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Design Thinking and Innovation course - Day 3 - Design Ethnography

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This slide deck is the introductory slide deck for a course on design thinking and innovation. It has been taught at Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden. All slides are released under creative commons. Feel free to use them in your education program and let us know about the results and feel free to comment regarding improvements.

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Design Thinking and Innovation course - Day 3 - Design Ethnography

  1. 1. TEK495 - Design & Innovation Day 3 DESIGN ETHNOGRAPHY TEK495 Kira Krämer, Lisa Carlgren, Fredrik Garneij, Jan Schmiedgen, Ingo Rauth September 9, 2015
  2. 2. TEK495 - Design & Innovation 2 Slide/Exercise Time Material Facilitator Prepare Re-Arrange room to work group island mode Print: Facilitator instructions Bring: Marshmallow material All Warm-up 10 min none Ingo Group reflection diary conversation 10 min none / use new process Ingo Design Ethnography intro & test your interview skills 25 min Kira Coffee break 15 min none Group interivew (Q&A) with challange/project owner marker, whiteboard Kira - Lisa, Fredrik (support) LUNCH Interview basics - iterating theoretical inputs and testing by interviewing each other - based on the desk research and own experience 50 min Kira - Lisa, Fredrik (support) Coffee Break 15 min Interview with students, administrators and supervisors which come to class 45 min Interview questions developed during the previous 45 min Kira Coffee Break Reflection on interviewing, summary and observation (marhs mallow exercise) 20, 20, 5min (homework intro) Kira, Ingo
  3. 3. TEK495 - Design & Innovation Reflection #2 Interviewing Think about one reflection you want to share in 30 sec. 4-5x share reflection in 30 sec, the others try to sketch the main idea. Reflect upon your reflections 2 min 5 min 5 min
  4. 4. TEK495 - Design & Innovation WARM-UP SPOT A LIE Image Source: pxiabay.com
  5. 5. TEK495 - Design & Innovation Introduction 1#
  6. 6. TEK495 - Design & Innovation Learn to ask better questions! THE GOAL
  7. 7. TEK495 - Design & Innovation Design Ethnography Better questions, better understanding. Ethnography literally means “writing about people groups”. Ethnography is a method (discipline) that helps to understand the social, politcal and environmental dimensions of a society from a member’s perspective. #1 Introduction
  8. 8. TEK495 - Design & Innovation Design Ethnography #1 Introduction People: behavior, choices, emotions, mental models Personal context: life situation, social environment like family, friends, colleagues and peer-groups Broader context: institutions, processes, society as a whole, ecosystems Interconnectedness of these factors
  9. 9. TEK495 - Design & Innovation “Better understanding = better problem-solving = better products, services, processes and institutions”. “Shitunderstanding=shitproblem-solving= shitproducts,services,processesand institutions”.
  10. 10. TEK495 - Design & Innovation Why we need ethnography … #1 Introduction Clear Vision Team Alignment Stakeholder Communication Better understanding, better documentation: user perspective becomes more powerful
  11. 11. TEK495 - Design & Innovation Design ethnography in the process #1 Introduction PROTOTYPE explore the problem redefine the problem develop & learn about ideas & problem s EMPATHIZE IDEATE idea generation DEFINE TEST
  12. 12. TEK495 - Design & Innovation Three ways to gain understanding #1 Introduction Listening Looking Experiencing
  13. 13. TEK495 - Design & Innovation Three ways to gain understanding #1 Introduction
  14. 14. TEK495 - Design & Innovation INTERVIEWING 2#
  15. 15. TEK495 - Design & Innovation CHALLENGE: “How to improve the preparation for the master thesis experience.” #2 Interviewing
  16. 16. TEK495 - Design & Innovation Your first interview Dan Paulin ▪ Vice Head of Department for Education, Technology Management and Economics ▪ Senior Lecturer, Technology Management and Economics ▪ Senior Lecturer at the Division of Operations Management. #2 Interviewing
  17. 17. TEK495 - Design & Innovation Your first interview: Exercise Collect questions silently write down each on one sticky note Share in team Discuss briefly and select 5 questions #2 Interviewing 2min 5min 4/5x 1min
  18. 18. TEK495 - Design & Innovation BREAK 18
  19. 19. TEK495 - Design & Innovation Hi Dan, We’ve got some questions for you! 19
  20. 20. TEK495 - Design & Innovation LUNCH 20
  21. 21. TEK495 - Design & Innovation Reflection
  22. 22. TEK495 - Design & Innovation Experts & Stakeholders
  23. 23. TEK495 - Design & Innovation Experts & Stakeholders A helpful but biased view? Enable Limit (Insider) Knowledge Meta-View Power & Connections Deeply rooted in existing system “Blind” for user perspective Reluctant to profound changes + - Image Credit: Straight Face by Clara Joy, The Noun Project
  24. 24. TEK495 - Design & Innovation Understanding the topic Expert and newbie at the same time?
  25. 25. TEK495 - Design & Innovation 117 Existing Material Stories from friends Desk Research Dan’s Input Your experience Own thoughts Understanding the topic …
  26. 26. TEK495 - Design & Innovation Knowledge Download Understanding the topic Preparation for interviews Empty your mind Find something you didn’t know yet! Open up to kill your assumptions
  27. 27. TEK495 - Design & Innovation Knowledge Download: Exercise Write down areas of interest “Finding a topic for master thesis” Write down hypotheses “Students have difficulites to find a topic.” Share with team Understanding the topic 1min 1min 4/5x 1min
  28. 28. TEK495 - Design & Innovation Questionnaire
  29. 29. TEK495 - Design & Innovation Questionnaire ▪ Our guide for interviews ▪ Simple ▪ Flexible #2 Interviewing
  30. 30. TEK495 - Design & Innovation Topic Opener Hypothesis #2 Interviewing Questionnaire
  31. 31. TEK495 - Design & Innovation Finding advice for master thesis topic “Where did you look for advice when searching for a thesis topic?” No one knows about the consultation services offered by the faculty. True? #2 Interviewing Questionnaire Topic Opener Hypothesis
  32. 32. TEK495 - Design & Innovation QUESTIONNAIRE: EXERCISE #2 Interviewing Select 3 topics Add hypotheses to each topic 3min 3min
  33. 33. TEK495 - Design & Innovation General opening quesion #2 Interviewing Questionnaire Finding advice for master thesis topic “Where did you look for advice when searching for a thesis topic?” No one knows about the consultation services offered by the faculty. True?
  34. 34. TEK495 - Design & Innovation Are you working on a master thesis currently? Are you planning to write your master thesis in the next 6 month? ... #2 Interviewing Questionnaire Finding advice for master thesis topic “Where did you look for advice when searching for a thesis topic?” No one knows about the consultation services offered by the faculty. True?
  35. 35. TEK495 - Design & Innovation Questionnaire: Exercise #2 Interviewing Select 3 topics Add hypotheses to each topic Add general opening question(s) 5min 3min 1min
  36. 36. TEK495 - Design & Innovation User Interviewes Round 1: Exercise #2 Interviewing Split in subteams of two (three) and grab your questionnaire Go outside and try to conduct one or two interviews with someone Goal: Try to fond something interesting in one of the three topics 1min 15min
  37. 37. TEK495 - Design & Innovation BREAK 37
  38. 38. TEK495 - Design & Innovation Reflection
  39. 39. TEK495 - Design & Innovation The Art of asking questions
  40. 40. TEK495 - Design & Innovation The Art of Asking Questions 1. Setting 2. Questions #2 Interviewing
  41. 41. TEK495 - Design & Innovation Setting ▪ Aim for a facilitated conversation ▪ Pay attention to: ▪ Space ▪ Roles ▪ Mindset #2 Interviewing
  42. 42. TEK495 - Design & Innovation Setting: Space ▪ Choosing the right space ▪ Take care of drinks & snacks ▪ If necessary, meet users in their environment #2 Interviewing
  43. 43. TEK495 - Design & Innovation Setting: Roles Agree on ▪ Conversation Lead ▪ Documenter ▪ Observer #2 Interviewing
  44. 44. TEK495 - Design & Innovation Setting: Mindset Be a true Listener! ▪ Non-judgemental ▪ Non-teaching ▪ Empathy, not necessary sympathy ▪ Beginner’s Mindset #2 Interviewing
  45. 45. TEK495 - Design & Innovation Quesitons Asking the right questions & asking them right! Pay attention to: ▪ Types of Questions ▪ Way of Asking ▪ Mindset #2 Interviewing
  46. 46. TEK495 - Design & Innovation Types of questions #2 Interviewing Facts: ▪ What, Where, When ▪ How many, How often, How long etc.
  47. 47. TEK495 - Design & Innovation Story & Emotional: How? helps to get user into narrating a sequence or a story Why? ▪ explore the underlying motivations or influences ▪ to dig deeper Types of questions #2 Interviewing Facts: ▪ What, Where, When ▪ How many, How often, How long etc.
  48. 48. TEK495 - Design & Innovation Tipps & Tricks ▪ Don’t stop with your first “Why?” ▪ Ask for best / worst experiences instead of “What do you like / hate?” ▪ Switch between emotions and facts. ▪ Listen and save a keyword. #2 Interviewing
  49. 49. TEK495 - Design & Innovation Way of asking: Demo How to do a proper interview … NOT #2 Interviewing
  50. 50. TEK495 - Design & Innovation Rules: Way of Asking #2 Interviewing ▪ 80/20 - accept silence ▪ Open questions ▪ Clear questions, one question per time ▪ No interpretations yet ▪ Digging deep, not jumping topics too quickly ▪ No solutions at this point of time (Park them) ▪ Not asking for solutions (People don’t know) ▪ Clear roles
  51. 51. TEK495 - Design & Innovation The Anatomy of an Interview #2 Interviewing
  52. 52. TEK495 - Design & Innovation Mindset ▪ Following the stories ▪ Leading with questions #2 Interviewing
  53. 53. TEK495 - Design & Innovation User interviews round 2: Exercise #2 Interviewing Grab questionnaire. Choose an interview partner from this course - someone you don’t know yet Interview him/her Goal: Get one interesting story 2min 2x3min 1min
  54. 54. TEK495 - Design & Innovation Cheat Sheet ▪ Introduce yourself ▪ Get the newbie attitude ▪ Start with your conversation ▪ 80/20 ▪ Open questions ▪ Aim for stories ▪ Ask Why? ▪ Build on what your interviewee tells you. #2 Interviewing
  55. 55. TEK495 - Design & Innovation User interviews round 2: Exercise #2 Interviewing Second round interviews Try to dog deeper Goal: Ask 3 times Why in a row 2x3min 3min 1min
  56. 56. TEK495 - Design & Innovation Iteration & Putting it all together
  57. 57. TEK495 - Design & Innovation Iteration and putting it all together Write down your most burning topics / questions / hypotheses Share with team Iterate questionnaire with max 5 topics Prepare settings & decide on roles #2 Interviewing 2min 1min 10min 2min
  58. 58. TEK495 - Design & Innovation BREAK 58
  59. 59. TEK495 - Design & Innovation User interviews round 3: Exercise 15min Split in sub-teams & lead one interview Second interview #2 Interviewing 15min
  60. 60. TEK495 - Design & Innovation BREAK 60
  61. 61. TEK495 - Design & Innovation Reflection
  62. 62. TEK495 - Design & Innovation Wrap Up INTERVIEWING
  63. 63. TEK495 - Design & Innovation Storysharing #2 Interviewing
  64. 64. TEK495 - Design & Innovation Documenting ▪ Notes ▪ Pictures ▪ Recording #2 Interviewing
  65. 65. TEK495 - Design & Innovation Selecting interviewees Look for: ▪ Extreme users ▪ people outside your target group #2 Interviewing
  66. 66. TEK495 - Design & Innovation OBSERVATION 3#
  67. 67. TEK495 - Design & Innovation OBSERVATION Start noticing the little things
  68. 68. TEK495 - Design & Innovation OBSERVATION Start noticing the little things
  69. 69. TEK495 - Design & Innovation OBSERVATION Start noticing the little things
  70. 70. TEK495 - Design & Innovation Marshmallow exercise Action Team (10min) ▪ Build the Tallest Freestanding Structure ▪ The Entire Marshmallow Must be on Top: The entire marshmallow needs to be on the top of the structure. Cutting or eating part of the marshmallow disqualifies the team. ▪ Use as much or as little of the Kit ▪ Break up the Spaghetti, String or Tape Observing Team (2min): Watch the teams. What dynamics can you notice? Body language? #3 Observation
  71. 71. TEK495 - Design & Innovation IMMERSION 4#
  72. 72. TEK495 - Design & Innovation
  73. 73. TEK495 - Design & Innovation Summary
  74. 74. TEK495 - Design & Innovation Three ways to gain understanding What people experience. What people do.What people say they do. Summary
  75. 75. TEK495 - Design & Innovation When applying Design Ethnography Summary
  76. 76. TEK495 - Design & Innovation Prototype testing
  77. 77. TEK495 - Design & Innovation Readings Hall, E. (2013). Just Enough Research. New York. Portigal, S. (2013). Interviewing Users: How to Uncover Compelling Insights (1st edition). Brooklyn, New York: Rosenfeld Media. Young, I. (2015). Practical Empathy: For Collaboration and Creativity in Your Work (1st edition). Brooklyn, NY: Rosenfeld Media. #2 Interviewing
  78. 78. TEK495 - Design & Innovation Your take-aways? Summary
  79. 79. TEK495 - Design & Innovation Thank you!
  80. 80. TEK495 - Design & Innovation Homework 1.) Write your reflections 2.) Practice interviewing: Do 1 Interview with 1 master student from Chalmers (15min+). TAKE NOTES! 3.) Practice immersion by trying to understand: a.) Master Thesis webpage at Chalmers b.) Master Thesis at Dept of TME c.) Ask yourself if you would know what to do after getting these informaiton. The better your notes, the better your synthesis. Design Ethnography
  81. 81. TEK495 - Design & Innovation HAPPY BIRTHDAY MAHASIN!!! ☺
  82. 82. TEK495 - Design & Innovation 82 “Focus on the user.” IDEO, Stanford d.school
  83. 83. TEK495 - Design & Innovation Interview fail script (facilitator) Faciliator’s sheet Theme: Grocery shopping & cooking 1. We only talk to each other. 2. Involve the interview but ask questions that already entail the answer: „You like cooking, right!“ 3. Ask open questions, but interrupt. 4. Let them finish talking, but summarize in a judgemental statement, „Aha, so you are an eco-fanatic!“ 5. Don’t follow up on what was answered, but jump to the next question. 6. Think in solutions right away: „She needs an eco friendly ...“ 7. Ask for solutions 8. Roles are unclear.

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