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Kumar S - UEI Day 1 - Kochi Jan18

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Kumar S - UEI Day 1 - Kochi Jan18

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Kumar S - UEI Day 1 - Kochi Jan18

  1. 1. Sunil KUMAR Director, National Water Academy, Pune First User Engagement Initiative - IUKWC Emerging Concepts of Irrigation Water Management January 23rd 2018 – Kochi, Kerala
  2. 2. Page 2
  3. 3. Ultimate Irrigation Potential (UIP) Vs Irrigation Potential Created (IPC) 25.6% 8.4 % 34 % 5.00 1.50 2.50 1.00 4.10 3.60 4.80 1.52 0.33 0.37 1.90 2.10 0.00 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 6.00 Andhra Pradesh Tamil Nadu Karnatka Kerala Maharashtra Odisha UIP IPC In Million Hectares (Major & Medium Projects)
  4. 4. Incomplete Distribution Irrigation: Issues and Challenges
  5. 5. Non-Completion of Command Area Development Irrigation: Issues and Challenges
  6. 6. Diversion of irrigable land for other purposes Irrigation: Issues and Challenges
  7. 7. Irrigation Sector
  8. 8. Climate Change Aggravates problem Leading to social & Economic problems 16% Area Affected Drinking Water Problems Agriculture Affected Livestock Affected Drought Scenario
  9. 9. 1950 22 mHa 55 MT 65 mHa 2015 260 MT 2050 140 mHa 450 MT Innovative Practices for Irrigation Water Management
  10. 10. Emerging Concept: Wastewater Reuse
  11. 11. Advantages: • Extra source of water; • Independent of the precipitation; • Reduces load on natural water sources; • Wastewater reuse alleviates the anthropogenic impacts on the environment; • Capital costs are low to medium for most systems and are recoverable in a very short time; • in many instances, wastewater irrigation increases crop growth and yield and associated agricultural products. Emerging Concept: Wastewater Reuse
  12. 12. Disadvantages: • Reuse of wastewater may be seasonal in nature • Health problems such as water-borne diseases and skin irritations, may occur in people coming into direct contact with reused wastewater. • Chemicals, such as sulfuric acid, produced during the treatment process can result in chronic health problems. • Application of untreated wastewater for irrigation as injected recharge water may result in groundwater contamination. Emerging Concept: Wastewater Reuse
  13. 13. Emerging Concept: Water Pricing
  14. 14. • Affordability to be prime consideration followed by accessibility & timeliness of supply; • Full recovery of Operation & Maintenance Costs; • Stakeholder consultation process while determining tariffs; • Efficient use of water; • Sustainable operations and management of water systems; • Promotion of water conservation and management processes; • Polluter to pay in case of polluting consumers. Emerging Concept: Water Pricing
  15. 15. Water Market Water Market Emerging Concept: Water Market
  16. 16. • Surface water is under the control of the State Governments. • Ground water is the private property of the person holding the overlying land. • No Norm / Guidelines regarding volume of water that could be withdrawn. • Leads to indiscriminate & overuse groundwater and its contamination. • landless people have no water rights. • Informal markets may exacerbate the over drafting or depletion problem. • But the formal markets may also not work any better unless water rights are established and enforced. . Emerging Concept: Water Market
  17. 17. Emerging Concept: Water Footprint
  18. 18. • Introduced by Arjen Hoekstra in 2002 , UNESCO-IHE; • Water Footprint is closely linked to the virtual water concept; • The Water Footprint of a commodity, individual, community or business is defined as the total volume of freshwater that is used to produce the goods and services consumed by the individual or community or produced by the business (Hoekstra and Chapagain 2008). Emerging Concept: Water Footprint
  19. 19. Blue Water Footprint refers to consumption of blue water resources (surface and groundwater); Water Footprint: Blue Water
  20. 20. Water Footprint - Green Water Green Water Footprint refers to consumption of green water resources (rainwater that does not become surface or ground water)
  21. 21. Water Footprint: Gray Water Grey Water Footprint refers to pollution and is defined as the volume of freshwater that is required to assimilate the load of pollutants
  22. 22. Commodity WFP Green (%) Blue (%) Grey (%) Rice 2497 lit/kg 68 20 11 Bread (wheat) 1608 lit/kg 70 19 11 Maize 1222 lit/kg 77 7 16 Barley 1420 lit/kg 85 6 9 Potato 287 lit/kg 66 11 22 Sugar (Sugar cane) 1782 lit/kg 66 27 6 Sugar (from beet) 920 lit/kg 62 19 19 Milk 1020 lit/kg 85 8 7 Orange 560 lit/kg 72 20 9 Apple 822 lit/kg 68 16 15 Banana 790 lit/kg 84 12 4 Mango 1800 lit/kg 73 20 7 Grapes 610 lit/kg 70 16 14 Eggs 3300 lit/kg 79 7 13 Chicken Meat 4325 lit/kg 82 7 11 Goat Meat 5521 lit/kg 94 6 0 Sheep Meat 10412 lit/kg 94 5 1 Pork Meat 5988 lit/kg 82 8 10 Beef 15415 lit/kg 93 4 3 Tea 8860 lit/kg 82 10 8 Coffee 18900 lit/kg 96 1 3 Chocolate 17196 lit/kg 98 1 1 Cotton 10000 lit/kg 54 33 13 Leather (Bovine) 17093 lit/kg 93 4 3 Emerging Concept: Water Footprint
  23. 23. Emerging Concept: Water Footprint
  24. 24. Government Private Sector PPP Contract Stakeholders Service Contract Services / Assets Tariff / Revenue Subsidy Emerging Concept: Public-Private Partnership (PPP)
  25. 25. • Institutional and Regulatory framework • Private Sectors on-board • Subsidy / tax rebate to Private Sectors in PPP • Stakeholders’ capacity Building Government Private Sector • Change perception that Irrigation is non profitable • Innovation to bring down cost • Design of the system after proper requirement analysis Farmers / Stakeholders • Change perception that Water is free gift of nature • Water Tariff must meet O&M cost • Awareness level for appropriate dissemination of knowledge/policies. Emerging Concept: Public-Private Partnership (PPP)
  26. 26. Conclusion
  27. 27. Sunil KUMAR MANY THANKS January 23rd 2018 – Kochi, Kerala

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