If possible, switch off the phone when the signal strength is poor.
can cause sleep disorder, headaches and other problems in the long run.
Not more than 3 min and at least 15 min break b/w calls
Ill effects of mobile
Submitted by: Surbhi Vijh UE85098 BE ECE (II), 7 th Sem
“ If we continue to develop our technology without wisdom or prudence, our servant may prove to be our executioner”. - Omar N. Bradley
WHAT IS A CELL PHONE? <ul><li>Combination of the ideas of the telephone and Radio. </li></ul><ul><li>Extremely sophisticated Radio </li></ul>
<ul><li>Used to make mobile telephone calls across a wide geographic area, served by many public cells, allowing the user to be mobile. </li></ul><ul><li>Can make and receive telephone calls by connecting to a cellular network provided by a mobile network operator. </li></ul><ul><li>Transmit and receive Radio Frequency (RF) signals in order to communicate, i.e. use microwave radiation to communicate. </li></ul>
FIRST MOBILE TELEPHONE SYSTEM One and only one high power base station with which all users communicate. Normal Telephone System Wired connection
THE CELLULAR CONCEPT <ul><li>The core idea that led to today’s system was the cellular concept. </li></ul><ul><li>The cellular concept : multiple lower-power base stations that service mobile users within their coverage area and handoff users to neighboring base stations as users move. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Instead of one base station covering an entire city, the city is broken up into cells , or smaller coverage areas. </li></ul><ul><li>Each of these smaller coverage areas has its own lower-power base station. </li></ul><ul><li>Each cell is thought of as hexagons or as big hexagonal grids. </li></ul>
<ul><li>User phones in one cell communicate with the base station in that cell </li></ul><ul><li>Each cell is typically 26 kilometers </li></ul>
ADVANTAGE: In typical analog cell phone system, each carrier receives about 800 frequencies to use across a city. With the use of this concept, different cells (non-adjacent) can use the same set of frequencies.
WORKING <ul><li>When we switch on the mobile phone, it tries for an SID on the Control channel. If difficult to get link with the control channel, displays “no service” . </li></ul><ul><li>If the Mobile phone gets the SID, it compares the SID with the SID programmed in the phone. If both SID match, the phone identifies the cell. </li></ul><ul><li>The phone also transmits a registration request along with the SID and the MTSO keeps track of your phone’s location in a database. MTSO knows in which cell you are when it wants to ring the phone. </li></ul>
<ul><li>The MTSO then gets the signal; it tries to find the phone by looking in its database. Then picks a frequency pair to take the call. </li></ul><ul><li>The MTSO communicates with the Mobile phone over the control channel to tell it what frequencies to use. Once the Mobile phone and the tower switch on those frequencies, the call is connected. </li></ul><ul><li>When the Mobile phone move toward the edge of the cell, the signal strength diminishes. </li></ul><ul><li>The two base stations coordinate themselves through the MTSO. At some point, the Mobile phone gets a signal on a control channel and directs it to change frequencies. This will switch the phone to the new cell. </li></ul>
THE FIRST CELL PHONE <ul><li>Name- DynaTAC8000X </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrated by Dr Martin Cooper of Motorola in 1973 </li></ul><ul><li>Commercially available in 1983 </li></ul><ul><li>Only 2000 phones available to public </li></ul><ul><li>Weighed 2 kg </li></ul><ul><li>Could store only 30 phone numbers </li></ul><ul><li>Battery needed to be charged for 10 hours </li></ul><ul><li>Talk Time- 1 hour </li></ul><ul><li>Cost- $3,995 only </li></ul>
AN IMPORTANT TECHNOLOGY <ul><li>Cellular telephony is one of the fastest growing technologies on the planet. </li></ul><ul><li>Presently, we are starting to see the third generation of the cellular phones coming to the market. </li></ul><ul><li>New phones allow users to do much more than hold phone conversations. </li></ul>
<ul><li>In the twenty years from 1990 to 2010, worldwide mobile phone subscriptions grew from 12.4 million to over 4.6 billion, penetrating the developing economies and reaching the bottom of the economic pyramid. </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile or cellular phones are now an integral part of modern telecommunications. </li></ul><ul><li>In many countries, over half the population use mobile phones and the market is growing rapidly. </li></ul><ul><li>In some parts of the world, mobile phones are the most reliable or the only phones available. </li></ul><ul><li>Given the large number of mobile phone users, it is important to investigate, understand and monitor any potential public health impact. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Specific absorption ratio (SAR) is defined as the amount of RF (radiofrequency) energy absorbed per unit mass. It is measured in Watts/Kg and it is a more useful quantity in that it measures the amount of energy absorbed by the body in the course of mobile phone use </li></ul><ul><li>This is regarded as one of the safety valves for mobile phones. In America the SAR of any mobile phone can not exceed 1.6W/Kg over a gram of tissue. </li></ul><ul><li>The Europeans use the value of 2W/Kg over 10g of tissues. </li></ul>Specific Absorption Rate (SAR)
1.RADIATION EFFECT <ul><li>A part of the radio waves emitted by a mobile telephone handset are absorbed by the human head. </li></ul><ul><li>The radio waves emitted by a GSM handset can have a peak power of 2 watts, and a US analogue phone had a maximum transmit power of 3.6 watts. </li></ul><ul><li>The best known measure is SAR (Specific Absorption Rate), which measures the RF power absorbed by the human body. </li></ul>
2. THERMAL EFFECTS <ul><li>A typical GSM digital cellular phone operating at a maximum average power output of about 0.25 watts (W) might results in a SAR of about 0.5-1.5 W/kg averaged over a gram of tissue. </li></ul><ul><li>This is often associated with a very low rise in brain temperature (maximum 0.1º C) (Anderson and Joyner 1995; Vaberg 1997; van Leeuwen et al. 1999). </li></ul><ul><li>This temperature rise increases with the length of the call as shown in this graph. </li></ul><ul><li>Note: </li></ul><ul><li>Temperature rise is very minimal in the first few minutes. </li></ul><ul><li>Then rises sharply at about 15 minutes </li></ul><ul><li>Continued a very gradual increase thereafter </li></ul>
3. NON- THERMAL EFFECTS <ul><li>Some researchers have argued that so-called "non-thermal effects" could be reinterpreted as a normal cellular response to an increase in temperature. </li></ul><ul><li>The German biophysicist Roland Glaser, for example, has argued that there are several thermo-receptor molecules in cells, and that they activate a cascade of second and third messenger systems, gene expression mechanisms and production of heat shock proteins in order to defend the cell against metabolic cell stress caused by heat. </li></ul>
4. BLOOD BRAIN BARRIER EFFECTS Mobile phones open up the Blood Brain Barrier
6. COGNITIVE EFFECTS 7. ELECTROMAGNETIC HYPERSENSITIVITY The study confirmed longer (slower) response times to a spatial working memory task when exposed to RFR from a standard GSM cellular phone placed next to the head of male subjects, and showed that longer duration of exposure to RFR may increase the effects on performance. Several unspecific symptoms during and after use; ranging from burning and tingling sensations in the skin of the head and extremities, fatigue , sleep disturbances, dizziness , loss of mental attention , reaction times and memory retentiveness, headaches, malaise, tachycardia ( heart palpitations), to disturbances of the digestive system . Reports have noted that all of these symptoms can also be attributed to stress and that current research cannot separate the symptoms from nocebo effects.
8. GENOTOXIC EFFECT 9. SLEEP AND EEG EFFECTS Sleep, EEG and waking rCBF(regional cerebral blood flow) have been studied in relation to RF exposure for a decade now, and the majority of papers published to date have found some form of effect. Australian research conducted in 2009 by subjecting in vitro samples of human spermatozoa to radio-frequency radiation at 1.8 GHz and specific absorption rates (SAR) of 0.4 to 27.5 W/kg showed a correlation between increasing SAR and decreased motility and vitality in sperm, increased oxidative stress , stimulating DNA base adduct formation and increased DNA fragmentation .
10. DECREASED HIP-BONE DENSITY Men who routinely wear their cell phones clipped to their belts have a reduced bone mineral content (BMC) and bone mineral density (BMD) in the hip, according to a study from National University of Cuyo, Mendoza, Argentina. Electromagnetic radiation is theorized to be the cause of the decrease in bone strength.
11. EFFECT ON HEART <ul><li>Studies suggest, the strength of these fields will not affect ordinary heart rhythm or function. </li></ul><ul><li>Can present a danger to those with an implanted pacemaker, internal defibrillator or similar device. </li></ul><ul><li>Problems most likely to arise when pacemakers and defibrillators are being programmed or reset by medical staff. </li></ul><ul><li>Recommended that keep cell phones and media players at least six inches from the generator (implanted device). </li></ul>
SOME STUDIES <ul><li>March 2003, a study in the International Journal of Oncology suggested that mobile phone users had a 30% increased risk of brain tumours - mainly accoustic neuromas. </li></ul><ul><li>Short exposure to Mobile phone radiation - two hours - has been reported in 2003 to destroy cells in parts of the brain important for memory, movement and learning, and could possibly conceivably premature onset of illnesses such as Alzheimers. </li></ul><ul><li>In October 2004, scientists at the Karolinska Institute in Stockholm gave a new warning about mobile phone radiation and brain tumours - accoustic neuromas. </li></ul>
<ul><li>Cellular changes demonstrated at non-thermal levels </li></ul><ul><li>Autism may be Linked to Electromagnetic Radiation Levels In Mother’s Bedroom During Pregnancy </li></ul>
Body Voltage Levels <ul><li>Median Body Voltage Level in Mom’s Bed During Pregnancy* </li></ul>Value Range Neurologically Impaired Children 1,872 milliVolts (380-6,040) Healthy Group 224 milliVolts (12-480) Result: 8.4x Higher Body Voltage Levels in Mom’s with Neurologically Impaired Children *Note research shoes whatever the Body Voltage of the Mom, it is even higher in the foetus. <ul><li>Body Voltage of Child in Current Bed Location </li></ul>Value Range Neurologically Impaired Children 1,028 milliVolts (420-4,900) Healthy Group 120 milliVolts (0-230) Result: 8.5x Higher Body Voltage in Neurologically Impaired Child’s Sleeping Location
Microwave Exposure <ul><li>Microwave Power Density in Sleeping Location </li></ul>mw/sq. meter Range Neurologically Impaired Children 290 (110-1,710) Healthy Group 14 (0-67) Result: 20.7x higher microwave power density in mom’s sleeping location in cases where children were neurologically impaired.
SOME STUDIES <ul><li>Great cancer risk increase in the vicinity of a GSM base station </li></ul><ul><li>New Austrian research confirms health effects of base station radiation </li></ul><ul><li>French study found base stations affected health negatively </li></ul>
<ul><li>There are many proposed national and international standards </li></ul><ul><li>That of the International Commission for Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) is the most respected one </li></ul><ul><li>Has been adopted so far by more than 80 countries. </li></ul><ul><li>For radio stations, ICNIRP proposes two safety levels: one for occupational exposure, another one for the general population </li></ul>
Therefore, more the number of towers, less will be power transmitted by your cell phone Safety Limits – Proximity devices Device FCC /OSHA Typical Comment Cell phone / mobile phone / PDA / Scanner 1.6 W/kg over 1 gram of body mass, 4 W near hands, wrists, feet and ankles 0.1mW to 0.5W at the handset 0.5 W if user is at edge of the cell, 0.1mW if user is near a cell tower +
<ul><li>AVOID LIVING NEAR BASE STATIONS </li></ul>
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