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# Item analysis

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### Item analysis

1. 1. Item Analysis
2. 2. Item Analysis is a process of examining the student’s response to individual item in the test. It consists of different procedures for assessing the quality of the test items of the students
3. 3. There are two types of item analysis: - Quantitative Item Analysis - Qualitative Item Analysis
4. 4. Difficulty Index refers to the proportion of the number of students in the upper and lower groups who answered an item correctly.
5. 5. Difficulty Index Formula DF = n/N, where DF= difficulty index number of the students selecting item correctly in the upper group and lower group N= total number of students of students who answered the test n=
6. 6. Level of Difficulty Index Range Difficulty Level 0.00-0.20 Very Difficult 0.21-0.40 Difficult 0.41-0.60 0.61-0.80 Average/Moderately Difficult Easy 0.81-1.00 Very Easy
7. 7. Discrimination Index The power of the item to discriminate the students between those who scored high and those who scored low in the overall test.
8. 8. Types of Discrimination Index 1. Positive Discrimination 2. Negative Discrimination 3. Zero Discrimination
9. 9. Positive Discrimination happens when more students in the upper group got the item correctly than those students in the lower group.
10. 10. Negative Discrimination occurs when more students in the lower group got the item correctly than the students in the upper group
11. 11. Zero Discrimination happens when a number of students in the upper group and lower group who answer the test correctly are equal
12. 12. Levels of Discrimination Ebel (1986) and Hetzel (1997) Index Range Discrimination Level 0.19 and below Poor item, should be eliminated or needed to be revised Marginal item, needs some revision Reasonably good item but possibly for improvement Very good item 0.20- 0.29 0.30-0.39 0.40 and above
13. 13. Discrimination Index Formula DI = CUG - CLG /D , where DI = discrimination index value CUG = number of students selecting the correct answer in the upper group CLG = number of students selecting the correct answer in the lower group
14. 14. Analysis of Response Options Another way to evaluate the performance of the entire test item is through the analysis of the response options. It is very important to examine the performance of each option in a multiple-choice item.
15. 15. Distracter Analysis Distracter- term used for the incorrect options in the multiple-choice type of test while the correct answer represents the key
16. 16. Factors why students failed to get the correct answer in the given question: • It is not taught in the class properly. • It is ambiguous. • The correct answer is not in the given in the options. • It has more than one correct answer.
17. 17. Factors why students failed to get the correct answer in the given question: • It contains grammatical clues to mislead the students. • The student is not aware of the content. • The students were confused by the logic of the question because it has double negatives. • The student failed to study the lesson.
18. 18. Miskeyed Item The test item is a potential miskey if there are more students from the upper group who choose the incorrect options than the key.
19. 19. Guessing item Students from the upper group have equal spread of choices among the given alternatives. The students from the upper group guess their answers because of the following reasons: • the content of the test is not discussed in the class or in the test. • The item is very difficult. • The question is trivial. • Ambiguous item
20. 20. Ambiguous item This happens when more students from the upper group choose equally an incorrect option and the keyed answer.
21. 21. Qualitative Item Analysis is a process in which the teacher or expert carefully proofreads the test before it is administered. (Zurawski R.M.)
22. 22. Thank You And GodBless