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Anas A - UEI Day 1 - Kochi Jan18


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Anas A - UEI Day 1 - Kochi Jan18

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Anas A - UEI Day 1 - Kochi Jan18

  1. 1. Water quality of Vembanad Lake: A proposed case study using remote sensing, modelling and insitu observations
  2. 2. Water quality and Microbial pollutants  Nearly 50% of world and 15% of Indian population live in cities and towns within 100 km of coast  Developmental activities have increased pollution and associated health impact  CPCB report (2009): 33 Industrial clusters (out of 88) are situated in Coastal regions of India  There are 13 major ports, 1511 fish landing centres & numerous beaches in India  Bacterial infections associated with recreation and commercial use of water resources  WHO Report 2011: Global trends in the incidence of cholerae have increased steadily since the beginning of the millennium  838315 reported cases of cholerae in 2004 – 2008, a 24 % increase compared to 2000 – 2004 (676651 cases)
  3. 3. Microbial pollution in Indian waters  COMAPS program initiated by MoES continuously monitor the pollution status of 80 locations since 1992  CSIR-NIO maintains a reference facility (MMRF) of health indicator bacteria  REVIVAL – A program under India-UK water quality research program  Scientists from UK (PML) and India (CSIR-NIO, ICAR- CMFRI and Nansen) join hands to identify the reservoirs of Vibrio cholerae and predict the possible areas of outbreak  Microbiology, molecular biology, remote sensing, citizen science and modelling tools will be used
  4. 4. Marine Vibrios  Diverse ecological functions: nutrient cycling, colonization on zooplankton, metamorphosis of organisms  At least 12 species are pathogenic to aquatic animals/ human being (V. parahaemolyticus, V. harveyii, V. alginolyticus, V. fluvialis, V. vulnificus, V. fluvialis)  Coastal pollution substantially changed the distribution, transmission biology and virulence patterns  Health risks are further aggravated by their antibiotic resistance Infectious disease caused by Vibrios: Source: Miyoshi S, 2014, Fron. Microbiol
  5. 5. Importance of Vembanad Lake • One of the three Ramsar Sites of International Importance in Kerala, India; • The largest lake system of southwest coast of India (100 km long) • Second only to the Arabian Sea in supporting the livelihood of coastal communities in Kerala; • Some 10 rivers drain into the Lake, representing a total drainage area of 15,770 sq km (40 % of the area of the State); • Its annual surface runoff (21,900 Mm3) is ~30% of the total surface water resource of Kerala; • Developmental activities: Universities, Ports, Coir retting, Chemical industries, Container terminal, LNG storage, Lime shell collection; • Known for: Agriculture, Fishing, Migratory birds, Biodiversity, Tourism; and • Declared as ecologically sensitive area by Government of India
  6. 6. Vembanad Lake: Significance of the study Major Threats • Industrial pollution: Heavy metals, PAH, pesticides etc • High nutrients and eutrophication • Reducing fishery stock and incidence of fish kill • Large number of tourist boats • Under DST’s War for Water Mission, Ernakulam and Alappuzha (Vembanad Lake areas) are identified as key sites to study the effect of biological contamination on water quality in India • Because of high pollution, drinking water has to be delivered to local population of Vembanad Lake Reclamation has reduced carrying capacity of Lake from 2.4 km3 to 0.6 km3
  7. 7. Vembanad Lake: Significance of the study Major Threats • Incidence of water borne disease outbreaks (during monsoons) • Pollution by antibiotic-resistant pathogens yet to be monitored • High levels of faecal contamination • Episodic cholera outbreaks (especially during monsoons) • New threats from Chikanguniya and Dengue Outbreaks in Kerala and in the study area Cholera incidence in Kerala
  8. 8. REVIVAL: Broader significance • Kerala: People in rural areas use surface water for drinking, bathing, cooking and other domestic needs • Water is not safe merely because it appears clean: it should meet minimal chemical and microbial standards of quality • At least 12 species of vibrio are pathogenic: even when not fatal, they can be highly debilitating • Diarrhoeal disease is the second most important cause of illness, leading to significant loss or working days due to ill health • Over 70 million working days are lost in India each year due to effect of water borne disease (UN2005) • Lack of safe drinking water and basic sanitation are major causes of morbidity and mortality in rural India: cleanup is a national priority • More generally, emerging resistance to antibiotics, and increased international travel may lead to threats at the global scale • Similar situations occur in other countries (Bangladesh, Brazil, Congo, Haiti, Zambia) where major water bodies function as reservoirs of infectious disease. • Outcomes from the proposed research could provide a template for remedial action in such other countries.
  9. 9. REVIVAL: Objectives • Identify the principal reservoirs of Vibrio cholerae in Vembanad Lake • Assess the seasonal and spatial variation of the hosts and reservoirs of pathogenic Vibrios employing remote-sensing and in situ methods, and explore similar methods for viruses • Use laboratory and modelling studies to assess conditions that induce virulence and proliferation of Vibrios • Develop models to forecast outbreaks of infectious diseases, especially cholera outbreaks, map results • Implement awareness programmes on pathogenic Vibrios and viruses and make recommendations to responsible parties for preventing cholera and other outbreaks; for design of a rational monitoring system; and for drafting of related legislation
  10. 10. REVIVAL: Remote Sensing • Remote sensing will be used here as an extrapolation tool, for scaling up in-water observations to the level of the whole of the Lake system • Multiple sensors (Landsat-8 OLI, Sentinel-2 MSI, ENVISAT-MERIS, sentinel-3 OLCI) and methods will be used to monitor variability at multiple scales • Initially, use existing methods to map the ecosystems • Next, in situ project data will be used to test, refine and improve algorithms (Sathyendranath, 2014) tailored for the region • Products: chlorophyll concentration, SST, phytoplankton types, floating vegetation), SST. Time series maps will be generated, to study sequential changes in this rapidly-altering ecosystem • Finally, RS outputs will be combined with those from modelling, to generate time-varying risk maps showing areas vulnerable to outbreaks of pathogenic bacteria and virus, with priority for cholera, for which prior studies have shown the way (e.g. Colwell, 1996) Suspended sediment load in Vembanad Lake Satellite image processed at PML NERC GloboLakes project output
  11. 11. REVIVAL: In situ Observations and Laboratory Experiments Abundance Measurements (every 10 days) Bacteria Phytoplankton Zooplankton Benthic fauna Environmental Measurements (every 10 days) Temperature Salinity pH Oxygen Water clarity Optical properties (drones, under-water instruments) Laboratory Experiments (as needed) Vibrio isolation Virulence Ability to colonise phytoplankton and benthic fauna
  12. 12. REVIVAL: Modelling Epidemic Modelling (Forecast) Model of Codeço (2001), emphasizing the important role of the aquatic reservoir in the dynamics of cholera infections. Susceptible people (S) are infected through exposure to contaminated water, in other words through contact with the reservoir. Bacterial populations in the aquatic reservoir (B) reproduce at a rate determined by environmental factors such as temperature and precipitation Statistical Modelling based on Satellite Data (Lake-Level Mapping) Associations between satellite-derived variables such as temperature, salinity, sea surface height, chlorophyll concentration, phytoplankton types, surface macrophytes, organic matter and vector density are used to identify and characterize vector habitats. Detect anomalies and deviations from the normal climate patterns. Bioinformatic Modelling (Understanding Functional Links) Infer host-pathogen interactions at the metabolic pathway level using our novel computational tool (Kleftogiannis et al. 2015) coupled with targeted wet lab experiments, to identify interaction pathways between human/aquatic organisms and the pathogen. Gene expression analysis for Vibrio cholerae virulent strains will be performed to select virulent genes characteristic of the disease outbreak. The selected genes will be mapped to metabolic pathway data. Risk maps will be developed by combining outputs from all three models with remotely-sensed and in situ data
  13. 13. Revival: Citizen Science • A simple hand-held, pocket-sized device has been developed by the proponents to measure the Secchi depth in lake, estuary and near-shore environments. Temperature Sensor will be added • A hundred units will be provided to volunteers, for deployment from boat routes (transects) • In addition to collecting additional valuable data, citizen science also helps engage the local community from the initial days of the project through to the end
  14. 14. REVIVAL: Societal Involvement NGOs will be partners in the program District government interested in the study and the outcome Industrial involvement (development of kits for easy detection of pathogens in water) Letters of Support from Ashoka Trust, Mayor of Kochi and a private diagnostic and research company (Origin)
  15. 15. REVIVAL: Integration
  16. 16. REVIVAL: Outputs POLLUTION • Database on plankton composition of Vembanad Lake • Spatio-temporal variation of Vibrio load in the lake • Identification of principal reservoirs of pathogens in the lake • Pathogenicity and antibiotic-resistance profile of Vibrios • SOLUTION • Maps and models for prediction of Cholera outbreak • Suggestions on minimising reservoirs of pathogens in the lake, and coping with residual sources • Public awareness programs: multi-sector user engagement • Information and recommendations to local government, based on scientific results and user feedback PATHWAYS TO IMPACT • Training of skilled manpower in the area (Project assistants, Post graduate and PhD dissertations) • Workshops and conferences for researchers • Publications in peer-reviewed international journals • Development of kits for easy detection of pathogens in the water • Citizen engagement GOAL • Healthy environment, healthy population
  17. 17. REVIVAL: Global Significance Infectious disease caused by Vibrios: Source: Miyoshi S, 2014, Fron. Microbiol. • Cholera: A global threat with 37 outbreaks in 2011 (30 countries) • Last decade witnessed 50 % increase in incidence • 12 species of Vibrio are known to be pathogenic • Coastal pollution impacts distribution, transmission biology and virulence patterns • Increase in water temperature and flooding under climate change likely to raise the cholerae incidence among vulnerable coastal populations
  18. 18. REhabilitation of Vibrio Infested waters of VembanAd Lake: pollution and solution (REVIVAL) A research proposal submitted for consideration under India-UK water quality research program
  19. 19. REVIVAL: In situ observations Parameters/ experiments Frequency of observation Tool to be used Lab involved Abundance of bacteria Once in 10 days Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH)/PCR CSIR-NIO Density of phytoplankton Once in 10 days Flow cytometry ICAR-CMFRI Density of mesozooplankton (This includes organisms with cell wall containing chitin) Once in 10 days Microscopy ICAR-CMFRI Density of Benthic fauna (epi and macrofauna) Once in 10 days Microscopy CSIR-NIO Isolation of associated vibrios One time sampling Standard microbiology procedure CSIR-NIO Virulence / antibiotic resistance of V. cholerae PCR based/ Disc diffusion CSIR-NIO Studies on ability of Vibrio cholera to colonies on marine phytoplankton/ zoo plankton and benthic fauna NA Bioassay using representative models CSIR-NIO Optical properties Once in 10 days Drones, underwater optical PML UK,
  20. 20. Microbial Reference Facility  MMRF was established as part of SWQM in 2003 at CSIR- NIO RCK  Functions as reference facility of health indicator bacteria from coastal environment  Organizing training programs  Currently there are ~ 1000 isolates from different coasts
  21. 21. Species diversity of vibrios in Indian coast  We received145 isolates of Vibrio isolated from southwest (SW) and Southeast (SE) coast  The isolates identified using fatty acid profile and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis Coast No of Isolates Species diversity SW coast 53 V. cholera, V. furnissi V. harveyi, V. proteolyticus, V. alginolyticus, V. nereis, V. hollisae, V. fischeri, V. campbelli, V. fischeri, SE coast 92 V. cholera, V. campbelli, V. fischeri, V. fluvialis, V. hollisae, V. nereis, V. alginolyticus, V. proteolyticus, V. furnissii,
  22. 22. Salt tolerance of Vibrio spp  Many Vibrio spp are autochthonous to marine environment  Moderate salinity, warm temperature, slightly alkaline pH and high nutrient conditions have been reported to be associated with the survival of the pathogen  Marine vibrios may reach far inland during hydrological disturbance by cyclones  Step up regression model highlighted the interaction effect of environmental variables on distribution of vibrios in coastal waters Growth curve of a) V. cholera b) V. fischeri c) V. alginolyticus and d) V. hollisae at different salinity
  23. 23. Marine vibrios: Ecological significance  V. cholera showed higher activities of chitinase and laminarinase  These enzymes support them to attach on phytoplankton and zooplanktons, crustaceans etc… Black: low, Red: medium; Blue: high