Prompting question or image triggers a lived experience Storyteller self-indexes story, gives meaning (can be done by others). STRESS THE SELF-SIGNIFYING PART OF IT. TO REMOVE BIAS OF RESEARCHER Software detects visual patterns among stories Software enables deeper dive into individual stories People discuss patterns and story clusters Decisions are made and actions taken based on the patterns seen, including weak signals The actions focus on stimulating beneficial patterns; reducing undesirable ones
The next slides show a bit about the specific way of questioning. YOU COULD ASK TO SEE WHO HAS SUBMITTED A STORY BY ASKING PEOPLE TO RAISE THEIR HANDS. THEN YOU CAN SEE HOW SLOWLY OR QUICKLY TO DO THIS PART. How to encourage people to share a specific moment? This example is different from the water users question – “ Imagine that you meet some family members who live in another village and start talking about water. What would you tell them about one recent moment or event when you felt either hopeful or discouraged about rural water supply? Why did you feel this way?”
A set of questions was identified and then tested in Uganda and Ghana to ensure understandability and usefulness. Water professionals: Water users: 19 questions in total: 2 that asked for the story and a title; 8 triad; 2 multi-choice; 7 about the person who share his/her story There are three kinds of questions: triads, polarities and multi-choice questions
These examples allow us to see if the stories we are receiving about, for example, water in Ghana, about more coordination (which is what we want) or ongoing independent action. But this is worded in a neutral way. From the middle, either end is a 10 point scale. Similarly, if we want to know about whether to focus more on policy or practice change, this kind of answer can help us. But remember, we need to return to the stories to get more precision.
This type of question helps us to know where we are receiving stories from, and how intense people feel. We can zoom in stories that were scored with positive emotions and see ‘do these contain the germ of what we want to see more of’ or not?
Collected on paper – then entered into online collection application Some collected directly via Internet
Types of story (each story could have chosen up to 3) (Qu.8) – by 2010-11 there are more stories relating to financial planning and less about professionalisation of community management and learning and improving
No significant change in pattern for ‘post-construction support’ stories.
SenseMaker analysis Jan 2012
IWS LEARNING & SENSEMAKER ™ IWS Learning Retreat, January 2012 Method, Application & Findings Anna Audrey Deirdre
WHAT USING SENSEMAKER ™ INVOLVES <ul><li>SENSEMAKER™ is </li></ul><ul><li>software to help find patterns among narratives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>But people need to make sense of the patters, decide on action </li></ul></ul><ul><li>an approach to making sense of different fragments of information about a complex change process or about a dynamic context </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lots of different ‘stories’ from many sources : water users, water professionals, policy documents, videos </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Together they build a rich and diverse picture of what is happening </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emerging patterns can help plan next steps </li></ul></ul>
WHEN TO USE SENSEMAKER ™ ? <ul><li>Dynamic contexts </li></ul><ul><li>Adaptive programme of work </li></ul><ul><li>Responding to emerging needs </li></ul><ul><li>Need to understand diversity of perspectives </li></ul><ul><li>Getting beyond statistics about water points and policy intentions to people’s lived experiences in the water sector </li></ul>
B. FROM QUESTION TO ACTION Prompting Question Stimulate/Dampen Patterns Act on Signals Story Capture Self -Signification Visualize Patterns Deepen Insights
<ul><li>Is there a shift </li></ul><ul><ul><li>from an infrastructure focus towards post-construction and general sector support ? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in financing t owards post-construction and general sector support? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>towards known and implemented r esponsibilities for long-term water supply ? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>towards professionalisation of community management and alternative service providers? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Is there a shift from an uncoordinated approach to harmonized planning & implementation </li></ul>IWS LEARNING QUESTIONS
IWS LEARNING QUESTIONS <ul><li>How do actors influence changes in rural water supply and why? </li></ul><ul><li>Exploring patterns of change with attention to specific topics: </li></ul><ul><li>topics of change and stalemate </li></ul><ul><li>triggers of change </li></ul><ul><li>the role of champions and early adopters of a </li></ul><ul><li>SDA/ leadership </li></ul><ul><li>individual motivation and basis for action </li></ul><ul><li>the role of Triple-S </li></ul>
STORIES RECEIVED … AND THEIR MEANING <ul><li>Data is gathered via </li></ul><ul><ul><li>direct entry on internet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>offline website entry later uploaded </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>paper, then transcribed to online collector </li></ul></ul><ul><li>As of January 17, 2012: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IWS: 121 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>GWS: +1,000 – both users & prof’s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>UWS: +500 users & +50 professionals </li></ul></ul>
C. PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS Stories from International Water Professionals
IS THERE A SHIFT FROM A FOCUS ON INFRASTRUCTURAL PROJECTS TOWARDS A SERVICE DELIVERY APPROACH? (Q.8&19)
IS THERE A SHIFT FROM AN INFRASTRUCTURE FOCUS TOWARDS POST-CONSTRUCTION AND GENERAL SECTOR SUPPORT? (Q.9&19) There does seem to be some shift away from stories about new infrastructure to more about post-construction support and sector support: 15% 9% 11% 15% 33% 42% 2009 & earlier 2010-2011
STORIES ABOUT CAPACITY SUPPORT TO SERVICE AUTHORITIES/ LOCAL GOVERNMENT (Q.8,9&19) 45% 27% 2009 & earlier 2010-2011
SOME STORIES New infrastructure story: “ ...the problems we have are in maintenance and sustainability. We are changing the kinds of technologies we use. Before we used to use diesel based technologies. In the rural areas these were unavailable or expensive. Now we are using solar. Even though it cannot supply the same amount, it can last longer. The issue is still in attitude change for affordability. We need to educate people more and mobilize people more about the affordability. Paying for water should be more important than paying for their cell phones.” Post-construction story: “ ...One of the main post-IDWSSD lessons was that construction was not enough, and that without proper maintenance, systems were not sustainable. The same message we are hearing now, albeit packaged as the "sustainable service delivery approach". Why do we think that we will succeed now if we have not properly analysed why maintenance of rural water supply systems has remained a "headache" for the past 20 years.” “ There is a paradox in handpump maintenance. Area mechanics are being trained to support the maintenance of handpumps but communities can often do minor maintenance themselves and only require an area mechanic for major repairs and replacements. The cost of major repairs is often too much for a community so the area mechanics are not hired.” Sector support story: “ All of a sudden, after the April 2011elections in Nigeria, we started receiving requests from State Executive Governors to guide them on how they can improve on development programmes in their states...The reason for this change is the awareness of the public to ask political leaders to account for their mandates. People in Nigeria began to elect individuals instead of political parties. Politicians who did well were massively elected again. This development sent a strong message to all of them that if they do not perform well, they stand a chance of losing being elected... Citizens should begin to ask questions of accountability on plans, budgets, political manifestos etc from their leaders. This will help leaders to sit up and improve in providing sustainable services to the electorates”
IS THERE A SHIFT IN FINANCING TOWARDS POST-CONSTRUCTION AND GENERAL SECTOR SUPPORT? (Q.6&19) 2009 & earlier 2010-2011 Very few financing stories available, therefore unable to see a shift. 8% 4% “ Financing of rural water used to be community part contribution, but government now funds total cost whiles communities cater for maintenance” - Ghana “ There are many financing constraints in water delivery. But currently, there are alternative mixed solutions being suggested such as self supply” - Nicaragua
FINANCIAL PLANNING STORIES (Q.8,9&19) 2009 & earlier 2010-2011 Many more stories relating to financial planning by 2010-2011, including for new infrastructure
FINANCING CONSTRUCTION, MINOR OR MAJOR MAINTENANCE (Q.10&19) No significant change in pattern over time 2009 & earlier 2010-2011
FINANCING CONSTRUCTION, MINOR OR MAJOR MAINTENANCE (Q.10&19) - FINANCIAL PLANNING STORIES ONLY (&Q.8) More financial planning stories for 2010-11 with maintenance focus 2009 & earlier 2010-2011 Financial planning stories only (&Q.8) “ ...they want to get the school direction with the local authorities to develop a long term management plan for these wash programmes in schools, so they want to look at not only post-construction, but also (long term) maintenance. They want to assign responsibilities and develop guidelines that will be later shared with the sector” – Burkina Faso
IS THERE A SHIFT TOWARDS KNOWN AND IMPLEMENTED RESPONSIBILITIES FOR LONG-TERM WATER SUPPLY? (Q14A&19) 2009 & earlier 2010-2011 No significant change in pattern. In both cases there are still significant numbers where responsibilities are not clear 28% 23% NGOs set up sources and other WASH programmes but maintenance after the project has ended is a myth - Uganda Clear Clear Not clear Not clear
LONG TERM RESPONSIBILITIES INVOLVING DIFFERENT ACTORS (Q.4,14A&19) Stories involving Bi-lateral, Multi-lateral and IFIs Stories involving NGOs 2009 & earlier 2010-2011
LONG RESPONSIBILITIES FOR MONITORING STORIES (8,14A&19) Some improvement in responsibilities being clear for government 2009 & earlier 2010-2011
IS THERE A SHIFT TOWARDS PROFESSIONALISATION OF COMMUNITY MANAGEMENT AND ALTERNATIVE SERVICE PROVIDERS? (Q.8,13&19) Stories about (professionalisation of) community management – a small number involve change (‘doing fundamentally different things’):
IS THERE A SHIFT FROM AN UNCOORDINATED APPROACH TO HARMONISED PLANNING & IMPLEMENTATION? (Q.11&19) There is a spread of stories which work independently and those which coordinate/align, however there seems to be a slight improvement in working together. 2009 & earlier 2010-2011
IS THERE A SHIFT FROM AN UNCOORDINATED APPROACH TO HARMONISED PLANNING & IMPLEMENTATION? – AID HARMONISATION & ALIGNMENT STORIES (Q.8,11&19) 2009 & earlier 2010-2011 There are very few stories categorised as related to aid harmonisation and alignment. Of these, some stories show working independently Policy makers in an unnamed country want to take a break and sort out policies before dealing with donors, but can't spend all the time chasing donors.
WORKING INDEPENDENTLY OR TOGETHER – COMPARING Q.11&12 2009 & earlier 2010-2011 Follow own ideas Follow own ideas Align completely Align completely Work independently Work independently Work together Work together
EXPLORING PATTERNS OF CHANGE WITH SPECIFIC ATTENTION TO TOPICS OF CHANGE AND STALEMATE Positive and negative stories on change/no change that relate to policies and practices about Capacity support to service authorities/local government Positive Negative
EXPLORING PATTERNS OF CHANGE WITH SPECIFIC ATTENTION TO TOPICS OF CHANGE AND STALEMATE Positive and negative stories on change/no change that relate to policies and practices about financial planning
“ NEGATIVE” STORIES IN WHICH ORGANIZATIONS ARE INVOLVED WHICH DO FUNDAMENTALLY DIFFERENT THINGS THAT RELATE TO FINANCIAL PLANNING Local Materials, Local Skills and Labour - A Way for Sustainable Water Supply in Africa This refers to a project in the western part of Ethiopia. There is a huge river crossing the city called Gambella. People and animals use if for drinking, washing, bathing.. Looking at the huge deposits of sand and gravel on the river bank, I recommended the construction of an infiltration gallery based water supply system. Donors were convinced and supported the idea and a small scale infiltration gallery system was constructed. The effluent is exceddingly very good. I recommended to upscale the technology for the entire coverage of the town. However, the town got a loan from the WB project. They said the infiltration gallery is a backward technology and they resorted into a high tech chemical dependent system which was over 10 times expensive to construct and some 20 times more expensive to run. This is the mentality of most African decision makers. They do not value the importance of using locally available materials, local skills and labour force to solve their problem. This would be more sustainable and economically much more viable. A summary of the project is available on the hand book by Marin Wegelin of EWAG on Roughing Filtration. Even the Banks have their Limitations: The true story what lending Banks can ask of their Debtors In 2005 - 2006 I conducted an end-of-project evaluation of a WASH sector programme funded by the Asian Development Bank. The ADB had loaned several million dollars for a 5 year programme for hard and software improvements in several districts across Vietnam. During the debrief of the Vietnamese National Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Water Director and the Asian Development Bank representative on the preliminary findings of the evaluation, the discussion turned at the instigation of the ADB representative and the Ministerial representative to how the loan funds were allocated at local level and what the value for money was of the investment made. I 'innocently' suggested that we do a sort of unit cost study for each of the systems built or improved. The Water Director become incensed at the suggestion and nearly threw me out of the room - possibly the country if she could have. The ADB representative had to step in and smooth the waters, insisting that what I MEANT to say was we could consider a cost benefit analysis but that there were no additional funds available for this additional work. The situation calmed down, but the implications were clear to me. The Country representative had no intention of opening the financial books for inspection by anyone, and the ADB had no policy or guidelines on how to handle the situation.
ON-GOING USE IN IWS? <ul><li>Issues for consideration: </li></ul><ul><li>cost-benefit review </li></ul><ul><li>revisit option to gather & signify text fragments from relevant documents: travel reports, </li></ul><ul><li>in-depth review 6 Feb 2012 with Consultant </li></ul>
‘ VALIDATION’ QUESTIONS <ul><li>Look at the patterns, reflect on your own experiences and read the related stories. </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What messages are emerging from the patterns? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Which patterns are odd? And what might explain those patterns? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Which patterns do you recognise? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What do the patterns suggest might be areas and issues that require attention? New issues needing investment, some not worthwhile, etc. </li></ul></ul>