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THE “TYPOLOGY” APPROACH IN
UNDERSTANDING GROUNDWATER




      Advanced Center for Water Resources Development and Managem...
Groundwater: work (always!) in progress…
SA groundwater typology: rise and fall of groundwater socio-ecologies (T. Shah, 2009)
Basalt aquifer: water level depletion




     After Kulkarni (1987) and Macdonald, Kulkarni & others (1995)
Eco-zones – evolving typology of a watershed in moments of transition
(after M. Shah et al, 1998)
Aquifer typology – groundwater in Deccan basalt rocks of west-central India
(after Kulkarni et al, 2000)
Basalt:
hydrogeological typology
Confined and unconfined aquifers
Water level typology:
shallow & deep basalt aquifers




                       AGRAR, 2006
Pie diagram for BW3
                                             Legend
                                                  ...
“Generality” factor: a challenge in
understanding groundwater

  • Scale
     – Regional: planning
     – Local: dynamics ...
The classical model – regional vs local aquifers




                       20 m
Regional and local hard-rock aquifers



                   50 m




 Regionally weathered hard-rock systems may behave li...
Aquifers: units for “understanding”
 groundwater resources




                                Neemkheda watershed…



Nee...
Typology 1


                         Typology 3
                                                 Typology 4
Typology 2


...
Geospatial analysis:
understanding the
typology of
groundwater




                       10 km
Typology 1: Hydrogeological map
Typology 1: geology & groundwater movement
Typology 1: Principal areas of
natural groundwater recharge and discharge
Conceptual model – Typology 1




• Aquifer system 3 forms the transition between typologies 1 and 2

• Some leakage from ...
Matrix of protocols and feasibility of their implementation as part of the
Groundwater Management Strategy in the Project ...
Protocols         Typology 1   Typology 2   Typology 3   Typology 4   Typology 5   Typology 6


Geohydrology in           ...
Typology context in ACWADAM’s work in Purandar




Deccan basalt and associated alluvial sediments – drought-prone area
Typology 1 & 3
Typology 3: Groundwater resources – not fully
developed; potential for management
Groundwater chemistry: major ions




                          Typology 2

   Typology 1



   Typology 3
Purandar: typologies




1: Overexploitation: Macro-level intervention
required; recharge-schemes, legislation(?)…


     ...
In conclusion
• Typology at “right” scale.

• Groundwater typology
  – Hydrogeological (specific to geology and problems)
...
Typology Approach in Groundwater - ACWADAM
Typology Approach in Groundwater - ACWADAM
Typology Approach in Groundwater - ACWADAM
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Typology Approach in Groundwater - ACWADAM

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Typology Approach in Groundwater - ACWADAM

  1. 1. THE “TYPOLOGY” APPROACH IN UNDERSTANDING GROUNDWATER Advanced Center for Water Resources Development and Management (ACWADAM) Plot 4, Lenyadri society, Sus road, Pashan, Pune-411021. 020-25871539 Email: acwadam@vsnl.net Website: www.acwadam.org
  2. 2. Groundwater: work (always!) in progress…
  3. 3. SA groundwater typology: rise and fall of groundwater socio-ecologies (T. Shah, 2009)
  4. 4. Basalt aquifer: water level depletion After Kulkarni (1987) and Macdonald, Kulkarni & others (1995)
  5. 5. Eco-zones – evolving typology of a watershed in moments of transition (after M. Shah et al, 1998)
  6. 6. Aquifer typology – groundwater in Deccan basalt rocks of west-central India (after Kulkarni et al, 2000)
  7. 7. Basalt: hydrogeological typology
  8. 8. Confined and unconfined aquifers
  9. 9. Water level typology: shallow & deep basalt aquifers AGRAR, 2006
  10. 10. Pie diagram for BW3 Legend Na Ca Water quality Na Cl HCO3 Ca SO4 SO4 Cl HCO3 Shallow unconfined aquifer Pie diagram for BW1 Legend AGRAR, 2006 Na Ca Cl Na SO4 CO3 Cl CO3 Deeper confined aquifer
  11. 11. “Generality” factor: a challenge in understanding groundwater • Scale – Regional: planning – Local: dynamics (e.g. extraction patterns) • Mappability – Scale of mapping – Units for groundwater mapping • Information – Source – Type – Scale of availability
  12. 12. The classical model – regional vs local aquifers 20 m
  13. 13. Regional and local hard-rock aquifers 50 m Regionally weathered hard-rock systems may behave like alluvial aquifers… 20 m
  14. 14. Aquifers: units for “understanding” groundwater resources Neemkheda watershed… Neemkheda: Geology Neemkheda aquifer…
  15. 15. Typology 1 Typology 3 Typology 4 Typology 2 Typology 5 Typology 6 Typologies: our work in Bagli tehsil, Dewas district, MP
  16. 16. Geospatial analysis: understanding the typology of groundwater 10 km
  17. 17. Typology 1: Hydrogeological map
  18. 18. Typology 1: geology & groundwater movement
  19. 19. Typology 1: Principal areas of natural groundwater recharge and discharge
  20. 20. Conceptual model – Typology 1 • Aquifer system 3 forms the transition between typologies 1 and 2 • Some leakage from Typology 1 to Typology 2 is expected, especially if patterns of usage in typology 2 change…
  21. 21. Matrix of protocols and feasibility of their implementation as part of the Groundwater Management Strategy in the Project Area (derived on the basis of participatory planning between ACWADAM and SPS teams over a period of a year…a continuously ongoing process) * = ja$rI (Necessary) = kaya-rt krnaa saMBava hO (Possible to implement) ?= kaya-rt krnao maoM AinaiScatta (Uncertainty in implementation)
  22. 22. Protocols Typology 1 Typology 2 Typology 3 Typology 4 Typology 5 Typology 6 Geohydrology in * * * * * * WSD Protection of * * * Land-use * * recharge areas ? protection ? Efficient well use * * * * ? ? Pump capacity * * * * * regulation ? Distance (w.r.t * * * * * * drinking water well) ? regulation Depth Regulation * * * * (w.r.t drinking well) ? ? Regulation of * * * * * Agricultural water ? use Groundwater * User * * * User * * management groups Patpadi groups through sharing Nachanbor Borkhalya
  23. 23. Typology context in ACWADAM’s work in Purandar Deccan basalt and associated alluvial sediments – drought-prone area
  24. 24. Typology 1 & 3
  25. 25. Typology 3: Groundwater resources – not fully developed; potential for management
  26. 26. Groundwater chemistry: major ions Typology 2 Typology 1 Typology 3
  27. 27. Purandar: typologies 1: Overexploitation: Macro-level intervention required; recharge-schemes, legislation(?)… 2: Groundwater quality: provision of better quality drinking water; unconventional methods of recharge... 3: Groundwater management: micro-scale interventions enough; regulation to protect / incentivize initiative…
  28. 28. In conclusion • Typology at “right” scale. • Groundwater typology – Hydrogeological (specific to geology and problems) – Socio-economic: stages of development – Ecological: recognition of precise role of groundwater on macro-ecology. • Groundwater management – Spatial: hydrogeological & ecological – Temporal: sociological (and economic) – Responses: where to do what and when…

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