Glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids

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Glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids

  1. 1. Glucocorticoids and mineralocorticoids Dr. Sadaf Mumtaz 9/3/11
  2. 3. Metabolic effects of glucocorticoids <ul><li> Hepatic gluconeogenesis </li></ul><ul><li> glucose utilization by cells </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adrenal diabetes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reduction in cellular proteins </li></ul><ul><li> in liver and plasma proteins </li></ul><ul><li> lipolysis and obesity </li></ul>
  3. 4. Role in adaptation to stress
  4. 5. Anti-inflammatory and Anti- allergic effects of glucocorticoids <ul><li>Release from the damaged tissue cells of chemical substances </li></ul><ul><li>An increase in blood flow in the inflamed area, leakage of large quantities of plasma followed by clotting of tissue fluid </li></ul><ul><li>Infiltration of area by leukocytes </li></ul><ul><li>Growth of fibrous tissue (Healing process) </li></ul><ul><li>Stabilizes the lysosomal membranes </li></ul><ul><li>Decreases the permeability of capillaries </li></ul><ul><li>Decreases both migration of WBC’s and phagocytosis of damaged cells, suppresses lymphocyte reproduction </li></ul><ul><li>Attenuates fever (IL-1from WBC) </li></ul>
  5. 6. Therapeutically <ul><li>Limited ability to resist infection </li></ul><ul><li>With prolonged use, other less desirable effects includes development of gastric ulcers, high blood pressure, atherosclerosis, menstrual irregularities and bone thinning. </li></ul><ul><li>Suppress the hypothalamus-pituitary axis </li></ul>
  6. 7. Permissive action <ul><li>Glucagon </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Glycolytic effects </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Catecholamines </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vasoconstriction and bronchodilation </li></ul></ul>
  7. 8. Control of cortisol secretion
  8. 10. Aldosterone <ul><li>Importance </li></ul><ul><li>3000 greater activity than cortisol </li></ul><ul><li>Aldosterone escape </li></ul><ul><li>Effects of Excess aldosterone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypokalemia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mild alkalosis </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Too little aldosterone </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cardiac failure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sweat & salivary glands and intestinal epithelial cells </li></ul>
  9. 11. Cellular mechanism
  10. 13. Regulation of aldosterone secretion
  11. 14. <ul><li>Hypoadrenalism- Addison’s disease </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mineralocorticoid deficiency </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Glucocorticoid deficiency </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Melanin pigmentation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Addisonian crisis </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Hyperadrenalism- Cushing’s syndrome </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ACTH dependent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ACTH independent </li></ul></ul>
  12. 15. <ul><li>Any condition that causes the adrenal gland to produce excessive cortisol results in the disorder Cushing's syndrome. </li></ul><ul><li>When a pituitary tumor secretes excessive ACTH, the disorder resulting from this specific form of Cushing's syndrome is referred to as Cushing's disease </li></ul>
  13. 16. <ul><li>Primary aldosteronism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypokalemia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Muscle weakness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> plasma renin </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Adrenogenital syndrome </li></ul>
  14. 17. Thanks

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