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  1. 1. International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 – INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING 6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, September - December (2013), © IAEME RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT (IJIERD) ISSN 0976 – 6979 (Print) ISSN 0976 – 6987 (Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, September - December (2013), pp. 13-29 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijierd.asp Journal Impact Factor (2013): 5.1283 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com IJIERD ©IAEME APPLICATION OF GREEN SIGMA TO BUILD ENERGY EFFICIENT LIGHTING SYSTEM AND REDUCE CARBON FOOTPRINT AT GAS POWER STATION USING LIGHTING ANALYSIS SOFTWARE – TOWARDS A SUSTAINABLE ENVIRONMENT Mrs. Devibala.B1, Dr. G. Karuppusami2, Mr. Rajalingam.P3 and Mr. Sujit Kumar Jha4 1 Part time PhD Scholar (Mechanical), Karpagam University, Coimbatore, Dean-Research and Innovations-Sri Eshwar College of Engineering, Coimbatore, 3 Faculty, Engineering Department, Ibra College of Technology, Sultanate of Oman, 4 Faculty, Engineering Department, Ibra College of Technology, Sultanate of Oman, 2 ABSTRACT The concept of green sigma is the latest trendsetter which encompasses the important strategies of six and lean sigma together under one roof. This paper explains the concept of green sigma initially, then feasibility of applying this model in a power station was thoroughly analyzed and applied to replace the existing fluorescent lighting system of the power plant with LED lightings and valid proofs in terms energy savings were generated to substantiate LED. The methodology employed were the five steps of green sigma modified suitably to study, analyze and generate results on the lighting system. A complete LED lighting design was developed for 12 rooms in the administration block of the power station (indoors) and the benefits derived by implementing LEDs daylight was simulated and optimized using DIALUX lighting software in terms of energy savings, wattage savings, reduced carbon dioxide footprint, and other potential environmental benefits such as mercury savings were calculated and statistical results were generated for each room of the administration block. The analysis resulted in potential energy savings and carbon reduction to the tune of 50%due to revised lighting system. Keywords: Carbon foot-print, Dialux, Energy savings, Green sigma, LED lighting. 13
  2. 2. International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 – 6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, September - December (2013), © IAEME I. INTRODUCTION With the public’s growing environmental awareness all the consumers, regulators, industries and shareholders are switching over to “greener” options. A growing number of companies work to become more environmentally sustainable (Deloitte 2008). Environmental issues have challenged our self awareness and sparked a global initiative to respond to critical issues such as Global warming, Global climate change, Green house gases, resource scarcity, environmental risk and carbon footprint (Eric 2010). Carbon footprint is the amount of Green house gases like carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide emissions emitted by a building, organization etc. It relates to the amount of greenhouse gases we are producing in our day-today lives through burning fossil fuels for electricity, heating, transportation etc .Every gram of mercury and carbon dioxide released into the air places an unknown future cost on the national economy. Different types of studies done on energy savings and lighting analysis were surveyed. Energy conservation measures were proposed to reduce the energy intensity by 6.43% in a paper based industry (Saidur et al. 2012). A Meta analysis of average lighting energy savings potential using various lighting controls has been researched. (Alison et al. 2012). A case study on lighting systems of buildings was conducted to assess the potential energy savings using cluster analysis method (Siriwarin et al. 2012). The calculation and evaluation of energy losses associated with lighting systems and how to reduce the cost of lighting through modifications in existing facilities is illustrated with realistic examples (Durmus 2003). Lighting systems have the largest potential of any known appliance to reduce United States energy use (Desroches and Garbesi 2011). An overview on the emissions and risk of mercury from fluorescent light during production and disposal and measures for reducing the risk is discussed (Yuanan and Hefa 2012). A method is proposed for estimating the energy consumption and associated carbon emissions of a defined electrical lighting configuration in an office building accounting for daylight contribution (David and Marcus 2007). A framework is proposed to define and use KPI to track the performance and measure the success of an energy management plan (John 2005). A lot of work has been done in the area of six sigma and lean sigma for years, hence it was time to evolve a new concept which integrates the best of six and lean sigma with major focus aimed at conserving environment. This idea was conceived and given the name as Green Sigma by the research and development department of IBM Corporation, USA. The definition of green sigma as given by IBM is “It is a methodology that enables transformation for environmental stewardship by applying a proven process and incorporates newly developed robust analysis tools and technology solutions” (Eric and Brady 2009). The DMAIC procedure followed in Six Sigma was revised as DEMOC by IBM to suit the green sigma process, further a new methodology DMAGC was evolved combining the benefits of DMAIC and DEMOC to suit the lighting study project has been shown in Figure 1. 14
  3. 3. International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 – 6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, September - December (2013), © IAEME Fig. 1 DMAGC STEPS Integration of DMAIC and DEMOC STEPSA natural gas power station was selected for analysis and implementation of the green tation sigma concept. A detailed study of the power station was done for two weeks through personal interaction with employees at different levels, a total orientation through seminars and video presentations were given by the company. A tour was made into the plant except sentations for restricted areas. The study revealed that the plants environmental and Quality objectives are focused on system effectiveness and performance enhancement through continual improvement programs. The power station achieved accreditation to ISO 9001:2000 for its ovement Quality Management system and ISO 140001:1996 for its Environmental Management Systems and OHSAS 18001 for Health and Safety. After conducting a detailed study of all activities it was found that the lighting system used in the power station needs an up ities gradation to LED system, which will reap huge benefits in terms of energy, CO2 and mercury savings. A data sheet was prepared for each room to collect all the parameters requ required to carry out the software analysis of the lighting system. The software was useful in preparing 3D models of each room and generating results. The study was restricted to the administration block of the power station, as the data and calculations involved for the whole involved station is massive. Hence it was decided to concentrate on one block and later the study may be extended to other blocks of the power station. 15
  4. 4. International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 – 6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, September - December (2013), © IAEME 1.1 Overview of LED Benefits over Fluorescent A LED lamp is a solid state lamp that uses light emitting diodes as the source of light. LEDs have gained admirable popularity over its other counterparts due to the following reasons: • Long-lasting – LED bulbs are not affected by frequent on/off cycling and hence last up to 10 times longer than fluorescents. The lifetime indicated in the table1 for the chosen luminaries stands as an example to prove this point. • Durable – They are not damaged by jarring and bumping as there are no glass tubes to break, the internal parts are rigidly supported, making them resistant to vibration and impact. • Cool light – LEDs prevent heat build-up, thereby helping to reduce air conditioning costs at home/office. • Mercury-free – LED are RoHs compliant and no mercury is used in the manufacturing of LEDs which is toxic and proved to be a dangerous threat to life and environment. • Efficient – LED can emit more light per watt. A 9-13 watt fluorescent tube gives a light output of 450 lumens which can be replaced by 4-5 watt LED. It turns on instantly, quick start without flicker without any time to warm up. • Energy efficient – The LED tube gives an energy savings of up to 40% when compared to conventional TL-D luminaries, thereby reducing green house gas emissions. An 8 watt LED can reduce carbon emissions by 56% when compared to 14 watt CFL. • Cost-effective – LEDs are initially expensive but the investment cost is recouped over time in the form of energy cost, maintenance cost, replacement and most important environmental cost which is not accounted normally. • Wider applications – LEDs are insensitive to low temperatures and humidity, hence find applications in freezer case lighting. Being compact they can be integrated within smart cameras and vision sensors. The low power requirement for LEDs makes it compatible with solar panels. LED light bulbs are also ideal for use with small portable generators and so on the list continues. Just as a coin has two sides even LEDs have their own demerits such as temperature dependence, voltage sensitivity, blue pollution and high price of the product. It’s also true that its merits outweigh the demerits, giving it a back seat. The fact that LED is expensive is true but it’s also anticipated that future will bring affordable LED lights to market as component prices are coming down every year. 1.2 About the Power Station The Al Kamil Power Company (AKPC) is the first independent private sector power plant located at Al-Kamil in the Sharqiya region of Sultanate of Oman providing 285 MW of electricity into the northern 132 KV transmission grid started on 19th July 2003 has been shown in Figure 2. The plant life is about 30 years, and as of date its just 9 years old, which makes it clear that investment in lighting system would make a big impact for the remaining life of the power station (21 years). 16
  5. 5. International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 – 6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, September - December (2013), © IAEME Fig. 2 Three Power Generating Units of Al Kamil Power Plant The plant consists of GE frame 9E technology with DLN1 burners, a sophisticated firing system which substantially reduces NOx gas production. Emissions of gases are monitored on a continuous basis; records of NOx, CO and unburned hydrocarbons are maintained at the power station and also sent to the Ministry of Regional Municipality, Environment and Water resources in line with the requirements of the environmental license. The emissions from the plant are well within the limits laid down by the government. II. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES At the onset, it’s important to define the aims and objectives of the task at hand. The power station was chosen as target for study as it was felt that the energy generating sector must also set an example to other industries by being energy saving sector. With fuel and energy costs on the rise, reducing the use of electricity, natural gas, diesel fuel and other energy sources is both good business and a laudable environmental act. The investigation revealed that though the plant is compliant to the environmental norms of the country, still it has scope for improvement. The energy charges of the plant include fuel cost, variable operating cost of generation and start up charge, of which our concern is to reduce the operating cost of generation. Of the 285 MW generated by the plant, approximately 4 MW (17%) of energy is being consumed to meet the auxiliary power requirements to run the plant, of which lighting consumes nearly 2.85 MW (1%). Good lighting serves a myriad of functions. Lighting is one area which is often overlooked but has a lot of scope in terms of energy savings, emission reduction and longer life with increase in efficiency and less pollution. The power consumption by the industrial lighting varies between 2 to 10% of the total power depending upon the type of industry (BEE-Government of India 2005). The current lighting system was installed in the year 2003 while the plant started its operation. The company has verified the lux values of existing lighting system in the year 2008, and made a record of it. Now it’s 2013, almost 5 years have 17
  6. 6. International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 – 6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, September - December (2013), © IAEME passed since last verification. Its well known fact that lighting efficiency (light output per unit level of input) lumens/watt decreases with time, hence its evident that lighting study and findings would prove useful to the power station. The objective of the work was to suggest a suitable and modern lighting system which will reduce the carbon footprint of the power station, calculate the energy savings taking into account daylight factor, mercury savings, improved life time thereby reducing the replacement interval, less number of tubes required to give the same light output (lumens/watt), less load on the air conditioner due to less dissipation of heat energy and provide the justification on adopting LED lighting system. The administration block of the power station was chosen for study which consists of 12 rooms. The study was done for rooms excluding furniture and any kind of decoration objects. III. MATERIALS AND METHODS The five steps of green sigma DMAGC were applied to study and analyze the lighting system of the administration block of the power plant. a. Define Key Performance Indicators (KPIs) b. Measure the inputs c. Analysis using software d. Generate optimum results e. Control of performance 3.1 Define KPIs When assessing the opportunities for improvement presented by an existing lighting system, the first step is to define the Key performance indicators. KPIs define a set of values used to measure against. They are quantifiable measurements that reflect the critical success factors of an organization, differing based on type of organization. For example: • Any business or trade may have as one of its Key Performance Indicators the percentage of its profit that is earned from its customers. • A college may focus its Key Performance Indicators on the percentage of successful outgoing graduates. • A Key Performance Indicator for a service sector might be number of clients assisted during the year. The Key Performance Indicators for lighting system was identified as Energy savings, Wattage savings, Carbon dioxide savings and Mercury savings. The main emphasis was placed on the impact made on environment while selecting KPIs as that is the pedestal of the study. 3.2 Establish Measurement Systems The second step is to measure how effectively the existing levels and characteristics serve their function. The data was collected on the current lighting system (Brand-Philips, specification-TL-D18W/54-765) in the administration block. Initially the software was explored thoroughly to identify the input data required to measure the existing system. Then the data sheet was prepared as presented in Table 1a and 1b. It gives the complete details of the input parameters collected for lighting design and energy analysis for each room. The data was individually fed for each of the 12 rooms and a total of 24 simulation results were generated for fluorescent and LED system. 18
  7. 7. International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 – 6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, September - December (2013), © IAEME Table 1a Data Sheet for Lighting 1 General 2 Room Dimensions Name of the Block Name of the Room Room Dimension Length Work Plane Room Form 3 Wall Zone Rectangular Ceiling Room Surfaces Width Height Light Loss Factor (From 0.1 - Height 1.0) L - Shaped Polygonal Walls (Wall 1, Wall 2, Wall 3, Floor and Wall 4 ) Reflection Material Color ( OR ) Standards 4 Related Room 5 Alignment 6 Quantity 7 Mounting Height 8 Luminaire Selection 70 / 50 / 20 70 / 30 / 20 50 / 50 / 20 50 / 30 / 20 30 / 50 / 20 30 / 10 / 20 All Inclusive Reference Values Very Clean Room, Low Years usage Clean Room, 3 - Year maintenance Cycle Exterior Installation, 3 - Years Maintenance Cycle Interior or Exterior Installation, High Pollution Extended (EN Ambient Very Clean 12464) Conditions Normal Polluted Maintenance Semi - annually Interval Annually Every 1.5 years Every 2.0 years Every 2.5 years Every 3.0 years North Alignment Deviation of north from the y - axis (Clock wise) Eavg ( Fc ) Rows Luminaires per Row Luminaire alignment Lengthways Continuous Rows Across in the room Starting Point X1 Y1 Dx and End Point X2 Y2 Dy Surface Mount User Defined Company Name Suspension height Mounting Height Model Specification 19 Height Make
  8. 8. International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 – 6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, September - December (2013), © IAEME Table 1b Data Sheet for Energy Evaluation Sl.No General Options 1 Window (Daylight Properties) Name of the Block Name of the Room Degree of Typical Glass Material Transmission Window glass Wired glass Milk glass Frosted glass Acrylic glass (Colorless) Acrylic glass (White) Solar Control glass Pollution factor Typical Environment (Pollution) Rural area (Low) Rural area (High) Residential area (Low) Residential area (High) Industrial area (Low) Industrial area (High) Framing factor Wooden window ( to open) Wooden window ( fixed) Plastic window (to open) Plastic window (fixed) Metal window (to open) Metal window (fixed) Roof light with bar Doom light Energy Evaluation Obstruction Angle (Obstruction Index) Horizontal Overhang Angle Vertical Fin Angle Atrium Courtyard Glazed Double Façade Roof lights Shed Roof Height Light Shaft (m) Slope Angle Light Shaft Doors No. of doors Position - distance from left Size - height x width, material Window No. of window Position Size/dimensions Height x Width Material Distance from left Sloping roof Angle & height 20
  9. 9. International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 – 6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, September - December (2013), © IAEME 3.3 Analyze using Software The lighting software DIALUX, latest version 4.10 was used to compare the results of LED lamps with existing fluorescent tubes. The software uses two standards EN15193 (European) and DIN 18599 (Germany) to compute energy requirements of lighting. The European standards were used for the analysis. 3.3.1 DIALUX 4.10 software Many lighting software are available in market supplied by various light brands and companies. Keeping the objectives in mind the search was narrowed down to DIALUX lighting software. The first version of the software was introduced in the year 2000 by a German based company DIAL. It is complete lighting calculation software for professional light planning supporting 26 different languages. It enables planning with the luminaries of the world’s leading lighting manufacturers (137 dialux partners share data) and thus has the greatest possible freedom in the design process, also continuously being developed by a dedicated team. The software supports international database from Philips lamps plug-in which is used to select the required luminaire configuration including all photometric data and 3D models suitable for visualization, also user can include the lighting design data for an energy evaluation project. Hence it was decided to use Dialux for lighting analysis. 3.3.2 Selection of LED tube from plug-ins (luminaire data) The first task was to select an appropriate LED replacement for existing setup in the plant. Though a wide range of LED tubes are available, restrictions were present in the form of dimension of LED tube, wattage, availability in the database and functional properties. The plant has chosen LED24T8SM series LED tube manufactured by LEDTRONICS, a US based company and installed around 10 tubes for trial purpose. With this knowledge an extensive search was conducted in different catalogues available in the software and the following two were selected from Philips plug-ins database for analysis, which are close to the specifications of existing fluorescent lighting. The details are presented in Table 2. Type Table 2 Specification Details Existing Used in software Fluorescent tube Philips-TL-D18W/54-765 Philips Centura2 TCS1604xTL-D18W HFPC3 Lifetime: 16,000-20,000hrs Dimensions-0.62x0.62x0.082 LED tube Ledtronics-LED24T8SM series Philips Coreline recessed RC122BW62L621xLED37S/840 Lifetime: 30,000-35,000hrs Energy savings-40% Dimensions-0.62x0.62x0.045 Each room of the administration block was independently analyzed for fluorescent and LED lighting. There were 12 rooms; hence 24 results were generated in total. The 21
  10. 10. International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 – 6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, September - December (2013), © IAEME opening page of the software is shown in Figure 3 and Figure 4 showing the three important work areas1. CAD window 2. Project Manager with inspector 3. The Guide Fig. 3 Basic layout at starting and Control room 3D view Fig. 4 Basic layout at starting and Control room 3D view Each of these areas help to access certain software functions, edit objects, tree structures (Project, color, luminaries, object and output). The following parameters were given as input in the software: Dimensions of the room-Length, width and height or instead the room x and y coordinates can also be given. After creating the room; data in terms of maintenance plan, reflection percentage of the walls, ceiling and floor of the room and the room alignment i.e. deviation of north from Y axis (clockwise) is to be fed. The software has vast database to choose from and insert windows, doors, furniture, columns, calculation surfaces, luminaries etc. A model 3D view of control room with doors, windows and luminaries position are shown in Figure 3 and 4. After giving the necessary inputs; the software generates outputs based on our preference. Table 3 gives the list of standard lux values to be adopted for each type of room. The standards are available in the software for different types of trades and industry. The initial analysis of the rooms with fluorescent lighting was performed based on the input data procured from plant and standards lux values from table 3 were used while planning the rooms with LED lighting which resulted in less number of luminaries keeping the light output same. 22
  11. 11. International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 – 6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, September - December (2013), © IAEME S.no 1 2 3 4 5 Table 3 Standard lux values for power station Interiors/Activities Average illuminance (lux) Offices 500 Meeting and conference 300 rooms Control room 300 Staffrooms and restrooms 100 Washrooms and toilets 100 Em 3.4 Generate the Optimum Results (Energy evaluation of lighting system) 3.4.1 Overview of CO2 emissions-Oman emissions The data collected by the United States Department of Energy's Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (CDIAC) for the United Nations considering the carbon dioxide emissions from the burning of fossil fuels and cement manufacture, but not emissions from land use, land-use change and forestry in the year 2008 reveals that China tops the list of use countries by annual CO2 emissions which is 29,888,121 thousands of tons, India taking 4th thousands position emitting 1,742,698 thousand tons of CO2 and Oman taking 66th position with 45,749 metric tons of CO2. The CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production, total (million metric tons) in Oman shown in Figure 5 reveals the emission trend over the past 37 years eals increasing from 0.01 in 1971 to 19.81 in 2008. This statistics exposes the fact that the emissions are steadily ascending and it’s time to take remedial steps to keep it under control to protect the people and environment of the and country. Fig. 5 CO2 emissions from electricity and heat production (million metric tons) 3.4.2 Energy Directives The Kyoto Protocol is an international agreement linked to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). It sets binding targets on 37 industrialized countries and the European community for reducing greenhouse (GHG) emissions. Under the Kyoto protocol, Europe is committed seriously to reduce CO2 emissions. One instrument to achieve this is the directive 2002/91/EC “Energy Performance 2002/91/EC of Buildings Directive “of the European Parliament and Council. The directive’s requirements hold for both new and to be renovated buildings and for both residential and non-residential buildings. Member states of the EU were committed to implement this residential committed 23
  12. 12. International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 – 6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, September - December (2013), © IAEME directive into national right. As a guideline the EU created a general framework for the calculation of energy performances of buildings, which stated which aspects the calculation methodology must at least include. These aspects are heating, ventilation, air- conditioning, hot water supply and lighting. To support the implementation of the directive in the EU member states, the European committee for standardization CEN created a set of CEN standards. This set consists of more than 30 parts, includes more than 40 standards and drafts and covers 5 CEN technical committees. The part concerning lighting is EN 15193: “Energy performance of buildings – Energy requirements for lighting“. This standard specifies the calculation methodology for the evaluation of the amount of energy used for indoor lighting inside the building and provides a numeric indicator for lighting energy requirements used for certification purposes. 3.4.3 Calculating energy used for lighting Properties of the room and the project (geometry, obstruction, location and north alignment) are automatically identified, analyzed and reused for energy evaluation by dialux. The same holds for windows and roof lights. In particular day lit and non-day lit assessment zones are determined automatically. The specific connected load is taken directly from the planned luminaries in the room. Each energy evaluation room belongs to exactly one utilization zone. Utilization zones cannot be created explicitly; they are generated during creation of energy evaluation rooms. Each energy evaluation room has one or more assessment zones. Each assessment zone is either completely supplied with daylight or not. Figure 6 shows the screen shot of assessment zones in different colors to distinguish between daylight supplied (yellow) and non-daylight supplied zones(violet). Fig. 6 Display of assessment zones with daylight and without daylight The assessment zones do not intersect one another and build up the complete area of the room. These assessment zones can be displayed in 2D and 3D views of the associated DIALux room. DIALux is complemented by the extensive support of daylight calculations. Daylight scenes can be inserted in the project allowing the influence of day lighting the interior and exterior scenes to be simply calculated. The different sky models (clear, overcast, partially overcast), as well as the direct sunlight influences the calculation. The location, time and alignment, as well as the daylight obstruction have been taken into consideration in the energy calculations. The total estimated energy required in period t, by the luminaries when operating and parasitic loads when the luminaries are not operating, in a room or zone, shall be estimated by the equation: 24
  13. 13. International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 – 6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, September - December (2013), © IAEME Wt= W L,t + W P,t [KWhr] .........................................................(1) An estimate of lighting energy required to fulfill illumination function and purpose in the building in period t, is given by the equation: W L,t = ∑{(Pnx Fc) x [(tDx Fox FD) + (tNx Fo)]}/1000 [KWhr].........................................(2) Where Pn- Total installed lighting power in the room/zone (W) FC - Constant illuminance factor tD- Day light time usage (hrs) Fo- Occupancy dependency factor FD - Daylight dependency factor tN- Non day light time usage (hrs) An estimate of parasitic energy required to provide charging energy for emergency lighting and for stand by energy for lighting controls in the building in period t, is given by the equation: W P,t = ∑{{(Ppcx [ty – (tD +tN)]} + (Pemx tem)}/1000 [KWhr] ......................................(3) Where Ppc- Total installed parasitic power of the controls in the room/zone ty- Standard year time (8760hrs) tD- Day light time usage (hrs) tN- Non day light time usage (hrs) Pem- Total installed input charging power of the emergency lighting luminaries in the room/zone tem- Total emergency lighting charging Total annual energy used for lighting: W= W L + W P [KWhr/year]..................................................................(4) The sum of annual lighting energy to fulfill illumination function (WL) and annual parasitic energy for emergency lighting (WP) gives the total annual energy used for lighting (W). Lighting energy numeric indicator (LENI) for building: LENI = W/A [KWhr / (m2.year)] [21] Where W- Total annual energy used for lighting [KWhr/year] A - Total useful floor area of the building [m2] 3.5 Control performance The last step is to ensure the effectiveness of the implemented system and assess them periodically through routine maintenance plans suggested by the software and keep the performance under control. Apart from routine maintenance, it’s suggested to measure the lighting consumption using any one of the following methods to compare the theoretical and real energy consumption, also use metering devices to obtain regular feedback on the effectiveness of lighting controls. 25
  14. 14. International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 – 6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, September - December (2013), © IAEME a. Kilowatt hour meters can be installed on dedicated lighting circuits in the electrical distribution. b. Local power meters can be coupled to or integrated in the lighting controllers of a lighting management system. c. A lighting management system should be developed to calculate the local consumed energy and make this information available to Building Management System. d. A lighting management system should be developed to calculate the consumed energy per building section and make this information available in an exportable format [EN15193 standards, 2006]. IV. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The DIALUX software produces a generous 70 pages output for each room. This proves that the software takes care of every minute detail in the analysis. For research purpose only the following important outputs were chosen: Project summary, Input protocol, Maintenance plan, Luminaries part list, luminaries layout plan, photometric results, false color rendering, 3D rendering, energy evaluations summary, Utilization zone and assessment zone details. A sample of summary of energy evaluation output and photometric results generated by software for control room using LED lighting is shown in Figure 7 and Figure 8. Fig. 7 Energy Evaluation results Fig. 8 Photometric results The generated output was tabulated to show the resulting energy difference for each room of Administration block and all the results are presented numerically and graphically for better understanding and comparison purpose. The Figure 9 depicts the energy savings resulting from the two types of lighting. The bar height of each room is different due to room size variations and number of luminaires used in each room is different. The total energy consumed by fluorescent lighting is 16549.7 KWhr/annum, whereas for LED it is 8266.3KWhr/annum, thus resulting in tremendous energy savings of 50%. The Figure 10 depicts the savings in lamp wattage. LED is capable of giving the same light output as 26
  15. 15. International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 – 6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, September - December (2013), © IAEME fluorescent with lesser wattage tube, thereby increasing the system efficiency. The Figure 11 efficiency. shows the most important outcome of the study, the main culprit of green house gas emissions, carbon dioxide emissions is cut down by 50%. The number of hours of operation per day and number of working days per year was used to compute the annual power compute consumption of each room per annum and CO2 emissions was calculated. Figure 12 shows ure 0.826grams of mercury savings due to switching over to LED since mercury is not used in the manufacture of LED as is the case with CFL and other lamps.. The requirement of . number of LED tubes required to replace has reduced by 30%. Of all the rooms the control room shows huge savings in all charts due to the size and number of luminaries used in the room. f Fig. 9 Energy savings in KWhr per annum for each room Fig. 10 Total wattage savings per room Fig. 11 Carbon offset due to LED 27
  16. 16. International Journal of Industrial Engineering Research and Development (IJIERD), ISSN 0976 – 6979(Print), ISSN 0976 – 6987(Online) Volume 4, Issue 3, September - December (2013), © IAEME Fig. 10 Reduction in harmful mercury dosage V. CONCLUSION This is a step towards environmental stewardship improvement shown by a socially responsible company, plus the carbon credits earned by the organization. Most important of all is that results have been computed for one block of the power plant and when the studies are extended to other blocks the results will have a bigger impact on energy and carbon dioxide savings of the entire plant. vings The study of lighting system can further be extended to check the payback period and return on investments as LED installation demands high initial investment. The cost analysis investment. of the new lighting system when included into the project would add more weight age to the study. The study provides more scope for enhancement as the project benefits will increase multifold by incorporating solar energy, dimmers, occupancy sensors, timers and other controls which accentuate the energy savings to a higher level. Solar energy powered LED savings Street lights would prove to be very successful as the country experiences arid climate throughout the year. Thus it can be said that innovation and technological advancements along with appropriate standard software’s prove that there is tremendous scope to achieve rd energy savings in lighting area. VI. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors sincerely thank the management of Al Kamil Power Plant, Oman for permitting us to conduct the study. The authors would also like to extend their gratitude to all the employees of the power plant for their kind support and cooperation and our special thanks to Mr. SrinivasVadlamani Mr. Harshang Patel, Mr. Umesh, and Mr. Humaid. Vadlamani, , REFERENCES [1] [2] [3] [4] E.G. Olson and N. Brady, Green sigma and the technology of transformation for environmental stewardship, IBM Journal of Research and Development, 53(3), 2009, , 3:1-3:9. Green Lean Six Sigma: Using lean to help drive results in the wholly sustainable enterprise, Deloitte development LLC, 2008, 1-9 Eric G. Olson, Better Green Business-Hand book for Environmentally Responsible Business Hand and Profitable Business Practices, Wharton school publishing, New Jersey, 2010, school 2010,1-15. R. Saidur, M.T. Sambandam, M. Hasanuzzaman, D. Devaraj, S. Rajakarunakaran, and M. D. Islam, An energy flow analysis in a paper based industry, Clean Techn Environ Policy, 2012, 10098-012-0462-9. 28
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