Chapter SixSexuality in Childhood andAdolescence
Sexuality Throughoutthe Life Cycle  From the moment we are born, we are rich in   sexual and erotic potential  As childr...
Sexual Needs in Infancy  Humans are capable of experiencing   sensual and sexual pleasure from birth to   death.  Infant...
Sexuality in Infancy   Psychosexual development begins    in infancy     Learning begins on gender roles, how      we sh...
Sexual Responses in Infants  Erections begin in infancy for males  By 10 months of age infants   frequently explore thei...
Sexuality in Childhood  Children become aware of sex and sexuality   earlier than most people realize    Curiosity and e...
Sexual Responses In Children   Self-exploration is normal and will facilitate      healthy sexuality. It should not be con...
The Family Context  Family styles of physical expression and   feelings about modesty, privacy, and   nudity vary  Famil...
Childhood Victimization  Leads to a variety of negative health   & behavioral consequences:     Prostitution     Promis...
Sexuality in Adolescence  Puberty: stage of development when   body is capable of reproduction  Adolescence: the psychol...
Puberty in Girls  Pubertal changes generally begin   between ages 7 and 14      Growth spurt      Breast development   ...
Puberty in Boys  Pubertal changes generally begin   between ages 9 and 16      Growth spurt      Deepening voice      ...
Influences on SexualDevelopment  Parents    Learn through observing parents’ behavior    Does not generalize to sexual ...
Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, andQuestioning Adolescents    Many people experience sexual fantasies     concerning members of s...
Gay, Lesbian, BisexualAdolescents    Often experience adolescence as a time of great     emotional pain       Face haras...
Adolescent Sexual Behavior Hormones bring about a dramatic increase in  sexual interest Masturbation becomes more freque...
First Intercourse  Many individuals experience regret later   in life regarding their first intercourse  Alcohol use is ...
Teen Pregnancy  Rates of pregnancy and abortion in the   U.S. are at their lowest in 60 years  Global pregnancy rates ar...
Teen Mothers  High likelihood of living at or below   poverty levels  Increase in teen mothers being   unmarried  Ethni...
Teen Fathers    Incidence is lower than teen mothers    Difficult to contribute support for children    Social support ...
Sexuality Education  Most teenagers have pressing concerns   about sexuality  Most parents favor sexuality education   f...
Sexuality Education: Types   Abstinence-based   Abstinence-only   Abstinence-only-until-marriage   Comprehensive
Characteristics of EffectiveSexuality Education Programs  A focus on reducing risky behaviors (those   which lead to unin...
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  • Strong6 ppt ch06

    1. 1. Chapter SixSexuality in Childhood andAdolescence
    2. 2. Sexuality Throughoutthe Life Cycle  From the moment we are born, we are rich in sexual and erotic potential  As children, the world around us shapes our views of our bodies, gender, and sexuality  As adolescents, our education continues as learning and yearning  As adults, we develop a potentially mature sexuality which is continually re-interpreted as we age
    3. 3. Sexual Needs in Infancy  Humans are capable of experiencing sensual and sexual pleasure from birth to death.  Infants thrive when….  Physical bonding is established early.  They are breastfed.  They are picked up gently and spoken to softly.  Other forms of physical touch are present (kissing and holding).  Harry Harlow’s research  Attachment
    4. 4. Sexuality in Infancy  Psychosexual development begins in infancy  Learning begins on gender roles, how we should feel about our bodies  Learning about affectionate touch: Infants need stroking and cuddling  Psychosexual stages from Chapter 5
    5. 5. Sexual Responses in Infants  Erections begin in infancy for males  By 10 months of age infants frequently explore their genitals  Patterns of sexual dysfunction can develop due to unmet sexual needs
    6. 6. Sexuality in Childhood  Children become aware of sex and sexuality earlier than most people realize  Curiosity and exploration of their own (and other children’s) bodies  Masturbation is normal  About 40% of woman and 38% of men in one study remember masturbating before puberty. Children become aware of sex and sexuality earlier than most people realize  Important for children to know proper names and functions of genitals
    7. 7. Sexual Responses In Children Self-exploration is normal and will facilitate healthy sexuality. It should not be condoned. Negative reinforcement of a behavior that is pleasurable, creates confusing and mixed messages.  By age 3, children understand the concept of public versus private behavior.  Children 6-12 years understand the difference between masculine and feminine.
    8. 8. The Family Context  Family styles of physical expression and feelings about modesty, privacy, and nudity vary  Families communicate implicit messages about sexuality to children through their expression and feelings
    9. 9. Childhood Victimization  Leads to a variety of negative health & behavioral consequences:  Prostitution  Promiscuity  Teenage pregnancy
    10. 10. Sexuality in Adolescence  Puberty: stage of development when body is capable of reproduction  Adolescence: the psychological state of puberty  A time of growth and confusion  Body matures faster than emotional and intellectual capabilities
    11. 11. Puberty in Girls  Pubertal changes generally begin between ages 7 and 14  Growth spurt  Breast development  Pubic and underarm hair  Vaginal secretions  Menarche
    12. 12. Puberty in Boys  Pubertal changes generally begin between ages 9 and 16  Growth spurt  Deepening voice  Muscle-mass growth  Pubic, underarm, and facial hair  Penis and testicles grow and develop  Ejaculation of semen
    13. 13. Influences on SexualDevelopment  Parents  Learn through observing parents’ behavior  Does not generalize to sexual orientation  Peers  Share information/misinformation  Create expectancy  Media  Significant exposure and influence
    14. 14. Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, andQuestioning Adolescents  Many people experience sexual fantasies concerning members of same sex  Does not always indicate a homosexual or bisexual orientation  3-10% of teenagers begin to come to terms with same-sex attraction during adolescence  Few feel like they can talk to parents  May be engaged in heterosexual dating and sex
    15. 15. Gay, Lesbian, BisexualAdolescents  Often experience adolescence as a time of great emotional pain  Face harassment  More likely to have attempted suicide  More likely to have been absent from school out of fear for safety  Many teens of color with same-sex attraction face the additional burden of gayness being understood as “white,” and face rejection by their ethnic and racial peers  More counseling and support services are now available in some areas to support teens
    16. 16. Adolescent Sexual Behavior Hormones bring about a dramatic increase in sexual interest Masturbation becomes more frequent First intercourse  In the U.S., the average age for men’s first intercourse is 16.9, and women’s is 17.4 years  Rates of first intercourse in high school are decreasing  Contraceptive use in this age group is increasing  1/3 of sexually active young women become pregnant once before the age of 20  Teens view sex within a relationship as acceptable
    17. 17. First Intercourse  Many individuals experience regret later in life regarding their first intercourse  Alcohol use is a predictor of sexual activity  Poor parental supervision is a predictor of sexual activity  Socioeconomic status
    18. 18. Teen Pregnancy  Rates of pregnancy and abortion in the U.S. are at their lowest in 60 years  Global pregnancy rates are rising  Difficult time in life to be pregnant due to restricted resources  Infants of teens have heightened risk of health problems
    19. 19. Teen Mothers  High likelihood of living at or below poverty levels  Increase in teen mothers being unmarried  Ethnic differences in teen mothers  Higher risk of abuse  Special needs for social services
    20. 20. Teen Fathers  Incidence is lower than teen mothers  Difficult to contribute support for children  Social support  Ethnic Differences
    21. 21. Sexuality Education  Most teenagers have pressing concerns about sexuality  Most parents favor sexuality education for their children  The subject remains controversial  Vocal opposition  Controversy over homosexuality, contraception, and condom instruction
    22. 22. Sexuality Education: Types Abstinence-based Abstinence-only Abstinence-only-until-marriage Comprehensive
    23. 23. Characteristics of EffectiveSexuality Education Programs  A focus on reducing risky behaviors (those which lead to unintended pregnancy or infection)  A basis in proven theoretical approaches  A strong, clear stance on risky behavior  Providing accurate information about risks and methods  Addressing social pressures  Helping participants personalize course content

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