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Fluoride in water_India Water Portal_2011


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Contamination of groundwater, symptoms and effect of fluoride on health, fluorosis_A look at fluoride in water

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Fluoride in water_India Water Portal_2011

  1. 1. Fluoride in Water
  2. 2. Surface Water Is what you see in rivers, lakes, streams etc.
  3. 3. Groundwater is water that is found in aquifers below the surface of the Earth. To get groundwater, one must dig wells or borewells. Groundwater
  4. 4. Water pollution of surface water bodies is visible in many places
  5. 5. But is groundwater clean?
  6. 6. When water seeps into the ground, it dissolves different substances depending on the type of soil and rock that it flows through. Groundwater can get polluted naturally
  7. 7. Some of these substances like fluoride compounds can be harmful to health, if amounts greater than permissible limits are ingested over long periods of time. Natural pollution is a non-point source of pollution
  8. 8. The Bureau of Indian Standards states that in drinking water, fluoride levels are 0 0.5 mg/l 1.0 mg/l 1.5 mg/l 2.0 mg/l Desirable Permissible
  9. 9. Fluoride <ul><li>Low levels of fluoride in drinking water (0.5 to 1 mg/l) protect against dental caries </li></ul><ul><li>High levels of fluoride in drinking water (above 1.5 mg/l) will lead to adverse health impacts ranging from dental fluorosis to skeletal fluorosis </li></ul><ul><li>Fluoride levels in water beyond desirable / permissible limits is typically found in groundwater and not surface water </li></ul>
  10. 10. Fluorosis ©Ruhani Kaur/UNICEF India 19 states in India have groundwater that is rich in fluoride Dental Fluorosis Skeletal Fluorosis Excess fluoride in the body (above 1.5 – 2 ppm)
  11. 11. Other symptoms <ul><li>Fatigue </li></ul><ul><li>Low hemoglobin count </li></ul><ul><li>Irritation </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of appetite </li></ul><ul><li>Excessive thirst and urination </li></ul><ul><li>Miscarriage </li></ul><ul><li>Inability to conceive due to defective sperm </li></ul><ul><li>Depression </li></ul>
  12. 12. Impacts of skeletal fluorosis <ul><li>Loss of livelihood since affected persons cannot work </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of income </li></ul><ul><li>High medical costs </li></ul><ul><li>Poverty </li></ul><ul><li>Social outcasts since facilities for the handicapped are lacking in India </li></ul>
  13. 13. Fluoride levels in groundwater are higher than permissible limits in 19 states of India
  14. 14. Over 6.6 crore Indians are affected by fluorosis Mild fluorosis Moderate/severe fluorosis
  15. 15. What can be done?
  16. 16. Where fluoride in water is between 1.5 to 2.0mg/l, avoid: Canned fish Dental products such as fluoridated toothpaste & mouth wash Products containing black salt (kalanamak)
  17. 17. Eat more of fruits and vegetables rich in Vitamin C, Iron and Calcium Orange Lemon Guava Gooseberry (Amla) Tomato Grapefruit Almonds Apple Brinjal Banana Beetroot Spinach Coriander leaves
  18. 18. In all fluoride affected areas, recharge the groundwater with rainwater Harvest rainwater Recharge groundwater
  19. 19. Thank you!