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Kumar M - UEI Day 1 - Kochi Jan18

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Kumar M - UEI Day 1 - Kochi Jan18

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Kumar M - UEI Day 1 - Kochi Jan18

  1. 1. (IF WATER MANAGEMENT ISSUE IS NOT ADDRESSED TODAY, IT WILL GREATLY LIMITS FUTURE SUSTAINABILITY) Prof. M S Mohan Kumar and Sheetal Kumar K R Civil Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore INTEGRATED URBAN WATER MANAGEMENT
  2. 2. Introduction  The world is undergoing an intensive process of urbanisation  It is estimated that population living in urban and peri-urban areas will increase to 5 billion by 2030 with most of this growth occurring on the edges of mega-cities  Increasing competition for water provides an impetus for increasing use of water saving and replacement techniques  This new paradigm requires an improved capability for integrated modelling approaches to analyse the whole-of-watercycle  This involves the integration of the various sub-systems—Catchment (surface-groundwater), water supply systems, wastewater, water allocation, internal recycling, decentralised treatment and storm water harvesting  Adding to this system complexity is the need to consider water quality as a constraining factor when using a fit-for-purpose approach to integrated urban water management (IUWM)
  3. 3. Issues of water supply from source to disposal of waste  Source water is not pure any more – Increasing the cost of treatment  GW based water supply systems are bound to failures  The water infrastructure cannot keep pace with the development of population growth, and expansion of city boundaries yet.  The water supply system suffers from fragility which results in substantial losses of clean water  Cross contamination of drinking water with sewage  Very less or zero monitoring of the system  Huge mismatch between demand and supply of water  Inefficient waste water collection system  Water is not being recycled efficiently – only 30% of sewage is treated (Bangalore)  Water pollution rate is higher than natural purification rate
  4. 4. Major issues with water supply  Water demand is far exceeding supply and leading to inter-sectoral conflicts  52 % of the borewell water, and 59 % of the tap water in Bangalore is undrinkable and contains 8.4% and 19 % E.coli bacteria respectively.  The time bomb of increasing water pollution is ticking  Reorientation and capacity building required for technocrats for a new vision for water  Urban population growth is much faster compared to both overall population growth and rural population growth – Demanding more water  No pipe is 100% impervious, especially not when the infrastructure is old and rusted like in the old cities – Bangalore, Mysore, Hyderabad etc Supply demand gap
  5. 5. Water Resource for cities  The long-term average rainfall for the country is 1,160 mm, which is the highest in the world for a country of comparable size.  GW :- About 80 per cent of the domestic water demand is met through groundwater  Inland water resources of the country are classified as rivers and canals, reservoirs, tanks, lakes and ponds, derelict water, and brackish water  According to estimates uncontrolled discharge of untreated domestic/municipal wastewater has resulted in contamination of 75 per cent of all surface water across India (MoUD, 2009)
  6. 6. Highly inefficient water systems  Most of our water infrastructures are old and inefficient  Leaking pipes, water tanks, low efficiency pumps etc  Treatment plant losses are high - old and technology obsolete  All the operations are manual – Zero automation  No GIS maps, SCADA system for data gathering – to help in decision support
  7. 7. Water supply systems components Source water reliability Pumping machinery monitoring Water quality efficiency monitoring Transmission main – leak and burst detection Storage, monitoring and control Distribution monitoring for event detection Source - WSP manual
  8. 8. 8 Develop methods to determine and analyze the quantitative and qualitative status of WDSs To take quick decisions to maintain the three - physical, hydraulic and water quality integrity of WDSs Physical QualityHydraulic Maintain physical barrier between distribution system interior and external environment Maintain disinfectant residual, bio-stability, prevent external contamination Maintain desirable water flows, pressures, water age Strategies in the Efficient Management of WDSs
  9. 9. How to address these issues..?  water infrastructure – from entry into the transmission system through distribution to the customer – structured to be operated under continuous supply conditions, including the concept and establishment of DMAs;  restructuring of existing systems, presently operated under intermittent supply conditions, to continuous supply at minimum cost and while maintaining a water supply service through the conversion process  appropriate hydraulic models and their application to planning, design and operation  all aspects of water distribution system pressure management, including the specification of appropriate types and sizing of pressure control valves
  10. 10. How to address these issues..?  Design, specification and choice of flow and pressure measurement and control devices for the management of a continuous supply service  Operational skills and technology:- operation under continuous supply; pressure management; proactive detection, location and repair of hidden leaks  Demand and supply management  Introduction and routine use of water utility management information systems  Management information systems:  Restructuring the distribution network  Leakage reduction and continuity in supply  Controlling system pressure
  11. 11. Hardware and software requirements  Flow meters  Pressure and water level sensors  Water quality sensors  Control valves  Gadgets to measure the efficiency of systems- Pumps, WTP’s etc  Stress sensors to predict future pipe failure predictions  Smart water meters  New devices to detect events (Leakage, cross contamination etc)  Algorithms to read analyse the flow data for mass balancing and leak detection  Water quality event detections  Logic controls for pressure and level senors  Feedback control systems fro valves  Online predictive hydraulic modelling Hardware Software
  12. 12. Different levels of controlling the system Where, E(t)= Error in the pipe MATLABEPANET Hydraulics Valve Loss Coefficient for i = 1…..n Simulation relations between EPANET and Matlab Where, Kv= Valve Coefficient, Q1= present flow in pipe, Q1 * = target flow in pipe, h1= head at the starting node of pipe, h2= head at the end node of pipe, A1= area of selected pipe, l1= length of selected pipe. Different levels of controlling the system 12
  13. 13. National water mission  “conservation of water, minimizing wastage and ensuring its more equitable distribution both across and within States through integrated water resources development and management”  Comprehensive water data base in public domain and assessment of impact of climate change on water resource  Promotion of citizen and state action for water conservation, augmentation and preservation  Focused attention to vulnerable areas including over-exploited areas; (d) increasing water use efficiency by 20%  Focused attention to vulnerable areas including over-exploited areas; (d) increasing water use efficiency by 20%
  14. 14. Moving towards continuous water supply system  The intermittent system suffers from several disadvantages, wherever possible, intermittent supply should be discouraged  Distribution systems operated under conditions of continuous (24-7) supply avoid all of the deficiencies set out in the response to the previous question  If a distribution system is continuously pressurized, it is not possible for contaminated groundwater to enter the pipes  Only on the rare occasions that there are breaks in service will contaminated water be able to enter the system under 24-7 supply conditions Questions..?  Do We have Enough Bulk Water Resources to Provide a 24-7 Service  Won’t We Use more Water with 24-7 Supply  Won’t We Use more Energy with a 24-7 Supply  Can We Afford to Convert to 24-7 Supply  Will Water Charges Rise as a Result of Conversion to 24-7 Supply Source - WSP manual
  15. 15. Intermittent to 24x7  Many countries in Africa manage to provide a continuous water supply service with daily per capita water supplies of 50 liters Source - WSP manual
  16. 16. Water balance studies from all perspective  Watershed catchment mass balancing  Water supply mass balancing studies from source to consumer  Waste water collection, treatment and discharge  Ground water exchange with lakes
  17. 17.  More than 80% of water supplied comes out as grey water.  Untreated sewage dumped in surface water- reduces the quality of surface water  Recycle and Reuse: Helps in water scarcity –Dual piping (for flushing) and Gardening  Can be supplied for Non-domestic use. Waste Water Management:
  18. 18. Source Identification for Sustainable water supply to greater Bangalore
  19. 19. Continued..  Linganamakki reservoir can provide drinking water to Bangalore till 2051  Preparation of a comprehensive scheme for 1. Rain water harvesting 2. Revival of lakes 3. Remodelling of storm water drains 4. Other works to percolate rain water to the ground  10 TMC of water can be diverted from Konganahole and Kakkattuhole to the catment of Lakshmantheertha which joins Cauvery near KRS – 6.44TMC can be used for Bangalore  10 TMC from Etthinahole  UFW reduction work has started with the interest of reducing UFW from 48% to 16% at a cost of 1254 crores – resulting in 4 TMC of water savings  Dual pipeline for portable and non portable purposes for future layouts to reduce the demand of fresh water  To create awareness among water users about the scarcity of water
  20. 20. Water management software for Bangalore City
  21. 21. Bangalore network monitoring
  22. 22. Tools, algorithms and overall support systems  Dynamic algorithms to control actuators, Valves, pumps etc to automate water operations with greater precission  Analytical capabilities can be programmed to provide pro- active alerts to commonly occurring disruptions  Analytical tools can be tuned to provide business level optimization such as pressure management to reduce energy bills or water loss from leakage  Aggregation of data through user supported water equations can provide a higher level of functionality such as water balance equations by zones or wards  Water quality event detection systems – with the help of low cost sensors
  23. 23. Continued..  Machine learning tools to support decisions of leakage works  Optimization tools for identifying the location for placing sensors  Integrating the real time data and continuously refine the equations  Providing the information to the workforce on their mobile phones and integrate more instrumentation  benchmarks for valve timings and settings, triggering alarms when valve timings and settings are violated
  24. 24. Smart Water Grids 1 • Real time monitoring 2 •Early detection of events 3 •Proper asset management 4 • Fully automated 5 • Flexible to meet future challenges 1/23/2018 24
  25. 25. Water Resources Management : Drinking Water Systems Real time monitoring of WDS:  Sensors deployed in the system collects key water quality and quantity parameters.  The data is collected and analyzed.  The analyzed data is used to develop various algorithms for water quality and quantity modeling and prediction.  Visualization and dash-boarding of collected data can also be done. Sensor node Dash board
  26. 26. Multiple angle to solve water issues Urban water system Information and computer scientist s Chemist and Micro- biologists Economics and social scientists Civil Engineers GIS Experts & Environmental Engineers Electrical, Electronics and communication Engineers Control and automation Engineers
  27. 27. Lab scale water network  Test bed to simulate real-world WDN issues and events:- Indian scenario.  Test and develop algorithms for  Leak detection and localization  Water quality studies  Application of controllers for water system management  To develop low cost sensors for water quality and quantity.  To develop an online models for water systems  Real time control and decision support system for water networks  Fully controlled and instrumented system for water network simulation
  28. 28. WDN Model (Water quantity/ quality) Sensor Data with Noise State Estimation Algorithms Historical data/Threshold Anomaly Indicators Event detection Leak detected in one of the simulation study EPANET Mean, Stand.dev etc. Analytics Controller Application in WDNs Use of control systems in WDS  flow in pipes,  level in tanks and  pump speed control Controller:- PID, PI, PD etc. System Model Controller Target Actuator WDN
  29. 29. IISc Smart Campus Water Project  Sustainable use of water on campus  100+ water level and quality sensors on tanks and reservoirs, flow meters on inlet pipes Level of water TDS, Temperature etc  Crowd sourced data collection  100’s of water samples, usage report  Data Mules thru’ Smart phone Bluetooth  Covers 40% of the campus  Hostels, departments, quarters etc  Examine big data and cloud computing for practical IOT  Reduce usage and improve quality  Extensible IOT infrastructure
  30. 30. Way forward- Understanding  Surface Water Supply  Ground Water Supply  Harvesting Rain Water at House hold level  Harvesting Rain Water at micro catchment scale  Use of Recycled water  Mass balance studies at city scales  Water Quality Studies  Water Wise Cities / Water smart cities
  31. 31. Thank you

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