10120140504006 2-3

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10120140504006 2-3

  1. 1. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online), Volume 5, Issue 4, April (2014), pp. 42-49 © IAEME 42 360 DEGREE FEED-FORWARD PROCESS – A CASE STUDY Dr. V. K. JAIN Associate Professor & Head Dept. of Commerce, G M N College, AmbalaCantt, Haryana (India) (Affiliated to Kurukshetra University, Kurukshetra) ABSTRACT ‘We can change the future but we cannot change the past’. All the organizations seem to focus on acquisition and development of top quality talent and the organizations spend a lot for developing good quality talent but with little achievement. Despite all efforts and with all the knowledge of talent development practices, there is still a gap between our knowledge to develop talent and our ability to do it in exact terms. Although a number of talent development practices including coaching, performance feedback, 360o appraisal, talent reviews are used by managers but there they all speak about the past. Feed forward is a process that helps people to focus on a positive future, not a failed past. Feed forward disseminates ideas on how the people can be even more successful in future rather than reminding them of their failed past and can thus increase their chances of getting success.This paper is an attempt to develop an understanding as to how the organizations can develop talent we actually need to develop for the organization through Feed Forward Process. Keywords: Feedback, Feed Froward, Talent Development, Performance Appraisal, Touch Points, Coach. INTRODUCTION “If we know our Performance, then only we can Excel”. In an organization, every individual contributes towards the achievement of organizational goals. Employees put in their maximum efforts and apply their competencies to the fullest. However, they focus more on certain aspects of the job tasks in comparison to others as they consider them to be highly significant. Let us understand the situation with the help of an example. There is a general saying that ‘an owl has a perfect vision’ as it can turn his head 180 degrees left to 180 degrees right. It simply conveys to a common man that the owl can look at his INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MANAGEMENT (IJM) ISSN 0976-6502 (Print) ISSN 0976-6510 (Online) Volume 5, Issue 4, April (2014), pp. 42-49 © IAEME: www.iaeme.com/ijm.asp Journal Impact Factor (2014): 7.2230 (Calculated by GISI) www.jifactor.com IJM © I A E M E
  2. 2. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 Volume 5, Issue 4, April (2014), pp. surroundings up to 360 degrees without moving from his place. Is it true? owl can only turn his head up to 270 degree. Now analyze the situation. An owl is constantly observing the environment character i.e. his vision.True, it is a good range of vision but not the perfect one still some part of environment which he cannot see and is indicated by a gap of 90 Degree. In most of the business situations, we also think in the same manner. of our Job roles/Tasks, we consider that we are giving 100% of our capabilities to these Job Roles/ Tasks. But we ignore the uneven distribution of our efforts are highly focused and much of our capabilities are involved in achieving them.Like an Owl, we limit our vision upto 270o and we consider that we have covered To achieve the Organizational Goals more efficiently actually cover 360o . We need to evaluate the areas which require focus or need to be handled differently to rationalize and optimize our performance. Considering this fact in mind, the present study has been undertaken to discuss about 360 Feed Forward Process which will help us to identify our key priority areas and focus them with continuous monitoring, mentoring and mapping. The purpose of the 360o Feed Forward Process is to broaden our horizon of thinking, executing and evaluating the business plans in line with theorganizational objectives. For this, we should take team (which includes superiors, subordinates and peers) as they are daily observers and understand our task very well. to chalk out our priorities in uniform manner and develop the areas which were not concentrated upon ea significant for organizational development. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 Volume 5, Issue 4, April (2014), pp. 42-49 © IAEME 43 surroundings up to 360 degrees without moving from his place. Is it true? No, it is not. owl can only turn his head up to 270 degree. An owl is constantly observing the environment t is a good range of vision but not the perfect one. It means that there still some part of environment which he cannot see and is indicated by a gap of 90 Degree. In most of the business situations, we also think in the same manner. If we make a pie chart of our Job roles/Tasks, we consider that we are giving 100% of our capabilities to these Job Roles/ Tasks. But we ignore the uneven distribution of our efforts. It indicates that some of our Job Roles are highly focused and much of our capabilities are involved in achieving them.Like an Owl, we consider that we have covered 360o . To achieve the Organizational Goals more efficiently, we need to broaden our vision to We need to evaluate the areas which require focus or need to be handled differently to rationalize and optimize our performance. Fig 1: Vision of OWL Considering this fact in mind, the present study has been undertaken to discuss about 360 Feed Forward Process which will help us to identify our key priority areas and focus them with continuous monitoring, mentoring and mapping. Feed Forward Process is to broaden our horizon of thinking, business plans in line with theorganizational objectives. For this, we should take viewpoints of our team (which includes superiors, subordinates and peers) as they are daily observers and understand our task very well. This will help to chalk out our priorities in uniform manner and develop the areas which were not concentrated upon earlier but are very significant for organizational development. Gap of 90o Vision of Owl 270o 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online), No, it is not. In reality, an An owl is constantly observing the environment with his special It means that there still some part of environment which he cannot see and is indicated by a gap of 90 Degree. If we make a pie chart of our Job roles/Tasks, we consider that we are giving 100% of our capabilities to these Job Roles/ indicates that some of our Job Roles are highly focused and much of our capabilities are involved in achieving them.Like an Owl, we , we need to broaden our vision to We need to evaluate the areas which require focus or need to be handled Considering this fact in mind, the present study has been undertaken to discuss about 360o Feed Forward Process which will help us to identify our key priority areas and focus them with Feed Forward Process is to broaden our horizon of thinking, business plans in line with theorganizational objectives.
  3. 3. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online), Volume 5, Issue 4, April (2014), pp. 42-49 © IAEME 44 To achieve the goals, there is need to apply Feed Forward Process in all spheres. Games are excellent examples of the application of Feed Forward Process where players are taught to look ahead. In Cricket, if a player drops a catch, the others neither discourage the player nor get discouraged but rather continue to work as a team and work harder to win the game. This is the spirit of Feed Forward. Past cannot be recalled and therefore, feed forward lays emphasis on a positive future rather a failed past. SURVEY OF LITERATURE Few studies have been conducted on 360o Feed Forward Process. Most of the researches have highlighted the theoretical aspects of the process. Effron & Ort (2010) in their book ‘One Page Talent Management’ has explained the significance and implementation of 360o Feed Forward Process. He has also examined as to how it is better to 360o Feedback Process. Similar observations have been given by Goldsmith (2002) in his paper ‘Try Feed forward Instead of Feedback’. The paper explains how the feed forward process is better and why it should be used in the organizations in place of feedback process. The author explains the way by which it can be implemented in the organizations to improve employee behaviour. Keeping in mind, the significance of 360o Feed Forward Process, the present study has been undertaken to enlighten the implementation of this process. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY The study aims at achieving the following objectives with reference to a leading pharmaceutical company: 1. To examine the difference between traditional 360o Feedback Process and modern 360o Feed Forward Process. 2. To Explain the implementation of 360o Feed Forward Process in Indian Organizations Methodology The theoretical framework for the study has been formed on the basis of ‘One Page Talent Management’, several articles available on internet and other books. The case study relates to one of the leading pharmaceutical companies which applies the processes of 360o Feed Forward and has designed its own system to implement the same. The parameters, processes and procedures have been derived from the company’s actual practices of the 360o Feed Forward Process. Significance of the Study As an emerging area of management practices, the study is of great significance to the organizations, management practitioners and the researchers. The study highlights the basic difference in the traditional 360◦ Feedback process and the modern360o Feed Forward Process. The parameters used in the study can be adapted by the other organizations as per their needs. Analysis and Findings of the Study To achieve the above mentioned objectives, the analysis of the study has been divided into two parts: 1. Analyzing the difference between Traditional 360o Feedback Process and modern 360o Feed Forward Process. 2. Process of Implementation of 360o Feed Forward Process in Indian Organizations
  4. 4. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online), Volume 5, Issue 4, April (2014), pp. 42-49 © IAEME 45 1. Analyzing the difference between Traditional 360o Feedback Process and Modern 360o Feed Forward Process The following table explains the difference between traditional feedback and modern feed forward process: Table 1: Traditional Feedback Processvs. Modern Feed ForwardProcess S. No Traditional Feedback Feed Forward Process 1. It is Complex in nature This is a Simplified process 2. It is Feedback Process. It sometimes leads to the tendency to prove the sender ‘wrong’. It is more productive as it enables people to learn to be ‘right’. 3. It involves a discussion on mistakes, deficiencies, and problems. Feed forward focuses on solutions and not on problems. 4. People generally tend to accept feedback that is consistent with what we want to see and reject or deny the feedback that is inconsistent with the way we see ourselves Successful people like getting ideas that help them to achieve their goals. Hence, they respond positively to feed forward. 5. Feedback requires knowing about the person. Feed forward just requires having good ideas for achieving the task. 6. Constructive feedback is supposed to “focus on the performance, not the person” but in practice, almost all feedback is taken personally. Personal critiques are often viewed as personal attacks. Feed forward cannot involve a personal critique, since it is discussing something that has not yet happened. Positive suggestions tend to be seen as objective advice. 7. Feedback can reinforce personal stereotyping and can reinforce the feeling of failure. Negative feedback can be used to reinforce the message, “this is just the way you are”. Feed forward can reinforce the possibility of change. Feed forward is based on the assumption that the receiver of suggestions can make positive changes in the future. (Based on Marshall Goldsmith “Try Feed Forward instead of Feedback” in Leader to Leader Institute, Summer 2002) Feed forward can be a useful tool to apply with managers, peers, and team members. It is much faster and more efficient than feedback. People tend to listen more attentively to feed forward than feedback. Most of us hate getting negative feedback, and we don’t like to give it. 2. Process of Implementation of 360o Feed Forward Process in Indian Organizations The process mentioned below is being followed in one of the leading pharmaceutical Company in India. The company has gone through various stages of discussions before implementing the same. A number of top management executives, senior executives and the heads of the departments were given presentations about the process of implementing the new 360o Feedback Process.
  5. 5. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online), Volume 5, Issue 4, April (2014), pp. 42-49 © IAEME 46 Steps involved in implementation of Feed Forward Process: Fig.2: 360◦ Feed Forward Process Step 1: Identify activities of incumbent and identify touch points The initial step of the process is facilitated by HR along with consideration of Functional Head. In this step, Job Description is customized by HR along with Functional Head. Step 2: Take feedback from Touch points Parameters on which feedback is to be weighted: Table 2: Parameters for feedback Parameters Indicators Do As Is A Do More M Do Less L Do as Per Process – TCEC P Do Differently D Job Holder HOD/ Superiors Customers Subordinates Peers Toachieve Organizational Goals more efficiently, we need to broaden our vision to actually cover 360o . For this purpose, viewpoints of our team needs to be taken into account as they are daily observers and understand our task very well.
  6. 6. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online), Volume 5, Issue 4, April (2014), pp. 42-49 © IAEME 47 “How Feedback is given” matters more than “What is the feedback?” Step 3: Analyze data and give feedback to incumbent As soon as all team members submit their responses, we need to compile data and their feedback as Job Holder Table 3: Data Analysis Activities Frequency Distribution Suggestions A – As Is M- More L- Less P- As per Process D- Do Differently 1 2 3 1 Decision Making 2 1 1 2 Leadership Skills 3 Solve Problems 2 1 2 Step 4: Select Top 3 Activities for improvement In the pie gram explained earlier, there is a segment which has been overlooked. To chalk out priorities in uniform manner and develop the areas which were not concentrated upon earlier but are very significant, you need to select top 3 priority areas with HOD to enhance development process. Step 5: Select Coach Who can be your Coach • Peer • Subordinate • Immediate Boss • HOD Once Coach is finalized, share the areas you want to focus upon. He will be dedicated enough to invest few minutes a dayto ask you a series of question on areas you need to develop upon so that you are proactively involved and guided via action plan to fasten the target achievement. Step 6: Suggestions Box • The suggestions on Touch points need to be populated under each suggestion box. • This suggestion Box will help you to analyze the frequency of suggestions that are being emphasized by different candidates, thereby assisting you to chalk down priority areas. Table 4: Suggestions Priority Top 3 for Improvement Suggestion 1 Suggestion 2 Suggestion 3 1 Decision Making 2 Leadership Skills 3 Solve Problems Identify Top 3 Priorities
  7. 7. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online), Volume 5, Issue 4, April (2014), pp. 42-49 © IAEME 48 Step 7: Select Suggestions Once you collect the viewpoints of respondents and coach, you need to select that suggestion in consultation with your HOD that you think are more beneficial for target achievement. Table 5: Selecting Suggestions Priority level Top 3 for Improvement Suggestion 1 Suggestion 2 Suggestion 3 1 Decision Making Meet people on a daily basis Talk about their fears 2 Leadership Skills Visit Competitors Engage a consultant Form a special team 3 Solve Problems Learn Why-Why analysis Learn Fishbone Diagram Talk about their personal problems Step 8: Change Expected in “Me” Sample Box- Place a Tick mark for changes carried out Table 6: Sample Box for Recording Changes Date Meet Coach Selected suggestion 1 Selected suggestion 2 Selected suggestion 3 √ √ √ √ √ √ √ √ Step 9: Tracking the Progress Consequently, following will be the timelines for conducting the 360 – degree feedback: • For the 1st three months, feedback will be collated from all concerned individuals on a weekly basis against the parameters set by HOD in consultation with the employee • From 3 to 12 months after joining, the review will be conducted on a monthly basis. • Beyond 12 months of joining, quarterly feedback will be compiled. CONCLUSION ‘An owl’has been used as a face to explain 360o feed forward process with related myths and realities. It feels that it can watch its surroundings with its unique character viz. its vision. It can look around without moving from its place. It has been indicated that an owl lives in very competitive environment. But it is not true. It can turn around to 270o only and the uncovered gap of 90o explains the bottlenecks of our analysis about our self. We are not perfect and we need to constantly observe the threat posed by the gap of 90o and need to improve our self-i.e. our competencies, skills and knowledge. If we are to be successful in his world, we
  8. 8. International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online), Volume 5, Issue 4, April (2014), pp. 42-49 © IAEME 49 • Must constantly be looking for opportunities and threats. • Must gather information from all directions to get complete read on his environment, what we have to do to survive, develop and grow. In business terms, the example of owl translates to gather inputs on our performance from all points to ensure we are doing the job with all our capability we want to do for the growth of organization in every sphere. In fact, 360o feed forward process is all about positive thinking on development of individuals, teams and the organizations without providing them negative feedback of their past performance. It involves strengthening the employee skills and targeting step by step improvement of their weak areas by providing them necessary feedback and coaching. The process explained above can be modified as per the needs of the organization. In fact, it is a step forward rather than a step backward and hence always looks ahead to move on and on. BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. Effron, Marc & Ort, Miriam (2010), One Page Talent Management, Harvard University Press, Boston, Massachusetts. 2. http://www.marshallgoldsmithlibrary.com/cim/articles_display.php?aid=110. 3. Dr. Sehba Husain, “360 Degree EI Implementation Business Model – Tool To Achieve Competitive Advantage for Small, Medium and New Enterprises”, International Journal of Management (IJM), Volume 4, Issue 3, 2013, pp. 38 - 47, ISSN Print: 0976-6502, ISSN Online: 0976-6510.

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