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Context aware wireless sensor grid implementation for agriculture


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Context aware wireless sensor grid implementation for agriculture

  1. 1. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME332CONTEXT- AWARE WIRELESS SENSOR GRID IMPLEMENTATIONFOR AGRICULTUREJayant P. Pawar1, Dr. Prashant V. Ingole 2, Aparna R. Kadam31(Associate Professor, Dept of EXTC, Atharva College of Engineering, Mumbai, M.S, India)2(Principal, G.H.Raisoni college of Engineering and Management, Amravati, (M.S,)3( Asst.Professor, Dept of EXTC,Atharva college of Engineering,Mumbai(M.S, India)ABSTRACTContext aware computing means sensing the context and other input channels, takingsmart decisions and feedback tracking from the context [1] .Agriculture is a very rich contextaware domain and is a fundamental area of human society in which research anddevelopment has still a wide scope. Wireless sensor network (WNS) is the promisingtechnology for instrumentation and control. In this paper, context aware water irrigationsystem models have been developed and implemented using WNS and grid computing [7].The results clearly indicate the maintenance of moisture for long duration which helps in cropgrowth. Alternately, we can say, it reduces the water requirement in next watering processand helps to reduce the water requirement.Keywords: pyramid structure, Context –Awareness.I. INTRODUCTIONAgriculture is very important aspects of human society. The modern technologies likewireless sensor networks, grid computing, context-aware decision making systems areequally important to change the agricultural practices for better productivity. How to improvethe productivity and irrigation area in the available water is a good tread off.The smart decision in irrigation depends upon the ambient temperature, soiltemperature, and water holding capacity of the soil, humidity and types of crops. Growth andproductive status of crop are also deciding factors in irrigation.The wire free nature of WSN is suitable for agriculture. To measure the parametersrelated to irrigation and transmission of data over wireless channel, WSN is a good option.Context-awareness appears as a promising idea for increasing usability of web services.INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ELECTRONICS ANDCOMMUNICATION ENGINEERING & TECHNOLOGY (IJECET)ISSN 0976 – 6464(Print)ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online)Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April, 2013, pp. 332-337© IAEME: Impact Factor (2013): 5.8896 (Calculated by GISI)www.jifactor.comIJECET© I A E M E
  2. 2. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME333Context aware sensor network also makes energy efficient network which can helps in arriving ata smart decision in active agriculture process.Grid computing is a computer network in which each computers resources can be shared withevery other computer in the system. This technology is also useful in our system to take theadvantages of information technology for resources sharing and accessing the data word widelyThe integration of WSN, context aware computing and grid i.e. context aware sensor grid[1], add the precision and helps in the decision making and control processes in agriculture. Therest of the paper is organized as follows:In section II pyramid context aware model has been explained. Implementation of our system hasbeen explained in section III. Results are analyzed in section IV. The paper has been concluded insection V.II. PYRAMID -CONTEXT AWARE MODELLet the agriculture information space be represented as a concept pyramid with thevertices representing the various contexts of information retrieval [3]. The simple pyramidcontext aware model for water irrigation is shown in figure.Fig. 1 : Concept PyramidIn this information space the nature of query may be single dimension query, edge levelquery and space level query. The query is like “What is the soil type in this location?. ” so theclient is referring only the land context and the context point present exactly at the land vertex isthe single dimension query. In the edge level the client is requesting information regarding twocontexts at a time. e.g.- the query which crops are feasible for this particular water availability?So here the client refers to two contexts, crop and water and hence the context point is presentsomewhere on the edge connecting the crop and the water context. When the client needsinformation regarding three contexts simultaneously, it lies in space level. For example the queryhow much irrigation should be done for this particular crop in this particular soil?, has a contextpoint present in the concept space between land, crop and water contexts. The context migrationis shown in table 1.In some cases where land is not a major deciding factor or posses uniformproperties, or crop may be same, then we can replace this context by humidity.TABLE I. CONTEXT MIGRATION TABLEContext Point Context edge Context planeCrop CL,CT,CW (1,2,3) 1,2,3Land LT,LW,LC (4,6,1) 1,3,4Water WC,WT,WL (3,5,6) 2,3,4temp TC,TL,TW (2,4,6) 1,2,4
  3. 3. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME334III. IMPLEMENTATION OF CONTEXT AWARE SENSOR GRIDEA conceptual system layout of distributed infield WSN is illustrated in figure 2. Forsoil moisture measurement, the gypsum sensor is used. It absorbs the water and provides adecent range of resistance which is proportional to amount of moisture in the soil. In ourexperiment, we calibrate it from 40K ohm to 330K ohm in the range of zero to 100%moisture. To Measure the temperature, we have used LM35C while to measure the humiditywe used SY-HS230. To transfer these data wirelessly, we have used Zig Bee module X Bee[14] which outdoor range is 300 feet for 1mw transmit power. At computer side, module isconfigured as routers. Digi International [14] offers a convenient tool X- CTU forprogramming XBee module. With thisFig 2: System layout.Software, the user will be able to upgrade the firmware, update the parameters, andperform communication testing easily.In this implementation, we have embedded node to which the sensors are attached.The LPC2148 ARM microcontroller has built in ADC & DAC. All sensors readings areprocessed by ADC and then data is transferred by the Zigbee module, which is mounted onthe same board .Two such similar boards are used for different zones.Server PC is wirelessly connected to two nodes placed in the farm in two different zones.Sensors generates large amount of data. The data base designed in MS Access and nodescarry out data processing by embedded C language. The collected data is then processed, andanalyzed at the server node by the computer. Context algorithm and GUI is implemented inVisual Basic 6.0.The database can maintained and analyses for future use at some remote personalcomputer .To make current sampled data available at remote location it is uploaded oninternet using VB.NET. Thus data sharing principle of grid computing is implemented.ANSI C compiler used to generates the object code that matches the efficiency and speed ofassembly programming. This complier used to write microcontroller application in Clanguage. Extensions in compiler help full access to all resources of the microcontroller.The compiler translates C source files into relocatable object modules which containfull symbolic information for debugging with circuit emulator. In addition to the object file
  4. 4. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME335the compiler generates listing file which may optionally include symbol table and crossreference information.IV. RESULTS AND ANALYSISFigure 3 shows Graph 1, Graph 2, and graph3. In these graphs, temperature and soilmoister readings are showing on the middle of the bar, while they are at the time of beginning ofthe bar. Graph 1 shows the soil moister, temperature and irrigation on time with duration on 21stNovember, 2012 while Graph 2 shows reading from 5 PM to 12.30 AM. From these observationsit is cleared that, due to temperature rise soil moisture increases slowly during the irrigation, butafter sunset, soil moisture increases sharply in another test bead. So it is clear that if we controlthe irrigation according to temperature and soil moister, in the same amount of water we canextend the next irrigation. Graph 3 shows the reading on next day i.e. 22 November using anothertest bed having same soil and plant.On 22ndNovember we used another algorithm which used 25% soil moister as a triggering levelfor irrigation when temperature goes on or above the threshold level, here it is 30 degree Celsius.From Graph 3 it is cleared that, while we reduce the irrigation during high temperatureand adding that duration in next irrigation time i.e. when temperature goes below 30 degreeCelsius or soil moisture goes below 25%, at the end of the day soil moisture gets increased.
  5. 5. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME336Figure 3: Graph 1, Graph 2, Graph 3.V. CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORKFrom the above graphs we can conclude that context awareness help in designs making inprecise water irrigation process. Soil moister evaporation will be very fast if the system willtest in high temperature. Here we consider the minimum soil moister at 25% and it isadjustable as per the available water and need of the crop.Our future works will consider thecontext parameters and comparison of results for productive irrigation process.REFERENCES[1] Aqeel-Ur-Rehman And Zubair A. Shaikh, Towards Design Of Context-Aware SensorGrid Framework For Agriculture, To Appear In The Fifth International Conference OnInformation Technology (Icit 2008), Xxviii-Waset Conference, April 25 27, 2008, Rome, Italy.[2] W. Zhang, G. Kantor, And S. Singh, Integrated Wireless Sensor/Actuator Networks In AnAgricultural Application, In Proc. 2nd Acm Intl Conf. Embedded Networked Sensor Systems(Sensys 04), Acm Press, 2004, Pp.317.8[3] Prashant Ingole, Jayant Pawar, Hrishikesh Vhatkar,” Context Aware, Mobile PhoneBased Sink Model Of Wireless Sensor Network For Indian Agriculture, Advances InComputing,Communication And Control Communications In Computer And InformationSciences,Vol. 361,2013,Pp 301-308[4] P.V.Ingole ,J.P.Pawar,Role of information technology in global agro business, secondinternational conference at nirma institute of technology,1-4jan2000[5] Carlos De Morais Cordeiro, Dharma Prakash Agarwal, Adhoc Sensor Net-Works: TheoryAnd Applications World Scientific Publication.[6] Chandrasekaran S, Dipesh Dugar M, Jitendra Kumar Jain D,Kamlesh Jain S, DineshKumar Jain N. Context Aware Mobile Service Deployment Model Of Agricultural
  6. 6. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering & Technology (IJECET), ISSN0976 – 6464(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6472(Online) Volume 4, Issue 2, March – April (2013), © IAEME337Information System For Indian Farmers. 2010 International Journal Of ComputerApplications(0975-8887) Volume 1-No.29[7] Hock Beng Lim. Yong Meng Teo,Protik Mukharjee . Sensor Grid : Integration OfWireless Sensor Networks And The Grid, Proceeding Of The Ieee Conference On LocalComputer Networks 30th Anniversary[8] T. Pering, P. Zhang, R. Chaudhri, Y. Anokwa, And R. Want,The Psi Board: Realizing APhone-Centric Body Sensor Network, In Proc. 4th Bsn 2007, Germany.[9] D. Cavalcanti, C. Cordeir, D. Agarwal, B.Xie And Anup Kumar,Issues In IntegratingCellular Networks, Wlan And Manets: A Furturistic Heterogeneous Wireless Networks, IeeeWireless Communication, Iune 2005, Vol.12, No.3, Pp 30-41[10] Tapankumar Basu, Vijaya R. Thool, Ravindra C. Thool, And Anjali C. Birajdar,Computer Based Drip Irrigation Control System With Remote Data Acquisition System, InProc. 4th World Congress Conf. Computers In Agriculture And Natural Resources, Usa, July2006.[11] Y. Kim, R.G. Evans, And W. Iversen, Remote Sensing And Control Of IrrigationSystem Using A Distributed Wireless Sensor Network, Ieee Trans.Instrumentation AndMeasurement, 2007[12] A. Baggio, Wireless Sensor Networks in Precision Agriculture, In Proc. Acm WorkshopReal-World Wireless Sensor Networks, 2005.[13] T.Wark, P. Corke, P. Sikka, L. Klingbeil, Y Guo, C. Crossman, P. Valencia,And D.Swain, Transforming Agriculture Through Pervasive Wireless Sensor Networks, IeeePervasive Computing, Pp. 5057, April-June 2007.[14][15] Pimentel,Berger, et al. (October 2004)."Water resources: agricultural and environmentalissues".BioScience 54 (10): 909. doi:10.1641/0006-3568(2004)054[0909:WRAAEI]2.0.CO;2[16] Mr. Shrinivas R. Zanwar and Prof R. D. Kokate, “Advanced Agriculture System”International Journal of Advanced Research in Engineering & Technology (IJARET) Volume3, Issue 2, 2012, pp. 111 - 118, Issn Print: 0976-6480, Issn Online: 0976-6499[17] Naresh Kumar Reddy.Beechu, B.Siva Hari Prasad, B.Y.V.N.R.Swamy, “InnovativeWater Saving Agriculture By Using Resources” International Journal of Electronics andCommunication Engineering &Technology (IJECET) Volume 3, Issue 2, 2012, pp. 227 -237, Issn Print: 0976- 6464, Issn Online: 0976 –6472[18] Prof. (Ms) Manisha Shinde-Pawar And Prof. (Mr) Chandrashekhar Suryawanshi,“Integrating Gis And Knowledge Management Resources In Indian Agriculture: Social AndNational Concern For Information Sharing” International Journal Of Management (IJM)Volume 4, Issue 1, 2013, pp. 258 - 265, Issn Print: 0976-6502, Issn Online: 0976-6510