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Signposting Overview (Version November 2017)

This slide deck provides an overview of proposals to use HTTP Links as a means to address some long standing problems related to scholarly resources on the web.

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Cartoon by Patrick Hochstenbach
Slides prepared by:
Herbert Van de Sompel
@hvdsomp
Acknowledgments: Geoff Bilder, Shawn
Jones, Martin Klein, Michael L. Nelson, David
Rosenthal, Harihar Shankar, Simeon Warner,
Karl Ward, Joe Wass
Signposting the Scholarly Web: An Overview
http://signposting.org
Signposting is funded by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation
Updated Version November 2017
Signposting the Scholarly Web
http://signposting.org
• Introduction: HTTP Links
• Signposting the Scholarly Web
• Proposed Patterns
• Putting it Together
Outline
Signposting the Scholarly Web
http://signposting.org
HTTP Links
Mark Nottingham (2017) RFC8288: Web Linking.
http://tools.iets.org/rfc/rfc8288.txt
Signposting the Scholarly Web
http://signposting.org
HTTP Links
Signposting the Scholarly Web
http://signposting.org
HTTP Links
Signposting the Scholarly Web
http://signposting.org
HTTP Links Are Used
curl –I http://dbpedia.org/data/Reykjavik
HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Date: Thu, 27 Oct 2016 04:43:28 GMT
Content-Type: application/rdf+xml; charset=UTF-8
Content-Length: 1210
Link:
<http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0>
; rel=“license",
<http://dbpedia.org/data/Reykjavik>
; rel="alternate"; type="text/n3",
<http://dbpedia.org/resource/Reykjavik>; rel="describes",
<http://mementoarchive.lanl.gov/dbpedia/timegate/http://dbpedia.org/
data/Reykjavik>
; rel="timegate"

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Signposting Overview (Version November 2017)

  • 1. Cartoon by Patrick Hochstenbach Slides prepared by: Herbert Van de Sompel @hvdsomp Acknowledgments: Geoff Bilder, Shawn Jones, Martin Klein, Michael L. Nelson, David Rosenthal, Harihar Shankar, Simeon Warner, Karl Ward, Joe Wass Signposting the Scholarly Web: An Overview http://signposting.org Signposting is funded by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation Updated Version November 2017
  • 2. Signposting the Scholarly Web http://signposting.org • Introduction: HTTP Links • Signposting the Scholarly Web • Proposed Patterns • Putting it Together Outline
  • 3. Signposting the Scholarly Web http://signposting.org HTTP Links Mark Nottingham (2017) RFC8288: Web Linking. http://tools.iets.org/rfc/rfc8288.txt
  • 4. Signposting the Scholarly Web http://signposting.org HTTP Links
  • 5. Signposting the Scholarly Web http://signposting.org HTTP Links
  • 6. Signposting the Scholarly Web http://signposting.org HTTP Links Are Used curl –I http://dbpedia.org/data/Reykjavik HTTP/1.1 200 OK Date: Thu, 27 Oct 2016 04:43:28 GMT Content-Type: application/rdf+xml; charset=UTF-8 Content-Length: 1210 Link: <http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0> ; rel=“license", <http://dbpedia.org/data/Reykjavik> ; rel="alternate"; type="text/n3", <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Reykjavik>; rel="describes", <http://mementoarchive.lanl.gov/dbpedia/timegate/http://dbpedia.org/ data/Reykjavik> ; rel="timegate"
  • 7. Signposting the Scholarly Web http://signposting.org HTTP Links Are Used curl –I http://dbpedia.org/data/Reykjavik HTTP/1.1 200 OK Date: Thu, 27 Oct 2016 04:43:28 GMT Content-Type: application/rdf+xml; charset=UTF-8 Content-Length: 1210 Link: <http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0> ; rel=“license", <http://dbpedia.org/data/Reykjavik> ; rel="alternate"; type="text/n3", <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Reykjavik>; rel="describes", <http://mementoarchive.lanl.gov/dbpedia/timegate/http://dbpedia.org/ data/Reykjavik> ; rel="timegate"
  • 8. Signposting the Scholarly Web http://signposting.org HTTP Links Are Used curl –I http://dbpedia.org/data/Reykjavik HTTP/1.1 200 OK Date: Thu, 27 Oct 2016 04:43:28 GMT Content-Type: application/rdf+xml; charset=UTF-8 Content-Length: 1210 Link: <http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0> ; rel=“license", <http://dbpedia.org/data/Reykjavik> ; rel="alternate"; type="text/n3", <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Reykjavik>; rel="describes", <http://mementoarchive.lanl.gov/dbpedia/timegate/http://dbpedia.org/ data/Reykjavik> ; rel="timegate"
  • 9. Signposting the Scholarly Web http://signposting.org HTTP Links Are Used curl –I http://dbpedia.org/data/Reykjavik HTTP/1.1 200 OK Date: Thu, 27 Oct 2016 04:43:28 GMT Content-Type: application/rdf+xml; charset=UTF-8 Content-Length: 1210 Link: <http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0> ; rel=“license", <http://dbpedia.org/data/Reykjavik> ; rel="alternate"; type="text/n3", <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Reykjavik>; rel="describes", <http://mementoarchive.lanl.gov/dbpedia/timegate/http://dbpedia.org/ data/Reykjavik> ; rel="timegate"
  • 10. Signposting the Scholarly Web http://signposting.org HTTP Links Are Used curl –I http://dbpedia.org/data/Reykjavik HTTP/1.1 200 OK Date: Thu, 27 Oct 2016 04:43:28 GMT Content-Type: application/rdf+xml; charset=UTF-8 Content-Length: 1210 Link: <http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/3.0> ; rel=“license", <http://dbpedia.org/data/Reykjavik> ; rel="alternate"; type="text/n3", <http://dbpedia.org/resource/Reykjavik>; rel="describes", <http://mementoarchive.lanl.gov/dbpedia/timegate/http://dbpedia.org/ data/Reykjavik> ; rel="timegate"
  • 11. Signposting the Scholarly Web http://signposting.org • Registered in IANA registry • Strings, e.g. license, alternate, describes, timegate • Requires a formal specification, e.g. RFC • Typically used for common relationships, generically specified • Provides broad, coarse grained interoperability • Minted by a community • URIs, e.g. http://xmlns.com/foaf/0.1/primaryTopic • Requires community agreement • Can be as specific as desired • Can provide community-specific, fine grained interoperability HTTP Link Relation Types
  • 12. Signposting the Scholarly Web http://signposting.org • Can uniformly be used for all MIME types • Accessible via HTTP HEAD (no content transfer): • Works for large resources and for restricted content • But HTTP Link not accessible to JavaScript • Links can be conveyed: • by-value, in the HTTP Link header • by-reference, by using a link in the HTTP header with the linkset relation type that points to a collection of links • HTTP Links provide guidance to machine agents intent on accomplishing a specific task HTTP Links Are Pretty Neat
  • 13. Signposting the Scholarly Web http://signposting.org • Can only be done for media types that support inclusion of typed links, i.e. using the HTML <link> element in <head> • Requires HTTP GET (content transfer) • HTML <link> is accessible to JavaScript • For HTML pages, use both HTTP Link and HTML <link> • Links can be conveyed: • by-value, using HTML <link> • by-reference, by using an HTML <link> with the linkset relation type that points to a collection of links • HTML <link> elements provide guidance to machine agents intent on accomplishing a specific task HTTP Links Alternative: Links in Resource Representation
  • 14. Signposting the Scholarly Web http://signposting.org • Used to point to a collection of links in which the resource that provides the link participates • As link target or link source • Use when: • It is hard to provide links from within the application (it is easy to provide a linkset link using a web server rewrite rule) • It is easier to provide links from a dedicated application, operated by the custodian of the resource or by a third party • The number of links to be provided is large and risks making the HTTP header too bulky The linkset Relation Type (1) Is Pretty Neat (1) Wilde, E. and Van de Sompel, H (2017) Linkset: Media Types and a Link Relation Type for Link Sets https://datatracker.ietf.org/doc/draft-wilde-linkset/
  • 15. Signposting the Scholarly Web http://signposting.org • Introduction: HTTP Links • Signposting the Scholarly Web • Proposed Patterns • Putting it Together Outline
  • 16. Signposting the Scholarly Web http://signposting.org • Proposal: Use HTTP Links to address some long standing problems regarding scholarly resources on the web, by interlinking them using appropriate relation types • Focus on a limited set of patterns to support uniformly: • Conveying a Persistent Identifier • Expressing the web boundary of a scholarly resource • Making bibliographic metadata discoverable • Conveying an Author Identifier • Conveying a resource type Signposting the Scholarly Web
  • 17. Signposting the Scholarly Web http://signposting.org • PID: Persistent Identifier • HTTP PID: the HTTP URI notation of the PID • entry page: the page where one ends up after following redirects from the HTTP PID, typically the landing page or full content HTML • resource: a web resource identified by an HTTP URI • constituent resource: a resource that is an integral part of a scholarly object, e.g. landing page, PDF, supporting data, … • bibliographic resource: a resource that provides a bibliographic description of a scholarly object Terminology
  • 18. Signposting the Scholarly Web http://signposting.org • Introduction: HTTP Links • Signposting the Scholarly Web • Proposed Patterns • Putting it Together Outline
  • 19. Signposting the Scholarly Web http://signposting.org • Problem: When positioned at a constituent resource of a scholarly object, the associated HTTP PID is not available. As a result: • Entry page URIs are used for citation (1) • Applications such as annotation can not determine the HTTP PID associated with a constituent resource • Entry page URIs are used in social media and hence missed by alt metrics applications • Solution: provide cite-as link pointing at the HTTP PID • Applies to: entry page, all constituent resources Pattern: Identifier (1) Herbert Van de Sompel, Martin Klein, and Shawn Jones (2016) Persistent URIs Must Be Used to Be Persistent. In: WWW2016. http://arxiv.org/1602.09102
  • 20. Signposting the Scholarly Web http://signposting.org Use HTTP Link with cite-as Relation Type http://signposting.org/identifier/dryad/
  • 21. Signposting the Scholarly Web http://signposting.org Use HTTP Link with cite-as Relation Type curl –I http://www.dlib.org/dlib/november15/vandesompel/11vandesompel.html HTTP/1.1 200 OK Date: Wed, 26 Oct 2016 12:36:37 GMT Server: Apache/2.2.15 (CentOS) Last-Modified: Thu, 19 Nov 2015 14:50:19 GMT ETag: "205a5e-f5ef-524e5e0ab80c0" Accept-Ranges: bytes Content-Length: 62959 Content-Type: text/html; charset=UTF-8 Link: <https://doi.org/10.1045/november2015-vandesompel> ; rel=“cite-as”
  • 22. Signposting the Scholarly Web http://signposting.org • Problem: It is not possible to determine what the constituent resources of a scholarly object are • Preservation and text mining tools require portal-specific heuristic to find those constituent resources (1) • Can’t find the pathway from an HTTP PID directly to e.g. the PDF • Solution: provide item/collection links to interlink entry page and constituent resources; convey MIME types on item links • Applies to: All constituent resources of a scholarly object Pattern: Publication Boundary (1) Van de Sompel, H., Rosenthal, D., and Nelson, M.L. (2016) Web Infrastructure to Support e-Journal Preservation (and More). http://arxiv.org/abs/1605.06154
  • 23. Signposting the Scholarly Web http://signposting.org Use HTTP Link with item/collection Relation Type http://signposting.org/publication_boundary/oxford/
  • 24. Signposting the Scholarly Web http://signposting.org curl –I http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/view/2179 HTTP/1.1 200 OK Date: Sat, 17 Jun 2017 09:11:52 GMT Server: Apache Vary: Accept-Encoding Accept-Ranges: none Keep-Alive: timeout=5, max=200 Content-Type: text/html; charset=utf-8 Link: <http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/download/2179/3748> ; rel=“item” ; type=“application/pdf” , <http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/view/2179/3747> ; rel="item"; type="text/epub+zip" Use HTTP Link with item/collection Relation Type
  • 25. Signposting the Scholarly Web http://signposting.org • Problem: It is not possible to determine where the bibliographic resources that describes a scholarly object can be found • Preservation and reference manager tools require portal-specific heuristic to find those resources (1) • Solution: provide describedby/describes links to interlink entry page and bibliographic metadata resources • Applies to: • describedby: HTTP PID, entry page • describes: bibliographic resources Pattern: Bibliographic Metadata (1) Van de Sompel, H., Rosenthal, D., and Nelson, M.L. (2016) Web Infrastructure to Support e-Journal Preservation (and More). http://arxiv.org/abs/1605.06154
  • 26. Signposting the Scholarly Web http://signposting.org Use HTTP Link with describedby/describes Relation Type http://signposting.org/bibliographic_metadata/springer/
  • 27. Signposting the Scholarly Web http://signposting.org curl -I http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.01152 53 HTTP/1.1 200 OK Date: Sat, 17 Jun 2017 09:29:03 GMT Server: Apache-Coyote/1.1 Content-Language: en-US Keep-Alive: timeout=5, max=100 Content-Length: 308491 Content-Type: text/html;charset=UTF-8 Connection: keep-alive Link: <http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article/citation/bibtex?id=10.1371 %2Fjournal.pone.0115253> ; rel="describedby" ; type="application/x-bibtex" , <https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0115253> ; rel="describedby" ; type="application/vnd.citationstyles.csl+json" Use HTTP Link with describedby/describes Relation Type
  • 28. Signposting the Scholarly Web http://signposting.org Bibliographic Metadata Conventions http://signposting.org/conventions/
  • 29. Signposting the Scholarly Web http://signposting.org • Introduction: HTTP Links • Signposting the Scholarly Web • Proposed Patterns • Putting it Together Outline
  • 36. Signposting the Scholarly Web http://signposting.org Cartoon by Patrick Hochstenbach Slides prepared by: Herbert Van de Sompel @hvdsomp Acknowledgments: Geoff Bilder, Shawn Jones, Martin Klein, Michael L. Nelson, David Rosenthal, Harihar Shankar, Simeon Warner, Karl Ward, Joe Wass Signposting the Scholarly Web: An Overview http://signposting.org Signposting is funded by the Andrew W. Mellon Foundation