Innovative participatory community managed drinking water delivery approach in rural areas of Gujarat


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Presentation and Case Studies by WASMO (Water and Sanitation Management Organization)

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Innovative participatory community managed drinking water delivery approach in rural areas of Gujarat

  1. 1. Water and Sanitation Management Organisation Innovative participatory community managed drinking water delivery approach in rural areas of Gujarat
  2. 2. Overview of drinking water sector <ul><li>Uneven water availability in the State ( Cum/ person/ annum) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>India 2,000 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gujarat 1,137 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>South & Central Gujarat 1,932 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>North Gujarat 342 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Saurashtra 734 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Kutch 875 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Except South Gujarat, paucity of water in rest of the State </li></ul><ul><li>Drinking water scarcity felt in almost 2/3 rd part of the State </li></ul>Freshwater availability
  3. 3. Drought prone areas Supply through railways Supply through tankers Quality Problems – Fluorosis,Salinity, Nitrate Problem Areas
  4. 4. Water Quality Problems <ul><li>25 out of 26 districts fluoride affected </li></ul><ul><li>Long coastline & Gulf – salinity ingress </li></ul><ul><li>Quality problem habitations - 7675 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fluoride - 4187 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Salinity - 2508 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nitrate - 1335 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hills and Low recharge </li></ul><ul><li>Excessive exploitation of ground water </li></ul><ul><li>Recurrent Droughts </li></ul>Seasonal Scarcity Salinity Nitrate Fluoride Seasonal Scarcity Salinity Nitrate Fluoride
  5. 5. Shifts in Paradigm <ul><li>Ground Water to Surface Water </li></ul><ul><ul><li>State wide Drinking Water Grid for Drought </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>proofing and Sustainability </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Role of Governance from Provider to Facilitator </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Empowerment of Panchayati Raj Institutions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>by Capacity Building — Mission Mode </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sustainability of local sources </li></ul>
  6. 6. Statewide Water Supply Grid
  7. 7. WASMO as an Institution <ul><ul><li>Creation of Autonomous entity set by the GoG in 2002 as a Special Purpose Vehicle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>As a Knowledge Resource Centre </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Divisions for community mobilisation, training, engineering, hydrogeology, water quality, communication, documentation, funding, monitoring and evaluation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Young professionals on contracts and deputation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Guidance by senior sector players </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Strong partnerships with 75 NGOs (GO-NGO partnership) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continuous capacity building of team and NGO’s staff for common goals </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Capacity building for Community, which plans, implements, operates and maintains in-village water supply system. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Orientation to community-based action </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Construction planning and monitoring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Financial management, including bank procedures </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Record keeping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water quality surveillance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operation and maintenance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal and community sanitation and hygiene </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Detailed manuals & forms along with the resources are also provided </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Technical support for development of Village Action Plan, selection of appropriate options, work execution and quality assurance </li></ul><ul><li>Ensuring regular fund flow so that the work is not hampered </li></ul><ul><li>Concurrent evaluation and revisiting of project villages </li></ul>Facilitation by WASMO
  9. 9. Developing a culture of transparency <ul><li>Formal agreement between WASMO & Pani Samiti </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity building for financial management </li></ul><ul><li>Transparency measures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Community contribution (register & receipt book maintained) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Issuing of tender notice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Vendors rate for each important supply </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>All plans, sanctions and final expenditures put before the Gram Sabha for review, discussion and changes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A display board giving details of the scheme, item-wise budget & expenditure is placed at a prominent place in the village </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Audit (recovery of unspent fund without much dispute) </li></ul>
  10. 10. Developing Partnership Networks - NGOs as Implementation Support Agencies <ul><li>Partnership with 75 NGOs as Implementation Support Agency is purpose driven, focused on demand driven approach. </li></ul><ul><li>Networks are far more 'work' than 'net'. </li></ul><ul><li>Partnership networks are based on institutional commitment wherein accountability, continuity and commitment of resources are assured. </li></ul><ul><li>Networks built on expertise, not mere interest. </li></ul><ul><li>Partnerships have been built on credibility of ISAs </li></ul><ul><li>Aimed at developing and strengthening capacity in all the member partners </li></ul>WORKING as a SINGLE TEAM
  11. 11. Outreach and scaling up No. of VWSCs -13980 (75% of total villages) Total funds allocated to villages – Rs. 882.54 mn. Projects completed -4109 Community contribution – Rs. 83.83 mn. No of projects in progress – 3800 No. of women headed committees - 2800 Tariff structures institutionalised -3123 No. of women in the committees – 42,700
  12. 12. Water Quality Emphasis <ul><li>Water Quality team formed: 14216 out of 18359 villages </li></ul><ul><li>Field test kits distributed : 13904 kits & 11,72,500 H 2 S vials </li></ul><ul><li>Water Quality team formed: 14216 out of 18359 villages </li></ul><ul><li>Field test kits distributed : 13904 kits & 11,72,500 H 2 S vials </li></ul><ul><li>No. of Gram Mitras involved and trained : 21,625 </li></ul><ul><li>No. of water samples collected & tested: 1,10,522 </li></ul><ul><li>No. of Trainings conducted:17456 (125167 participants trained) </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>Water security implies supply that is </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adequate - year round drinking water needs are met (human beings and livestock) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regular – availability of water is certain (even if it is at fixed intervals and times) and as close as possible to the premise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Safe – free from bacteriological and chemical contamination and safe for human consumption </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Holistic approach for water security </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple sources of water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dual supply – conjunctive use of piped supply and local sources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exploring various technological options and integration with local wisdom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>User participation in water quality surveillance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>User friendly technologies for ease of O&M </li></ul></ul>Water security - A holistic Approach
  14. 14. <ul><li>Roof top rain water harvesting – individual and groups </li></ul><ul><li>Community managed Reverse Osmosis systems </li></ul><ul><li>Community managed solar pumping systems (remote areas not electrified, for regulating use of water) </li></ul><ul><li>Revival of traditional systems like Vavs </li></ul><ul><li>24/7 water service delivery systems </li></ul><ul><li>Direct pumping eliminating ESR </li></ul><ul><li>Gravity based schemes (spring based systems) </li></ul><ul><li>Innovations for equitable distribution </li></ul><ul><li>Cluster storage systems </li></ul><ul><li>Waste water use- Excess water in trough and then to soak pit </li></ul><ul><li>Waste water use for kitchen garden and even sold for agriculture </li></ul><ul><li>Different cattle troughs for big & small cattle </li></ul>RO plant at Kharaghoda RRWHS among groups Revival of step-wells Innovations for sustainability
  15. 15. Diversion of rain water in tubewell benefitted water supply to five villages of Rapar taluka Village pond area: 26550 Sq. M Village pond capacity: 31860 M 3 Recharging tube wells: 2 x 53 M depth, 250 mm dia Diversion wall: 355 m length Total cost of works: Rs. 6,97,000/- Case Study: Village Ramvav, Taluka Rapar, Kutch
  16. 16. Recharging Tube well - Ramvav
  17. 17. Diversion Channel- Ramvav
  18. 18. <ul><li>Drinking water supply depends on RWSS, supply was irregular and inadequate </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple approaches adopted to ensure sustainability of drinking water source and economic use of source </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creation of local sources i.e. open well near rain fed nallah </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Construction of one small check-dam to strengthen the local source </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Replacing diesel pump by solar pumping system </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Impact: </li></ul><ul><li>Use of solar pumps allows only limited quantity of water i.e. 20,000 lts. to be lifted and distributed in the village </li></ul><ul><li>Limited withdrawal of ground water, static water level maintained </li></ul><ul><li>Quality of drinking water has considerably improved </li></ul><ul><li>Cost of operation of pumping system is negligible </li></ul>Case Study: Kandhay village, Kutch
  19. 19. Small check dam for strengthening the local sources – Kandhay, Taluka Abdasa
  20. 20. Solar pumping for limited withdrawal of ground water Kandhay, Taluka Abdasa
  21. 21. Case Study: Godhra village, Taluka Mandvi, Kutch Water sanctuary <ul><li>Village population 3700 </li></ul><ul><li>Situated in coastal belt - Inherent salinity in ground water </li></ul><ul><li>Construction of percolation tank 250 Ha. Catchment area </li></ul><ul><li>Tank protected with fencing to restrict entry of cattle </li></ul><ul><li>Water used only for drinking purposes </li></ul><ul><li>Social forestry taken up in the village - 7 lakh plantations </li></ul><ul><li>Water filtered and pumped to village distribution system </li></ul><ul><li>Tank helped in dilution of salinity in water sources in the vicinity </li></ul><ul><li>Village is self-reliant for their drinking water source </li></ul><ul><li>Assured and safe water availability even in 3 consecutive drought years </li></ul>
  22. 22. Percolation Tank Village : Godhara, Tal. Mandvi
  23. 23. <ul><li>Water use for irrigation by farmers </li></ul><ul><li>Stress on source and drinking water source got dry </li></ul><ul><li>Women’s group intervention </li></ul><ul><li>Decision taken to extract water at a 3 feet depth (mark indicated on tank) </li></ul><ul><li>Once water reaches marked level, should be protected for drinking purpose </li></ul><ul><li>This ensured availability of water in hand-pumps and bore-wells in summer also </li></ul>Case Study: Water use regulation by the community Dhamrasala village, Surendranagar
  24. 24. <ul><li>Three historical ponds, interlinked with one another for maintaining water table for drinking, domestic use and for cattle drinking purpose </li></ul><ul><li>Water use regulation since 300 years religiously followed by the community </li></ul><ul><li>Rules for protecting the ponds from any kind of contamination / pollution </li></ul>Case Study: Traditional water use regulation by the community - Tera village, Kutch district Interlinking of ponds
  25. 25. Check Dam - Raydhanjar
  26. 26. Check Dam - Jambudi
  27. 27. Under Ground Check Dam - Kanakpar
  28. 28. Percolation Tank – Kalyanpar (Khadir)
  29. 29. Increasing Storage Capacity of Pond- Veera
  30. 30. Check Dam Village : Varli Tal. Bhuj
  31. 31. Check Dam Village : Lakhagadh Tal. Rapar
  32. 32. Percolation Tank Village : Kalyanpar Tal. Bhachau
  33. 33. Community RO plants <ul><li>2508 habitations suffer from high salinity in ground water </li></ul><ul><li>Community RO plants a feasible technology option to ensure safe drinking water </li></ul><ul><li>Community RO plants to be owned, managed and maintained by Pani Samiti </li></ul><ul><li>Govt provides 90% assistance on capital cost including civil works as well as 1 st year O&M cost </li></ul><ul><li>10% capital cost is shared by the community and 100% O&M cost from 2 nd year onward </li></ul><ul><li>50 plants have been installed </li></ul><ul><li>Arrangement also exists to install RO plants on “Build, Own’ Operate and Transfer (BOOT)” basis under which the firms make capital investment, operate and maintain RO plants to supply safe drinking water to the community at fixed price. </li></ul>
  34. 34. <ul><li>Set up at Shirva village in Mandvi, Kutch </li></ul>
  35. 35.
  36. 36. Other initiatives <ul><li>Maintenance of registers at village level for recording supply, quality, regularity etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Proactive feedback mechanism for tail end villages in various schemes </li></ul><ul><li>E-tendering </li></ul><ul><li>Metering of Water Supply at Villages </li></ul><ul><li>Performance evaluation of various RWSS to study their efficiency and user satisfaction through independent professional organisations </li></ul>
  37. 37. <ul><li>Household connections have been covered from 15% to 50%. The house connectivity from bare 3% has reached to 15%. </li></ul><ul><li>Women’s drudgery has been reduced. </li></ul><ul><li>Water conflict has come to naught and community harmony is promoted . </li></ul><ul><li>Time of village community specially women and children has been saved and now utilised for creative and income generating activities. </li></ul><ul><li>Water related diseases have been reduced. </li></ul><ul><li>Human Development Index (HDI) has been increased. </li></ul>Impact
  38. 39. Evaluation of Sector Reform Pilot project (by Directorate of Evaluation, GoG) <ul><li>Contribution paid by > 87% persons </li></ul><ul><li>Water Tax paid by > 98.26% persons regularly </li></ul><ul><li>Tariff per person average Rs.114.27 (Govt. Tariff Rs.14 per person) </li></ul><ul><li>Work appreciated in 99% cases </li></ul><ul><li>Grievance redressal quick in 99.6% villages </li></ul><ul><li>Enough Funds in 41 out of 53 committees </li></ul><ul><li>Force of water supply good in 52 out of 53 villages </li></ul><ul><li>Saving of appreciable time due to scheme </li></ul>
  39. 40. Problems in fetching water - Pre and Post ERR Impact on women's life (Intern from Rural Management - 2006)
  40. 41. Community involvement
  41. 42. Changing landscapes
  42. 43. Changing lives Thank you