1,25 D +SAFETYSWITCH UNIQUE DNA CODE 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI ON DEMAND
  65. 65. Central Control System of the Human Machine 35 TRILLION CELLS ! VDR RXR BLOOD SERUM 25(OH)D 1,25 D VDR RXR VDRE 25(OH)D 1,25 D +SAFETYSWITCH UNIQUE DNA CODE 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI ON DEMAND
  66. 66. Central Control System of the Human Machine 35 TRILLION CELLS ! VDR RXR BLOOD SERUM 25(OH)D 1,25 D VDR RXR VDRE 25(OH)D 1,25 D +SAFETYSWITCH UNIQUE DNA CODE 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI ON DEMAND
  67. 67. Central Control System of the Human Machine 35 TRILLION CELLS ! VDR RXR BLOOD SERUM 25(OH)DTranscription!! 1,25 D VDR RXR VDRE 25(OH)D 1,25 D +SAFETYSWITCH UNIQUE DNA CODE 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI ON DEMAND
  68. 68. Central Control System of the Human Machine 35 TRILLION CELLS ! VDR RXR BLOOD SERUM 25(OH)DTranscription!! 1,25 D VDR RXR VDRE 25(OH)D 1,25 D +SAFETYSWITCHSAFETYSWITCH UNIQUE DNA CODE 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI ON DEMAND
  69. 69. Central Control System of the Human Machine 35 TRILLION CELLS ! VDR RXR BLOOD SERUM 25(OH)DTranscription!! 1,25 D VDR RXR VDRE 25(OH)D 1,25 D +SAFETYSWITCHSAFETYSWITCH UNIQUE DNA CODE 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI ON DEMAND
  70. 70. Central Control System of the Human Machine 35 TRILLION CELLS ! VDR RXR BLOOD SERUM 25(OH)DTranscription!! 1,25 D VDR RXR VDRE 25(OH)D 1,25 D +SAFETYSWITCHSAFETYSWITCH UNIQUE DNA CODE 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI ON DEMAND CRITICAL PROTEINS e.g. CATHELICIDIN
  71. 71. Central Control System of the Human Machine 35 TRILLION CELLS ! VDR RXR BLOOD SERUM 25(OH)DTranscription!! 1,25 D VDR RXR VDRE 25(OH)D 1,25 D +SAFETYSWITCHSAFETYSWITCH UNIQUE DNA CODE 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI ON DEMAND CRITICAL PROTEINS e.g. CATHELICIDINReplication!!
  72. 72. Central Control System of the Human Machine 35 TRILLION CELLS ! VDR RXR BLOOD SERUM 25(OH)DTranscription!! 1,25 D VDR RXR VDRE Blood Pressure Cancer Heart Disease MS, TB, Flu Asthma T1 Diabetes T2 Diabetes Obesity Met Syndrome Alzheimers 25(OH)D 1,25 D +SAFETYSWITCHSAFETYSWITCH UNIQUE DNA CODE 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI ON DEMAND CRITICAL PROTEINS e.g. CATHELICIDINReplication!!
  73. 73. Central Control System of the Human Machine 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI
  74. 74. Central Control System of the Human Machine 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI SAFETYSWITCH↑↑CATHELICIDIN
  75. 75. Central Control System of the Human Machine 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI
  76. 76. Prelude 1.The Centrality of the Sun 2.25(OH)D –The Creation 3.25(OH)D –The Power 4.25(OH)D –The Consequences 5.Anatomy of a Debacle 6.The Solution Epilogue Q&A 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI
  77. 77. Survival Outcome for low 25(OH)D reminiscent of Smokers VsNon-Smokers Doesn’t Prove Causality Summary: HEART and GENERAL MORBIDITY Relation of Vitamin D Deficiency to Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Disease Status, and Incident Events in a General Healthcare Population Jeffrey L. Anderson, MDa,b,*, Heidi T. May, PhD, MSPHa, Benjamin D. Horne, PhD, MPHa,c, Tami L. Bair, BSa, Nathaniel L. Hall, MDa,b, John F. Carlquist, PhDa,b, Donald L. Lappé, MDa, and Joseph B. Muhlestein, MDa,b, for the Intermountain Heart Collaborative (IHC) Study Group (Am J Cardiol2010;106:963–968) Population 25(OH)D Levels Adequate >30ng/ml 36.4% V. Low <16 16.7% Low 16-30 ng/ml 46.4% 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI Majority Population Insufficient Remember D is a proxy for Sun(!) >30 16-30 <16
  78. 78. Vitamin D and Cardiovascular Disease Carl J. Lavie, MD, John H. Lee, MD, Richard V. Milani, MD (J Am CollCardiol2011;58:1547–56) Survival trends stronger than Non-Smoker versus Smoker Dose-Response Relationship with Accelerated Effect in lowest Quartile Key Takeaways: 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI CVD and All Cause Death
  79. 79. Assmann G, Schulte H. Am J Cardiol. 1992;70:733–737. Incidence Rate Average of 6 Studies, consistent association throughout Key Takeaways: COLON CANCER –Incidence Rate 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI 55% reduction in Colon Cancer Risk associated with 38ng/ml 25(OH)D Odds Ratio of Colorectal Cancer P trend <0.0001 COLON CANCER INCIDENCE 10 20 40 30
  80. 80. Assmann G, Schulte H. Am J Cardiol. 1992;70:733–737. Incidence Rate Average of 6 Studies, consistent association throughout Mortality strongly associated with 25(OH)D levels, but multi-factor phenomenon Key Takeaways: COLON CANCER –Incidence Rate 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI 55% reduction in Colon Cancer Risk associated with 38ng/ml 25(OH)D Odds Ratio of Colorectal Cancer P trend <0.0001 COLON CANCER INCIDENCE COLON CANCER MORTALITY RR = 0.28 RR = 0.44 Relative risk 10 20 40 30 P trend =0.02
  81. 81. Strong, Linear association –& D mechanism directly tied to cell proliferation Key Takeaways: BREAST CANCER -Mortality Vitamin D and prevention of breast cancer: Pooled analysis (2007) Cedric F. Garland,, Edward D. Gorhama, Sharif B. Mohra, William B. Grant b,EdwardL. Giovannucci, Martin Lipkin, Harold Newmarke, Michael F. Holick, Frank C. Garland Journal of Steroid Biochemistry & Molecular Biology 103 (2007) 708–711 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) C(Eng) MIEI P trend <0.001 R2= 0.9 50% lower risk with 48 ng/ml
  82. 82. Strong, Linear association –& D mechanism directly tied to cell proliferation Key Takeaways: BREAST CANCER -Mortality Vitamin D and prevention of breast cancer: Pooled analysis (2007) Cedric F. Garland,, Edward D. Gorhama, Sharif B. Mohra, William B. Grant b,EdwardL. Giovannucci, Martin Lipkin, Harold Newmarke, Michael F. Holick, Frank C. Garland Journal of Steroid Biochemistry & Molecular Biology 103 (2007) 708–711 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) C(Eng) MIEI P trend <0.001 R2= 0.9 50% lower risk with 48 ng/ml P trend <0.002 R2= 0.94 50% lower risk with 52 ng/ml
  83. 83. Association is Dramatic, and mechanism’s available. Key Takeaways: BREAST CANCER -Mortality 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) C(Eng) MIEI Where would you rather be? BREAST CANCER MORTALITY RR = 0.28 P <0.05
  84. 84. Enormous body of evidence linking MS to 25(OH)D Status MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI Contribution of vitamin D insufficiency to the pathogenesis of Multiple Sclerosis Ther AdvNeurolDisord (2013) 6(2) 81–116 DOI: 10.1177/ 1756285612473513 Ireland 53O N
  85. 85. Enormous body of evidence linking MS to 25(OH)D Status: MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI 25(OH)D Interacts with risk of MS from conception thru life via different mechs Contribution of vitamin D insufficiency to the pathogenesis of Multiple Sclerosis Ther AdvNeurolDisord (2013) 6(2) 81–116 DOI: 10.1177/ 1756285612473513 NO MS MS
  86. 86. MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS Past exposure to sun, skin phenotype, and risk of multiple sclerosis: case-control study BMJ VOLUME 327 9 AUGUST 2003 bmj.com N=136 MS Cases (in their 30’s) vs273 Matched Controls Summary: 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI
  87. 87. MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS Past exposure to sun, skin phenotype, and risk of multiple sclerosis: case-control study BMJ VOLUME 327 9 AUGUST 2003 bmj.com N=136 MS Cases (in their 30’s) vs273 Matched Controls Summary: 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI Consistent Dose-Response Benefit primarily for exposure age 6-10 and 10-16 P<0.01 for trend
  88. 88. MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS Past exposure to sun, skin phenotype, and risk of multiple sclerosis: case-control study BMJ VOLUME 327 9 AUGUST 2003 bmj.com N=136 MS Cases (in their 30’s) vs273 Matched Controls Summary: 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI Even more marked when Actinic Damage was used as independent measure P<0.01 for trend P<0.01 for trend Consistent Dose-Response Benefit primarily for exposure age 6-10 and 10-16
  89. 89. MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS Past exposure to sun, skin phenotype, and risk of multiple sclerosis: case-control study BMJ VOLUME 327 9 AUGUST 2003 bmj.com N=136 MS Cases (in their 30’s) vs273 Matched Controls Summary: 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI Even more marked when Actinic Damage was used as independent measure Conclusion: UVB and/or D critical for Adaptive Immune System Development P<0.01 for trend P<0.01 for trend Consistent Dose-Response Benefit primarily for exposure age 6-10 and 10-16 MS MS
  90. 90. Prelude 1.The Centrality of the Sun 2.25(OH)D –The Creation 3.25(OH)D –The Power 4.25(OH)D –The Consequences 5.Anatomy of a Debacle 6.The Solution Epilogue Q&A 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI
  91. 91. Correctly executed, difference controlled to be primarily D and Ca. Key Takeaways: ALL CANCER MORTALITY (Experiment) Baseline 25(OH)D = 29ng/ml 1100 IU Vitamin D + 1450 Ca/ day Randomized Control Trial N = 1179 Healthy Women 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CengMIEI Vitamin D and calcium supplementation reduces cancer risk: results of a randomized trial
  92. 92. Correctly executed, difference controlled to be primarily D and Ca. Key Takeaways: ALL CANCER MORTALITY (Experiment) Vitamin D and calcium supplementation reduces cancer risk: results of a randomized trial Baseline 25(OH)D = 29ng/ml 1100 IU Vitamin D + 1450 Ca/ day Randomized Control Trial N = 1179 Healthy Women 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CengMIEI Clear impact on Cancer and Overall mortality, especially with 1stYear removed
  93. 93. TYPE 1 DIABETES 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI The most common serious chronic disease in children, esp. in Northern Latitude
  94. 94. TYPE 1 DIABETES -Finnish Study Intake of vitamin D and risk of type 1 diabetes: a birth-cohort study THE LANCET • Vol 358 • November 3, 2001 N=12,055 Births in 1966, Supplementation 1styear of life, follow-up to 1997 Summary: 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI
  95. 95. TYPE 1 DIABETES -Finnish Study Intake of vitamin D and risk of type 1 diabetes: a birth-cohort study THE LANCET • Vol 358 • November 3, 2001 N=12,055 Births in 1966, Supplementation 1styear of life, follow-up to 1997 Summary: 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI Note: Vitamin D known to prevent Type 1 Diabetes in animals
  96. 96. TYPE 1 DIABETES -Finnish Study Intake of vitamin D and risk of type 1 diabetes: a birth-cohort study THE LANCET • Vol 358 • November 3, 2001 N=12,055 Births in 1966, Supplementation 1styear of life, follow-up to 1997 Summary: 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI Adjusted for Social Status, Birth Weight, Growth Rate etc. Note: Vitamin D known to prevent Type 1 Diabetes in animals
  97. 97. TYPE 1 DIABETES -Finnish Study Intake of vitamin D and risk of type 1 diabetes: a birth-cohort study THE LANCET • Vol 358 • November 3, 2001 N=12,055 Births in 1966, Supplementation 1styear of life, follow-up to 1997 Summary: 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI Adjusted for Social Status, Birth Weight, Growth Rate etc. Note: Vitamin D known to prevent Type 1 Diabetes in animals
  98. 98. TYPE 1 DIABETES -Finnish Study Intake of vitamin D and risk of type 1 diabetes: a birth-cohort study THE LANCET • Vol 358 • November 3, 2001 N=12,055 Births in 1966, Supplementation 1styear of life, follow-up to 1997 Summary: 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI Adjusted for Social Status, Birth Weight, Growth Rate etc. Note: Vitamin D known to prevent Type 1 Diabetes in animals
  99. 99. TYPE 1 DIABETES -Finnish Study Intake of vitamin D and risk of type 1 diabetes: a birth-cohort study THE LANCET • Vol 358 • November 3, 2001 N=12,055 Births in 1966, Supplementation 1styear of life, follow-up to 1997 Summary: 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI Adjusted for Social Status, Birth Weight, Growth Rate etc. Note: Vitamin D known to prevent Type 1 Diabetes in animals Conclusion Clear –Verified Vitamin D critical for Immune System Development
  100. 100. 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI FINLAND GUIDELINE VIT D vsType1 Diabetes Incidence in <15 Year Olds Northern Latitude, very poor UVB. Supplement Strategy collapsed since 1950’s Summary: Incidence of Type 1 Diabetes in Finland JAMA July 24/31, 2013 Volume 310, Number 4 TYPE 1 DIABETES -Supplementation History? IU/Day VitD
  101. 101. 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI FINLAND GUIDELINE VIT D vsType1 Diabetes Incidence in <15 Year Olds Northern Latitude, very poor UVB. Supplement Strategy collapsed since 1950’s Summary: Incidence Rate studied for 1978 onwards, & some Trend Messing about… Incidence of Type 1 Diabetes in Finland JAMA July 24/31, 2013 Volume 310, Number 4 TYPE 1 DIABETES -Supplementation History? 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 IU/Day VitD
  102. 102. 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI FINLAND GUIDELINE VIT D vsType1 Diabetes Incidence in <15 Year Olds Northern Latitude, very poor UVB. Supplement Strategy collapsed since 1950’s Summary: Conclusion: Not quite clear? Questioned. Supplemented Dairy acknowledged. Incidence Rate studied for 1978 onwards, & some Trend Messing about… Incidence of Type 1 Diabetes in Finland JAMA July 24/31, 2013 Volume 310, Number 4 D-fortified Dairy TYPE 1 DIABETES -Supplementation History? IU/Day VitD 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
  103. 103. Incidence of Type 1 Diabetes in Finland JAMA July 24/31, 2013 Volume 310, Number 4 Remove the inappropriate inferences, and plot a natural curve EngineeringStyle Summary: 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI FINLAND GUIDELINE VIT D vsType1 Diabetes Incidence in <15 Year Olds D-fortified Dairy TYPE 1 DIABETES -Supplementation History? IU/Day VitD 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
  104. 104. Incidence of Type 1 Diabetes in Finland JAMA July 24/31, 2013 Volume 310, Number 4 Remove the inappropriate inferences, and plot a natural curve EngineeringStyle Summary: 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI Add in the earlier historical data from another source that had it… FINLAND GUIDELINE VIT D vsType1 Diabetes Incidence in <15 Year Olds Diabetes December 2002 vol. 51 no. 12 3353-3361 The Rise of Childhood Type 1 Diabetes in the 20th Century D-fortified Dairy TYPE 1 DIABETES -Supplementation History? IU/Day VitD 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
  105. 105. Incidence of Type 1 Diabetes in Finland JAMA July 24/31, 2013 Volume 310, Number 4 Remove the inappropriate inferences, and plot a natural curve EngineeringStyle Summary: 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI Conclusion: -go figure. Diabetes December 2002 vol. 51 no. 12 3353-3361 The Rise of Childhood Type 1 Diabetes in the 20th Century FINLAND GUIDELINE VIT D vsType1 Diabetes Incidence in <15 Year Olds Add in the earlier historical data from another source that had it… D-fortified Dairy TYPE 1 DIABETES -Supplementation History? IU/Day VitD 10 20 30 40 50 60 70
  106. 106. Strong Hypothesis that Flu Outbreaks are mediated by 25(OH)D levels Summary: INFLUENZA –Seasonal Triggering Hypponen E, Power C: HypovitaminosisD in British adults at age 45 y: nationwide cohort study of dietary and lifestyle predictors Am J Clin Nutr 2007, 85: 860–868 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI
  107. 107. Strong Hypothesis that Flu Outbreaks are mediated by 25(OH)D levels Summary: INFLUENZA –Seasonal Triggering Hypponen E, Power C: HypovitaminosisD in British adults at age 45 y: nationwide cohort study of dietary and lifestyle predictors Am J Clin Nutr 2007, 85: 860–868 Latitude Simultaneity, Transfer Dynamics, etc 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI
  108. 108. INFLUENZA –Seasonal Triggering 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI 16 20 24 28 32 25(OH)D ng/ml 0 5 10 15 20 % Respiratory Infection Month Season 0 5 10 15 20 % Respiratory Infection Berry DJ, Hesketh K, Power C, et al. (2011) Vitamin D status has a liner association with seasonal infections and lung function in British adults. Br J Nutr106, 1433–1440
  109. 109. 208 randomised individuals to placebo or 800 IU/day of D3 over 2 years Key Takeaways: INFLUENZA –Hospital Experiment Re: epidemic Influenza and vitamin D AloiaJF, Li-Ng M: Epidemic influenza and vitamin D. EpidemiolInfect 2007; 135: 1095–1096 Cannellet al. VirologyJournal 2008 5:29 doi:10.1186/1743-422X-5-29. 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI Increased to 2000 IU/day in 3rdYear
  110. 110. 208 randomised individuals to placebo or 800 IU/day of D3 over 2 years Key Takeaways: Re: epidemic Influenza and vitamin D AloiaJF, Li-Ng M: Epidemic influenza and vitamin D. EpidemiolInfect 2007; 135: 1095–1096 Cannellet al. VirologyJournal 2008 5:29 doi:10.1186/1743-422X-5-29. 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI Increased to 2000 IU/day in 3rdYear INFLUENZA –Hospital Experiment
  111. 111. 208 randomised individuals to placebo or 800 IU/day of D3 over 2 years Key Takeaways: Re: epidemic Influenza and vitamin D AloiaJF, Li-Ng M: Epidemic influenza and vitamin D. EpidemiolInfect 2007; 135: 1095–1096 Cannellet al. VirologyJournal 2008 5:29 doi:10.1186/1743-422X-5-29. 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI Increased to 2000 IU/day in 3rdYear 25(OH)D acts via multiple mechanisms as discussed INFLUENZA –Hospital Experiment
  112. 112. 208 randomised individuals to placebo or 800 IU/day of D3 over 2 years Key Takeaways: Re: epidemic Influenza and vitamin D AloiaJF, Li-Ng M: Epidemic influenza and vitamin D. EpidemiolInfect 2007; 135: 1095–1096 Cannellet al. VirologyJournal 2008 5:29 doi:10.1186/1743-422X-5-29. 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI Increased to 2000 IU/day in 3rdYear 25(OH)D acts via multiple mechanisms as discussed Very few studies done (and mouse/rat/dog lack the VDR for this mechanism, so much data is worthless…) INFLUENZA –Hospital Experiment
  113. 113. 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI The Bottom Line: “Mechanisms From pre-Cradle to Grave”
  114. 114. Prelude 1.The Centrality of the Sun 2.25(OH)D –The Creation 3.25(OH)D –The Power 4.25(OH)D –The Consequences 5.Anatomy of a Debacle 6.The Solution Epilogue Q&A 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI
  115. 115. Witness An Unfolding Catastrophe…. NHANES III (1988-1994) SERUM 25(OH)D: % >30ng/ml 10 20 30 40 50 NHANES (2001-2004)
  116. 116. The Literature is Exploding
  117. 117. 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2012) doi:10.1038/ejcn.2012.78 Vitamin D and the scientific calcium dogma: understanding the ‘Panacea’ of the sun Pineal Hormone Vitamin D SKIN
  118. 118. 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI Vitamin D and the scientific calcium dogma: understanding the ‘Panacea’ of the sun European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2012) doi:10.1038/ejcn.2012.78 Pineal Hormone Vitamin D SKIN
  119. 119. 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI USA 25(OH)D Distribution ~70% of US Population Insufficient ( 15 Years Previously was ~50% ) < 32ng/ml > 32ng/ml Recall Where We Are Now….. Vitamin D and the scientific calcium dogma: understanding the ‘Panacea’ of the sun European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2012) doi:10.1038/ejcn.2012.78 Pineal Hormone Vitamin D SKIN
  120. 120. 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI Vitamin D and the scientific calcium dogma: understanding the ‘Panacea’ of the sun European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2012) doi:10.1038/ejcn.2012.78 Recall Where We Are Now….. Pineal Hormone Vitamin D SKIN
  121. 121. The Skin Cancer / Melanoma Hysteria J Am AcadDermatol. 2006 Feb;54(2):301-17 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI 330 340 350 360 360 370 380 390 400 Blue is UV-B zone that enables Vitamin D Synthesis (and Cholesterol Sulphate)
  122. 122. The Skin Cancer / Melanoma Hysteria J Am AcadDermatol. 2006 Feb;54(2):301-17 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI 330 340 350 360 360 370 380 390 400 Red is zone that enables tan protection, and warning Erythema (Sunburn) Blue is UV-B zone that enables Vitamin D Synthesis (and Cholesterol Sulphate)
  123. 123. The Skin Cancer / Melanoma Hysteria J Am AcadDermatol. 2006 Feb;54(2):301-17 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI 330 340 350 360 360 370 380 390 400 Green is zone that theoretical modelling suggests “Cosmetic” Skin Cancers Red is zone that enables tan protection, and warning Erythema (Sunburn) Blue is UV-B zone that enables Vitamin D Synthesis (and Cholesterol Sulphate)
  124. 124. The Skin Cancer / Melanoma Hysteria J Am AcadDermatol. 2006 Feb;54(2):301-17 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI 330 340 350 360 360 370 380 390 400 UV-A is currently deemed the primary driver of Cutaneous Malig. Melanoma Green is zone that theoretical modelling suggests Squamous Skin Cancer Red is zone that enables tan protection, and warning Erythema (Sunburn) Blue is UV-B zone that enables Vitamin D Synthesis (and Cholesterol Sulphate) ~95% of Terrestrial UV Energy is from UVA. And it sails thru Ozone, and even Glass
  125. 125. The Skin Cancer / Melanoma Hysteria J Am AcadDermatol. 2006 Feb;54(2):301-17 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI 330 340 350 360 360 370 380 390 400 Green is zone that theoretical modelling suggests Squamous Skin Cancer Red is zone that enables tan protection, and warning Erythema (Sunburn) Blue is UV-B zone that enables Vitamin D Synthesis (and Cholesterol Sulphate) UV-A is currently deemed the primary driver of Cutaneous Malig. Melanoma Squamous and Basal cell Skin Cancers? -<0.5% Mortality) USA: ~2k deaths/yr Melanoma Zone –Serious Stuff USA: ~9k deaths/yr
  126. 126. The Skin Cancer / Melanoma Hysteria J Am AcadDermatol. 2006 Feb;54(2):301-17 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI So who’s the idiot? (a) Evolution Itself, or (b) how humans have interpreted it?? 330 340 350 360 360 370 380 390 400 Green is zone that theoretical modelling suggests Squamous Skin Cancer Red is zone that enables tan protection, and warning Erythema (Sunburn) Blue is UV-B zone that enables Vitamin D Synthesis (and Cholesterol Sulphate) UV-A is currently deemed the primary driver of Cutaneous Malig. Melanoma Squamous and Basal cell Skin Cancers? -<0.5% Mortality) USA: ~2k deaths/yr Melanoma Zone –Serious Stuff USA: ~9k deaths/yr Sunscreens Effective Most Sunscreens Not Effective
  127. 127. MELANOMA Versus Sun Exposure History Eur J Cancer. Mar 2011; 47(5): 732–741 “Relationship between sun exposure and melanoma risk for tumors in different body sites in a large case-control study in a temperate climate” N=960 MelanomaVictim Study: 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI
  128. 128. MELANOMA Versus Sun Exposure History Eur J Cancer. Mar 2011; 47(5): 732–741 “Relationship between sun exposure and melanoma risk for tumors in different body sites in a large case-control study in a temperate climate” N=960 MelanomaVictim Study: 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI Healthy Sun Exposure, LOWER Risk
  129. 129. MELANOMA Versus Sun Exposure History Eur J Cancer. Mar 2011; 47(5): 732–741 “Relationship between sun exposure and melanoma risk for tumors in different body sites in a large case-control study in a temperate climate” N=960 MelanomaVictim Study: 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI Healthy Sun Exposure, LOWER Risk
  130. 130. MELANOMA Versus Sun Exposure History Eur J Cancer. Mar 2011; 47(5): 732–741 “Relationship between sun exposure and melanoma risk for tumors in different body sites in a large case-control study in a temperate climate” N=960 MelanomaVictim Study: 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI Healthy Sun Exposure, LOWER Risk
  131. 131. MELANOMA Versus Sun Exposure History Eur J Cancer. Mar 2011; 47(5): 732–741 “Relationship between sun exposure and melanoma risk for tumors in different body sites in a large case-control study in a temperate climate” N=960 MelanomaVictim Study: 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI Healthy Sun Exposure, LOWER Risk Strong Correlation to 25(OH)D Observed This Effect Applied to BOTH Skin Types
  132. 132. MELANOMA Versus Sun Exposure History Eur J Cancer. Mar 2011; 47(5): 732–741 “Relationship between sun exposure and melanoma risk for tumors in different body sites in a large case-control study in a temperate climate” N=960 MelanomaVictim Study: 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI Healthy Sun Exposure, LOWER Risk Strong Correlation to 25(OH)D Observed One of many Studies illustrating this effect This Effect Applied to BOTH Skin Types
  133. 133. MELANOMA Versus Sun Exposure History Eur J Cancer. Mar 2011; 47(5): 732–741 “Relationship between sun exposure and melanoma risk for tumors in different body sites in a large case-control study in a temperate climate” Strong Correlation to 25(OH)D Observed One of many Studies illustrating this effect N=960 MelanomaVictim Study: Healthy Sun Exposure, LOWER Risk This Effect Applied to BOTH Skin Types 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI The Real Risk Factors?
  134. 134. MELANOMA Versus Sun Exposure History Eur J Cancer. Mar 2011; 47(5): 732–741 “Relationship between sun exposure and melanoma risk for tumors in different body sites in a large case-control study in a temperate climate” Strong Correlation to 25(OH)D Observed One of many Studies illustrating this effect N=960 MelanomaVictim Study: Healthy Sun Exposure, LOWER Risk This Effect Applied to BOTH Skin Types 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI The Real Risk Factors? Significant Sun Burning Incidents
  135. 135. MELANOMA Versus Sun Exposure History Eur J Cancer. Mar 2011; 47(5): 732–741 “Relationship between sun exposure and melanoma risk for tumors in different body sites in a large case-control study in a temperate climate” Strong Correlation to 25(OH)D Observed One of many Studies illustrating this effect N=960 MelanomaVictim Study: Healthy Sun Exposure, LOWER Risk Light Skin; Freckles; Red Hair – Propensity to Burn The Real Risk Factors? Significant Sun Burning Incidents This Effect Applied to BOTH Skin Types 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI
  136. 136. SUNSCREENS: A Counter-Intuitive Twist Int. J. Cancer: 87, 145–150 (2000) “SUNSCREEN USE AND MALIGNANT MELANOMA” N=571 Cutaneous Malignant Melanoma, Versus N=913 Healthy Controls: 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI HR
  137. 137. SUNSCREENS: A Counter-Intuitive Twist Int. J. Cancer: 87, 145–150 (2000) “SUNSCREEN USE AND MALIGNANT MELANOMA” N=571 Cutaneous Malignant Melanoma, Versus N=913 Healthy Controls: Generally Higher Risk of Cancer with increased sunscreen use 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI HR
  138. 138. SUNSCREENS: A Counter-Intuitive Twist Int. J. Cancer: 87, 145–150 (2000) “SUNSCREEN USE AND MALIGNANT MELANOMA” N=571 Cutaneous Malignant Melanoma, Versus N=913 Healthy Controls: Generally Higher Risk of Cancer with increased sunscreen use this also applied after adjustment for Skin, Exposure Frequency and Duration 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI HR
  139. 139. SUNSCREENS: A Counter-Intuitive Twist Int. J. Cancer: 87, 145–150 (2000) “SUNSCREEN USE AND MALIGNANT MELANOMA” UVA Mechanism, Lack of UVA Protection, Vitamin D and OverExpHighlighted N=571 Cutaneous Malignant Melanoma, Versus N=913 Healthy Controls: Generally Higher Risk of Cancer with increased sunscreen use this also applied after adjustment for Skin, Exposure Frequency and Duration 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI HR
  140. 140. SUNSCREENS: A Counter-Intuitive Twist 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI HR
  141. 141. The Bottom Line: All Cause Mortality Journal of Internal Medicine: doi: 10.1111/joim.12251 “Avoidance of sun exposure is a risk factor for all-cause mortality: results from the Melanoma in Southern Sweden cohort” N=29,518 Swedish Women: Prospective Study with 20 Year Follow-Up 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI
  142. 142. The Bottom Line: All Cause Mortality Journal of Internal Medicine: doi: 10.1111/joim.12251 “Avoidance of sun exposure is a risk factor for all-cause mortality: results from the Melanoma in Southern Sweden cohort” N=29,518 Swedish Women: Prospective Study with 20 Year Follow-Up All-Cause Mortality was Halvedin UPPER Quartile of Sun Exposure 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI ~2x Mortality Rate Throughout
  143. 143. The Bottom Line: All Cause Mortality Journal of Internal Medicine: doi: 10.1111/joim.12251 “Avoidance of sun exposure is a risk factor for all-cause mortality: results from the Melanoma in Southern Sweden cohort” N=29,518 Swedish Women: Prospective Study with 20 Year Follow-Up All-Cause Mortality was Halvedin UPPER Quartile of Sun Exposure this applied after adjustment for Co-Morbidity, Smoking, Education, Income etc 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI ~2x Mortality Rate Throughout
  144. 144. The Bottom Line: All Cause Mortality Journal of Internal Medicine: doi: 10.1111/joim.12251 “Avoidance of sun exposure is a risk factor for all-cause mortality: results from the Melanoma in Southern Sweden cohort” Dose-Response Relationship seen throughout N=29,518 Swedish Women: Prospective Study with 20 Year Follow-Up All-Cause Mortality was Halvedin UPPER Quartile of Sun Exposure this applied after adjustment for Co-Morbidity, Smoking, Education, Income etc 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI ~2x Mortality Rate Throughout
  145. 145. The Bottom Line: All Cause Mortality Journal of Internal Medicine: doi: 10.1111/joim.12251 “Avoidance of sun exposure is a risk factor for all-cause mortality: results from the Melanoma in Southern Sweden cohort” Dose-Response Relationship seen throughout N=29,518 Swedish Women: Prospective Study with 20 Year Follow-Up All-Cause Mortality was Halvedin UPPER Quartile of Sun Exposure this applied after adjustment for Co-Morbidity, Smoking, Education, Income etc 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI ~2x Mortality Rate Throughout 25(OH)D indeed Cited, but there are other benefits of Sun
  146. 146. 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) MIEI Prelude 1.The Centrality of the Sun 2.25(OH)D –The Creation 3.25(OH)D –The Power 4.25(OH)D –The Consequences 5.Anatomy of a Debacle 6.The Solution Epilogue Q&A
  147. 147. Optimising 25(OH)D –Synergy and Interaction LOW25(OH)D <32 ng/ml Blood Pressure Cancer Heart Disease MS, TB, Flu Asthma T1 Diabetes T2 Diabetes Obesity Met Syndrome Alzheimers Lack of SUN Exposure Low Fat Diet Low Calcium Diet Racial factors & Genetics
  148. 148. Optimising 25(OH)D –Synergy and Interaction LOW25(OH)D <32 ng/ml Blood Pressure Cancer Heart Disease MS, TB, Flu Asthma T1 Diabetes T2 Diabetes Obesity Met Syndrome Alzheimers Lack of SUN Exposure Low Fat Diet Low Calcium Diet HIGH25(OH)D >60? ng/ml Excess SUN Exposure LG Excess D3Supplements Racial factors & Genetics AND /OR Low VitK2 Excessive Calcification?
  149. 149. Optimising 25(OH)D –Synergy and Interaction LOW25(OH)D <32 ng/ml Blood Pressure Cancer Heart Disease MS, TB, Flu Asthma T1 Diabetes T2 Diabetes Obesity Met Syndrome Alzheimers Healthy Sun Exposure UVB/UVA Ratio Lack of SUN Exposure Low Fat Diet Low Calcium Diet OPTIMUM25(OH)D 32-50 ng/ml Fat-Nutrient Dense Diet Oily Fish, Cod Liver, Pate, etc CorrectD3Supplements HIGH25(OH)D >60? ng/ml Excess SUN Exposure LG Excess D3Supplements Racial factors & Genetics AND AdequateCalcium AND /OR AdequateVitA AdequateVitK2 Excessive Calcification? Low VitK2
  150. 150. Optimising 25(OH)D –Synergy and Interaction LOW25(OH)D <32 ng/ml Blood Pressure Cancer Heart Disease MS, TB, Flu Asthma T1 Diabetes T2 Diabetes Obesity Met Syndrome Alzheimers Lack of SUN Exposure Low Fat Diet Low Calcium Diet OPTIMUM25(OH)D 32-50 ng/ml Fat-Nutrient Dense Diet Oily Fish, Cod Liver, Pate, etc CorrectD3Supplements HIGH25(OH)D >60? ng/ml Excess SUN Exposure LG Excess D3Supplements Racial factors & Genetics AND AdequateCalcium AND /OR AdequateVitA AdequateVitK2 Immune Function Bone Strength Disease Protection Cancer Resistance Vigour & Longevity Healthy Sun Exposure UVB/UVA Ratio Excessive Calcification? Low VitK2
  151. 151. 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) MIEI Prelude 1.The Centrality of the Sun 2.25(OH)D –The Creation 3.25(OH)D –The Power 4.25(OH)D –The Consequences 5.Anatomy of a Debacle 6.The Solution Epilogue Q&A
  152. 152. Epilogue –Respecting Evolution and Science •Levels should be in 32-50ng/ml range (80-120nmol/L) 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI •“Short Shadow” Sun Exposure Without Burning is key •Supplements: D3: new upper guideline is 4000 IU/day* •Oily Fish, Organ Meats, Fortified Dairy etc. will help… 25(OH)D
  153. 153. Epilogue –Respecting Evolution and Science •Levels should be in 32-50ng/ml range (80-120nmol/L) 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI •“Short Shadow” Sun Exposure Without Burning is key •Supplements: D3: new upper guideline is 4000 IU/day* •Oily Fish, Organ Meats, Fortified Dairy etc. will help… •Calciumis critical and works in tandem with 25(OH)D •Too low is more likely than too high these days… •Plenty Cheese/Yogurt/Milk, Sardines, Dark Leafy Greens. •Supplements –medical guidance. 25(OH)D
  154. 154. Epilogue –Respecting Evolution and Science •Levels should be in 32-50ng/ml range (80-120nmol/L) 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI •“Short Shadow” Sun Exposure Without Burning is key •Supplements: D3: new upper guideline is 4000 IU/day* •Oily Fish, Organ Meats, Fortified Dairy etc. will help… •Calciumis critical and works in tandem with 25(OH)D •Too low is more likely than too high these days… •Plenty Cheese/Yogurt/Milk, Sardines, Dark Leafy Greens. •VitaminK2 is key, possibly the most important besides D. •Supplements –medical guidance. •Activates Matrix GLA Protein, for Calcium Management •Highly interactive with Vitamin D & Ca–need keep K2 high •Butter/Cheeses, Natto, Chicken Legs, Egg Yolks, Liver, etc 25(OH)D
  155. 155. Epilogue –Respecting Evolution and Science •Levels should be in 32-50ng/ml range (80-120nmol/L) 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI •“Short Shadow” Sun Exposure Without Burning is key •Supplements: D3: new upper guideline is 4000 IU/day* •Oily Fish, Organ Meats, Fortified Dairy etc. will help… •Calciumis critical and works in tandem with 25(OH)D •Too low is more likely than too high these days… •Plenty Cheese/Yogurt/Milk, Sardines, Dark Leafy Greens. •VitaminK2 is key, possibly the most important besides D. •Supplements –medical guidance. •Activates Matrix GLA Protein, for Calcium Management •Highly interactive with Vitamin D & Ca–need keep K2 high •VitaminA also important -highly interactive with Vitamin D •D/A Ratio is source of problem when low –balance needed. •Sweet potato, carrots, Dark Leafy Greens, Dairy/Butter/Yolk •Butter/Cheeses, Natto, Chicken Legs, Egg Yolks, Liver, etc 25(OH)D
  156. 156. A Thank-You to some Experts: Prof. Michael HolickEndocrinologist and Professor of Medicine, Physiology and Biophysics. Currently director at Boston University Medical Center. Internationally recognized expert on all aspects of vitamin D. Dr. Edward GorhamAssociate Professor in the Department of Family and Preventive Medicine at the University of California Prof. Robert P Heaney Clinical Endocrinologist, Professor of Medicine and John A. Creighton University Professor Emeritus, Creighton University School of Medicine. Internationally recognized expert on vitamin D. Dr. Cedric F Garland AdjtProf. Family and Preventative Medicine, Division of Epidemiology, University of San Diego. Internationally recognized expert on the disease implications of vitamin D. Dr. Chris Masterjohn PhD in Nutritional Science and Assistant Professor of Health and Nutrition Sciences at Brooklyn College. Dr. Stephanie Seneff Senior Research Scientist at MIT. BS (Biophysics), MS/EE and Ph.Din Electrical Engineering and Computer Science MIT. Prof. Reinhold Vieth Professor in the Department of Nutritional Sciences, and the Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathobiology, University of Toronto.Internationally recognized expert on the clinical nutrition of vitamin D as well as its pharmacology and safety. DrGrimes ccccc.
  157. 157. BACKUP / OTHER MATERIAL
  158. 158. Backup / Other
  159. 159. 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI Coronary Vascular Disease Vitamin D and Cardiovascular Disease Carl J. Lavie, MD, John H. Lee, MD, Richard V. Milani, MD (J Am CollCardiol2011;58:1547–56) Coronary Vascular Disease strongly linked to admission level 25(OH)D Synergy with Blood Pressure, also mitigated by Sun Exposure Summary:
  160. 160. Colon Cancer has one of the strongest associations with 25(OH)D levels Key Takeaways: COLON CANCER –Survival Rate 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI
  161. 161. Key Takeaways: BREAST CANCER MORTALITY –A Null Result?? Calcium Plus Vitamin D Supplementation and the Risk of Breast Cancer J NatlCancer Inst2007;100: 1581 –1591 “Homeopathic” Dose used Only 400 IU / day to D Group ~50% of BOTH Groups taking D in Supplements throughout trial (D levels not disclosed) 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI
  162. 162. Null Response: Dosage near-irrelevant, poorly executed and controlled. Key Takeaways: BREAST CANCER MORTALITY –A Null Result?? Calcium Plus Vitamin D Supplementation and the Risk of Breast Cancer J NatlCancer Inst2007;100: 1581 –1591 “Homeopathic” Dose used Only 400 IU / day to D Group ~50% of BOTH Groups taking D in Supplements throughout trial (D levels not disclosed) 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI
  163. 163. Null Response: Dosage near-irrelevant, poorly executed and controlled. Key Takeaways: BREAST CANCER MORTALITY –A Null Result?? Calcium Plus Vitamin D Supplementation and the Risk of Breast Cancer J NatlCancer Inst2007;100: 1581 –1591 “Homeopathic” Dose used Only 400 IU / day to D Group ~50% of BOTH Groups taking D in Supplements throughout trial (D levels not disclosed) 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI Supplemental Data and Subgroup Analysis tells a story…let’s dig, shall we?
  164. 164. 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CengMIEI BREAST CANCER MORTALITY –A Deeper Dive How did the Intervention Affect Subgroups? Borderline Significant Estimated D Intake Non-Supplement Users Subgroup with poor VitD intake showed signal
  165. 165. 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CengMIEI BREAST CANCER MORTALITY –A Deeper Dive How did the Intervention Affect Subgroups? Statistically Significant Estimated D Intake Borderline Significant Estimated D Intake Non-Supplement Users Subgroup with poor VitD intake showed signal Supplement Users Subgroup with poor VitD Intake showed signal
  166. 166. 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CengMIEI BREAST CANCER MORTALITY –A Deeper Dive Non-Supplement Users Subgroup with poor VitD intake showed signal Supplement Users Subgroup with poor CaIntake showed signal Supplement Users Subgroup with poor VitD Intake showed signal Statistically Significant Statistically Significant Estimated D Intake Estimated CaIntake Borderline Significant Estimated D Intake How did the Intervention Affect Subgroups?
  167. 167. 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CengMIEI BREAST CANCER MORTALITY –A Deeper Dive Conclusion: Engineering Signal There, but study is otherwise Near-Worthless Statistically Significant Statistically Significant Estimated D Intake Estimated CaIntake Borderline Significant Estimated D Intake Non-Supplement Users Subgroup with poor VitD intake showed signal Supplement Users Subgroup with poor CaIntake showed signal Supplement Users Subgroup with poor VitD Intake showed signal How did the Intervention Affect Subgroups?
  168. 168. Sunlight UVB is the Primary Source of Human 25(OH)D ….and a lot more, as recent understanding grows. 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI
  169. 169. Another Evolutionary View… 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI 0 16 32 48 60 32 ng/ml
  170. 170.  Land Mass in Southern Hemisphere retains high UVB year-round. Annual Adequacy of UVB for Synthesis? 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI
  171. 171. What the Most Critical Hormone Regulates ValdivielsoJ M et al. Am J PhysiolRenal Physiol2009;297:F1502-F1509 Low 25(OH) D Invites in: Cancer (esp. Colon/Breast) TB/Influenza/Infections General Various Blood Disorders T1 (and T2) Diabetes Osteomalacia/Osteoporosis Asthma / Autoimmune Diseases Multiple Sclerosis Heart Disease in General Thyroid Issues / Chronic Fatigue Inflammation Obesity/Hypertension Metabolic Syndrome Pre & Post Natal Issues 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI
  172. 172. Central Control System of the Human Machine 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI ↑↑CATHELICIDIN
  173. 173. The Centrality of the Sun 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI ….A Profound Evolutionary Paradigm HEALTHY Sun Exposure But NO BURNING!
  174. 174. The Centrality of the Sun 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI ….A Profound Evolutionary Paradigm HEALTHY Sun Exposure But NO BURNING! D Synthesis Plus Cholesterol
  175. 175. The Centrality of the Sun 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI ….A Profound Evolutionary Paradigm HEALTHY Sun Exposure But NO BURNING! D Synthesis Plus Cholesterol Cholesterol Sulfate Plus Cholesterol / Sulfur
  176. 176. The Centrality of the Sun 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI ….A Profound Evolutionary Paradigm HEALTHY Sun Exposure But NO BURNING! D Synthesis Plus Cholesterol Cholesterol Sulfate Plus Cholesterol / Sulfur Health +Longevity
  177. 177. The Centrality of the Sun 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI ….A Profound Evolutionary Paradigm HEALTHY Sun Exposure But NO BURNING! D Synthesis Plus Cholesterol Cholesterol Sulfate Plus Cholesterol / Sulfur Health +Longevity B.S. degree in Biophysics in 1968 M.S. and E.E. degrees in Electrical Engineering in 1980 Ph.Ddegree in Electrical Engineering and Computer Science in 1985 (All from MIT) MIT Senior Research Scientist who has spent 3 decades at the intersection Of Biology and Computation
  178. 178. Supplementation started in December, which was rather late; still: Key Takeaways: INFLUENZA –Japanese Schoolchildren Randomized trial of vitamin D supplementation to prevent seasonal influenza A in schoolchildren Mitsuyoshi Urashima, TakaakiSegawa, Minoru Okazaki, ManaKurihara, YasuyukiWada, and Hiroyuki Ida Am J Clin Nutr 2010;91:1255–60. 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI
  179. 179. Supplementation started in December, which was rather late; still: Key Takeaways: INFLUENZA –Japanese Schoolchildren Randomized trial of vitamin D supplementation to prevent seasonal influenza A in schoolchildren Mitsuyoshi Urashima, TakaakiSegawa, Minoru Okazaki, ManaKurihara, YasuyukiWada, and Hiroyuki Ida Am J Clin Nutr 2010;91:1255–60. 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI In a (rare) experiment, D3 supplements reduced Influenza A by >40%
  180. 180. Supplementation started in December, which was rather late; still: Key Takeaways: INFLUENZA –Japanese Schoolchildren Randomized trial of vitamin D supplementation to prevent seasonal influenza A in schoolchildren Mitsuyoshi Urashima, TakaakiSegawa, Minoru Okazaki, ManaKurihara, YasuyukiWada, and Hiroyuki Ida Am J Clin Nutr 2010;91:1255–60. 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI In a (rare) experiment, D3 supplements reduced Influenza A by >40% Marked in Children not receiving existing supplements –reduction of ~ 65%
  181. 181. Supplementation started in December, which was rather late; still: Key Takeaways: INFLUENZA –Japanese Schoolchildren Randomized trial of vitamin D supplementation to prevent seasonal influenza A in schoolchildren Mitsuyoshi Urashima, TakaakiSegawa, Minoru Okazaki, ManaKurihara, YasuyukiWada, and Hiroyuki Ida Am J Clin Nutr 2010;91:1255–60. 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI In a (rare) experiment, D3 supplements reduced Influenza A by >40% Marked in Children not receiving existing supplements –reduction of ~ 65% Asthma attacks significantly reduced also (no trial has ever assessed this)
  182. 182. 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CengMIEI BREAST CANCER MORTALITY –A Deeper Dive Summary: Conclusion: Engineering Signal There, but study is otherwise Near-Worthless Non-Supplement Users Subgroup with poor VitD intake showed signal Supplement Users Subgroup with poor CaIntake showed signal Supplement Users Subgroup with poor VitD Intake showed signal
  183. 183. 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) MIEI A Wider View
  184. 184. Hollis B W , and Wagner C L CMAJ 2006;174:1287-1290 ©2006 by Canadian Medical Association
  185. 185. Hypothesis Summary from 2009 FDA Paper US Food and Drug Administration, Center for Devices and Radiological Health “Increased UVA exposures and decreased ..Vitamin D3 levels may be responsible for increasing incidence of melanoma” •Outdoor workers generally have 2x the 25(OH)D of indoor workers 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) CEng MIEI •Higher incidence of CMM in Indoor versus outdoor workers •Melanoma patients have significantly lower blood 25(OH)D levels •UVB-absorbing sunscreens promote the growth of melanoma in mice •UVB-absorbing sunscreen users have significantly higher melanoma rates •All-year tan is protective, and associated with 3-9 times the UV Dose •No “critical period” for burns to increase CMM risk (e.g. in childhood) •Childhood outdoor activity (excl. burns) decrease melanoma incidence •Melanoma patients who receive regular sun live longer than those who don’t •UVA promotes mice tumors after initiation, and causes twice as many •Calcitrioldecreases Stage II Carcinogenesis in Vivo, not Stage I
  186. 186. Making D and burning / Cancer Q J Am Acad Dermatol. 2006 Feb;54(2):301-17 Red is erythema (Sunburn) Green is Math Simulation for Squamous Skin Cancer Promotion Primary Source is Sun UVB Blue is 25(OH)D Production (Sunscreen Prevents Synthesis) Figure 4.4 –Caption of original article: Cutaneous vitamin D synthesis cannot be dissociated from harmful effects ofUVradiation. Dashed and dotted line (blue) shows spectrum of previtaminD3 formation obtained from plotting reciprocal of photoenergy(1/w cm_2). Dashed line ( green) represents both action spectrum of induction ofsquamouscell carcinoma in human beings mathematically derived from experimental data obtained from murineskin, and wavelength dependence of induction of DNA damage, in this case cyclobutanepyrimidine dimers, inhuman skin (adapted121). Solid line (red) shows erythema action spectrum from human skin (m2/J) (adapted 26). Note that peaks of these 3 curves all occur within UVB spectrum (290-320 nm) (dashed gray lines). (FromWolpowicz& Gilchrest, The vitamin D questions: how much do you need and how should you get it? J Am AcadDermatol. 2006 Feb;54(2):301-17. With permission). 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) C(Eng) MIEI
  187. 187. Future “Biochemistry for Life” Topics: •25 HydroxyVitamin D The history, latest science, and significant mortality implications of this critical agent •Omega 6 Vegetable Oils The interesting story of how a machine lubricant became a health food –but should have stayed in the machine…. •Insulin –a Billion Years in Service The evolutionary importance and critical functionality of Insulin, increasingly dysfunctional and pathogenic in our modern environment •Keto-Adaptation Living in an advantaged metabolic state –it’s much more than simply having an edge 2013 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) MIEI
  188. 188. cccc Key Takeaways: COLON CANCER –New Discovery in 2000’s ? 2014 Ivor Cummins BE(Chem) C(Eng) MIEI
  189. 189. BACKUP

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