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International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications (IJERA) is an open access online peer reviewed international journal that publishes research and review articles in the fields of Computer Science, Neural Networks, Electrical Engineering, Software Engineering, Information Technology, Mechanical Engineering, Chemical Engineering, Plastic Engineering, Food Technology, Textile Engineering, Nano Technology & science, Power Electronics, Electronics & Communication Engineering, Computational mathematics, Image processing, Civil Engineering, Structural Engineering, Environmental Engineering, VLSI Testing & Low Power VLSI Design etc.

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Ih3314181422

  1. 1. Nakate A.V., Prashant Pawar / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications(IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.comVol. 3, Issue 3, May-Jun 2013, pp.1418-14221418 | P a g e“Design and Development of Semi-Active Beams Based onEmbedded Magneto-Rheological Fluid Dampers”Nakate A.V.*, Prashant Pawar*** (Department of Mechanical, S.V.E.R.I. COE Pandharpur, India)** (Department of Civil, S.V.E.R.I. COE Pandharpur, India)ABSTRACT:There are two types of vibrationcontrolling strategies which are passive strategiesand active strategies. But one modified strategywas developed known as semi-active vibrationcontrol strategy. MR phenomenon was studied.Need of these semi-active devices was explained.Economical, durable and robust MR damper wasdeveloped. MR fluid filled beam and MR fluidwas prepared. Two types of composite beams aredeveloped and experimented by varying thedimensions of beams, iron particle percentage inmagnetorheological fluid, magnetic field atdifferent excitation current. For this compositebeam with increase in magnetic field, dampingwas increased and the frequency shift wasobserved. Also change in amplitude of vibrationwas observed.Keywords: Amplitude, Damping, Magnetic field,MR phenomenonI. INTRODUCTIONModern industry has a great need ofadvanced damping system which could dissipateenergy from the random vibration to improvestructural safety and system performance. Most ofthe existing systems are equipped with the passivedamping system because of its simplicity inreflecting or absorbing part of input energy withoutany power requirement. Another important vibrationreduction approach is the semi-active system whichtakes advantages of both the passive and activedamping systems. Magneto Rheological (MR)dampers and Electro Rheological (ER) dampers arethe two main examples of this approach. Howeverdue to various advantages of MR dampers over ERdampers, MR dampers are getting more attention.MR dampers are the same as classical dampersexcept the fluid used in the damper. This fluid iscalled as MR fluid. MR damper fluids are relativelynew semi-active devices that utilize MR fluids toprovide controllable damping forces. MR dampersare one of the most promising control devices forengineering applications because they have manyadvantages such as small power requirement,reliability and low price to manufacture. MR fluidsare always better than ER fluids. MR fluids hadmore yield strength than ER fluids. Operatingtemperature range is also high for MR fluids ascompared to ER fluids. Power supply needed forMR fluids is very less than ER fluids. As per abovecomparison between MR fluids & ER fluids we cansay that MR fluids are always better than ER fluids.Semi-active devices are capable ofcharging the properties as per requirement withminimum power requirement and less complicateddesign as compared to the active devices. This helpsin reducing the manufacturing and operating cost ascompared with active devices. Most of the semi-active devices are based on the fluids withrheological properties such as Electro Rheological(ER) and Magneto Rheological (MR) fluids. Due tovarious advantages, semi-active vibration reductiondevices are becoming popular in variousapplications in automobile, mechanical, civil andaerospace engineering. These fluids can providesignificant and rapid changes in the dampingproperties with application of an magnetic field.With the extensive research on MR fluidsand MR dampers, researchers have shifted focus ondevelopment of MR fluid based applications.However lot of work is needed in the developmentof semi-active beams which will have enormousapplications. Main focus of MR based beam wasbased on MR elastomer based beams which helpedin achieving variable stiffness along with variabledamping. Recently, few researchers have starteddeveloping sandwich beams based on the MR fluids.To overcome these shortcomings, this workfocuses on developing beams based on thePrinciples equivalent to MR fluid dampers. In thisstudy, various configurations of MR dampers willbe embedded in the beams and their damping andstiffness performance will be studied.In the present study, two types of cantileversandwich MR beams are fabricated and thesevibration responses under varying magnetic fieldsare studied. In the first type free and forcedvibration response of aluminium sandwich beam ispresented. The comparison of partially treatedaluminium beam against the fully filled beam isevaluated. In the second type composite cylindricalMR sandwich beam subjected to forced vibrations isstudied. It consists of an external stainless steel pipewith end mass, an inner interchangeable rod (ofdifferent diameter and material) and sandwich layerof MR fluid. Results showed that under increasedmagnetic field vibration controllability of cantileverbeams is improved in turns of variations of vibration
  2. 2. Nakate A.V., Prashant Pawar / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications(IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.comVol. 3, Issue 3, May-Jun 2013, pp.1418-14221419 | P a g eamplitudes and shift of peaks in resonant naturalfrequencies.II. LITRATURE REVIEWCarlson et al. [1] discovered thatControllable magnetorheological (MR) fluid deviceshad reached the stage where they were incommercial production. Such devices had foundapplication in a variety of real world situationsranging from active vibration control to aerobicexercise equipment. Examples of several,commercial MR fluid devices were described andthe comparative ability of MR and ER fluids to meetthe needs of particles devices was discussed.According to Karakocet et al. [2], designconsiderations for building an automotive magneto-rheological(MR) brake were discussed. Theproposed brake consists of multiple rotating disksimmersed in a MR fluid and an enclosedelectromagnet. When current was applied to theelectromagnet, the MR fluid solidifies as its yieldstress varies as a function of the magnetic fieldapplied. This controllable yield stress producedshear friction on the rotating disks, generating thebraking torque. In this work, practical design criteriasuch as material selection, sealing, working surfacearea, viscous torque generation, applied currentdensity, and MR fluid selection were considered toselect a basic automotive MR brake configuration.Then, a finite element analysis was performed toanalyze the resulting magnetic circuit and heatdistribution within the MR brake configuration. Thiswas followed by a multidisciplinary designoptimization (MDO) procedure to obtain optimaldesign parameters that can generate the maximumbraking torque in the brake. A prototype MR brakewas then built and tested and the experimentalresults showed a good correlation with the finiteelement simulation predictions. However, thebraking torque generated was still far less than thatof a conventional hydraulic brake, which indicatedthat a radical change in the basic brakeconfiguration was required to build a feasibleautomotive MR brake.Pan et al. [3] developed analytical model ofa magnetorheological damper and its application tothe vibration control. Magnetorheological (MR)fluid and its damper had received a great deal ofattention in the recent years. It was very useful forthis MR controllable damper in the vibration controlsystem, especially as a semi-active control device.To develop the control algorithms that takemaximum advantage of the unique features of theMR damper, a model was needed to be developedthat can adequately characterize the damper intrinsicbehavior. Following a review of three mechanicalmodels for MR damper the effect of these models onthe vibration control was analyzed in a one-degree-of-freedom system. Numerical simulations wereperformed when the MR damper was used as thepassive type damper on-off type damper and quasi-skyhook type damper. The results show that themodels were less affecting the vibration controlperformance, and the MR damper appears the bestcontrol performance in the quasi-skyhook type.Vibration analysis of a multi-layer beamcontaining magnetorheological fluid by Rajmohan etal. [4] exhibited rapid variations in their rheologicalproperties when subjected to varying magnetic fieldand thus offered superior potential for applicationsin smart structures requiring high bandwidth. MRsandwich structures could apply distributed controlforce to yield variations in stiffness and dampingproperties of the structure in response to theintensity of the applied magnetic field and couldthus provided vibration suppression over a broadrange of external excitation frequencies. This studyinvestigated the properties of a multi-layered beamwith MR fluid as a sandwich layer between the twolayers of the continuous elastic structure. Thegoverning equations of a multi-layer MR beam wereformulated in the finite element form and using theRitz method. A free oscillation experiment wasperformed to estimate the relationship between themagnetic field and the complex shear modulus ofthe MR materials in the pre-yield regime. Thevalidity of the finite element and Ritz formulationsdeveloped was examined by comparing the resultsfrom the two models with those from theexperimental investigation. Various parametricstudies had been performed in terms of variations ofthe natural frequencies and loss factor as functionsof the applied magnetic field and thickness of theMR fluid layer for various boundary conditions. Theforced vibration responses of the MR sandwichbeam were also evaluated under harmonic forceexcitation. The results illustrated that the naturalfrequencies could be increased by increasing themagnetic field while the magnitudes of the peakdeflections could be considerably decreased, whichdemonstrated the vibration suppression capability ofthe MR sandwich beam.Vibration analysis of a partially treatedmulti-layer beam with magnetorheological fluid byRajmohan et al. [5] suggested that semi-activevibration control based on magnetorheological (MR)materials offered excellent potential for highbandwidth control through rapid variations in therheological properties of the fluid under varyingmagnetic field. Such fluids may be convenientlyapplied to partial or more critical components of alarge structure to realize more efficient and compactvibration control mechanism with variable damping.This study investigated the properties and vibrationresponses of a partially treated multi-layer MR fluidbeam. The governing equations of a partially treatedmulti-layered MR beam were formulated using
  3. 3. Nakate A.V., Prashant Pawar / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications(IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.comVol. 3, Issue 3, May-Jun 2013, pp.1418-14221420 | P a g efinite element method and Ritz formulation. Theresults showed that the natural frequencies andtransverse displacement response of the partiallytreated MR beams were strongly influenced not onlyby the intensity of the applied magnetic field, butalso by the location and the length of the fluidpocket. The application of partial treatment couldalso alter the deflection pattern of the beam,particularly the location of the peak deflection.III. ANALYSISMR sandwich cantilever beams of variousconfigurations were tested on the experimentalsetup. It consists of an exciter, oscillator, FFTanalyzer, fixture for holding the beams and softwarefor getting results. The experiments are organized inthree different sections.3.1 Aluminium plate beamMiddle filled aluminium plate cantileverbeam containing magnetorheological fluid with 50%iron particles was experimented. Without anyexternal magnetic field this beam was studied andalso studied the effect of external magnetic field onthe beam.Without any magnetic field the responseshowed higher amplitudes of vibration 2.17mm andit was observed that resonance frequency of thebeam was 30Hz. With further increase in magneticfield 500 gauss there was slight decrease inamplitude of vibration up to 1.55mm and resonancefrequency remained same to 28Hz.Figure 1 Aluminium plate beam middle filledTable 1 Displacement Response for DifferentExcitation Current without any Magnetic FieldFrequencyin HzCurrentin AmpDisplacementin mm240.60.74926 1.8228 2.0830 2.1732 1.0434 0.76936 0.478Table 2 Displacement Response for DifferentExcitation Current with Magnetic Field 550 gaussFrequencyin HzCurrentin AmpDisplacementin mm240.60.56026 1.0228 1.5530 1.0832 0.71534 0.47436 0.323Figure 2 Displacement Response Curve forAluminium Plate Beam Middle Filled and 50% IronParticles at Different Magnetic fields3.2 Cantilever Beam with 0.5mm gap (innerdiameter of steel cylinder was 17mm and outerdiameter wooden of rod was 16mm) andMagnetorheological fluid with 30% iron particleMR sandwich beam was assembled tomaintain 0.5mm gap and fitted on the fixture fortesting. Tests were conducted at differentfrequencies and different currents and thedisplacements were obtained for various magneticfields.Figure 3 Experimental setup for MR sandwich beamwith applied magnetic fieldTable 3 Displacement Response for DifferentExcitation Current without any Magnetic Field012324 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40Without AnyMagneticFieldWithMagneticField 500gaussFrequencyin HzCurrentin AmpDisplacementin mm240.90.56426 0.76128 1.0430 2.1332 5.2434 1.5836 0.896
  4. 4. Nakate A.V., Prashant Pawar / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications(IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.comVol. 3, Issue 3, May-Jun 2013, pp.1418-14221421 | P a g eTable 4 Displacement Response for DifferentExcitation Current with Magnetic Field 600 gaussFrequencyin HzCurrentin AmpDisplacementin mm240.90.62426 0.81828 1.0830 2.5232 3.6534 1.2936 0.938Without any magnetic field the responseshowed higher amplitudes of vibration 5.24mm andit was observed that response frequency of the beamwas 32Hz. With further increase in magnetic field600 gauss there was slight decrease in amplitude ofvibration up to 3.65mm and resonance frequencyremained same to 32Hz.Figure 4 Displacement Response Curve for Beamwith Wooden Rod having Field Gap 0.5mm and30% Iron Particles at Different Magnetic fields3.3 Cantilever Beam with Metal Rod, Gap 0.5mm(inner diameter of steel cylinder was 17mm andouter diameter steel of rod was 16mm) andMagnetorheological Fluid at Various MagneticFieldsMR sandwich beam was assembled tomaintain 0.5mm gap and fitted on the fixture fortesting. Tests were conducted at differentfrequencies and different currents and thedisplacements were obtained for various magneticfields.Table 5 Displacement Response for DifferentExcitation Current without any Magnetic FieldFrequencyin HzCurrentin AmpDisplacementin mm160.90.40018 0.48720 0.67522 1.0824 3.2326 1.1428 0.480Without any magnetic field the responseshowed higher amplitudes of vibration 3.23mm andit was observed that resonance frequency of thebeam was 24Hz. With further increase in magneticfield 550 gauss there was considerable decrease inamplitude of vibration up to 2.46mm and resonancefrequency remained same to 24Hz.Table 6 Displacement Response for DifferentExcitation Current with Magnetic Field 550 gaussFrequencyin HzCurrentin AmpDisplacementin mm160.90.42418 0.55920 0.84122 1.4624 2.4626 1.0828 0.576Figure 5 Displacement Response Curve for Beamwith Metal Rod having Field Gap 0.5mm and 30%Iron Particles at Different Magnetic fieldsIV. CONCLUSIONAccording to the readings and relatedplotted graphs for aluminium plate beam middlefilled by varying intensities of applied magneticfield both change in frequency and damping wasobserved. Also with increase in magnetic fields theamplitude of vibrations reduced. It was observedthat for steel cylinder and wooden rod compositebeam with increase in magnetic field, damping wasincreased. For steel cylinder and steel rod compositebeam also damping was increased with increasingmagnetic field. The structural vibrations can bereduced by using MR fluid filled beams with verysimple and economical arrangement. Also variabledamping can be obtained by varying thecompositions and the applied magnetic field.REFERENCES[1] Carlson J.D., Catenaries D.M., and St. ClairK.A. (1995) “CommercialMagnetorheological Fluid Devices,”Proceedings of 5th International Conference024624 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40Without AnyMagnetic FieldWith MagneticField 600 gauss00.511.522.533.50 20 40Without AnyMagneticFieldWithMagneticField 550gauss
  5. 5. Nakate A.V., Prashant Pawar / International Journal of Engineering Research and Applications(IJERA) ISSN: 2248-9622 www.ijera.comVol. 3, Issue 3, May-Jun 2013, pp.1418-14221422 | P a g eon ER Fluids, MR Fluids and AssociatedTechnologies, Sheffield.[2] Karakoc K., Park E.J. and Suleman A. (2008)“Design Considerations for an AutomotiveMagnetorheological Break.” Journal ofMechatronics, volume 18, pages 434-447.[3] Pan G., Matsuhisa H. and Houda Y. (2000),“Analytical Model of a MagnetorheologicalDamper and Its Application to The VibrationControl.” Paper from Industrial ElectronicsSociety 2000, IECON2000, 26thAnnualConference of the IEEE, volume 3, pages1850-1855.[4] Rajamohan V., Sedaghati R. and Rakheja S.(2010) “Vibration Analysis of MultilayerBeam Containing Magnetorheological Fluid.”Journal of Smart Materials and Structures,volume 19, issue 1, number 1,015013.[5] Rajamohan V., Sedaghati R. and Rakheja S.(2010) “Vibration Analysis of a PartiallyTreated Multilayer Beam withMagnetorheological Fluid.”Journal of Soundand Vibration, volume 329, pages 3451-3469.

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