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Fantasy sports wagering: Should we be
concerned?
Jeffrey L. Derevensky, Ph.D.
Professor, School/Applied Child Psychology
Professor, Psychiatry
Director, International Centre for Youth Gambling
Problems and High-Risk Behaviors
McGill University
www.youthgambling.com
New Horizons Conference, February, 2017
Sports gambling: A favorite pastime
• Sports Gambling $380 billion industry
• Nevada's legal sports book $3 billion <1% of
the market.
• Insatiable appetite for sports wagering in the
U.S. as well as Canada.
Sports Wagering in the U.S.
• Recent poll: 65% of fans support regulated
sports wagering (AGA, 2016)
• Americans bet $4.2 billion on Super Bowl; $9.2
billion on NCAA March madness tournament
(estimates 40 million people wagered)
• Powerball odds 1 in 292 million; perfect bracket
1 in 2.4 trillion
Sports Wagering in the U.S.
What is fantasy sports wagering
and is it really gambling?
• Pick players and follow their performance-not
wagering on the outcome of a game but rather
player statistics and player performance.
Fantasy Sports Trade Association (2013)
• Player draft before the season, allows for
management of one's team-periodic line-up
changes, player drops and player adds.
• Daily/weekly-pick players from different teams.
Fantasy Sports
Fantasy sports: Some examples
Some hypocrisy?
Cincinnati Reds great Pete Rose is still revered by many fans, but Major League
Baseball as a whole keeps its distance because of Rose’s ties to gambling.
However, it endorses fantasy leagues.
The Fantasy
MARKETPLACE
» CLASSIC FANTASY SPORTS INDUSTRY
MARKET FACTS
• $2B Industry with a $5B Economic Impact
• 41.5M Fantasy Players in North America
(13% of online)
• The Average Fantasy Player Spends $467
each year on Fantasy Sports
• Almost 50% of major sports sites’ traffic
comes from Fantasy Sports Players looking
at scores, stats and reading articles/blogs:
46% CBS, 47% Yahoo!
Year Estimated Number of Players
1988 500,000
1991-1994 1 - 3 Million
2003 15.2 Million
2004 13.5 Million
2005 12.6 Million
2006 18 Million
2007 19.4 Million
2008 29.9 Million
2009 28.4 Million
2010 32 Million
2011 35.9 Million
2014 41.5 Million
Sulsky (2015)
» GLOBAL FANTASY MARKET FORECAST
• The Global Fantasy Sports market was valued at $3.78 billion in
2014
• Expected to reach $6.26 billion by 2019
• Growing at a rate of 10.62 percent during the forecast period.
Sulsky (2015)
» THE NEW BOOM: DAILY FANTASY SPORTS (DFS)
• Fanduel & Draft Kings raised a combined $111M in
2014
• Draft Kings raised $250M ($900m valuation) in April
‘15
• Only <5% of total Fantasy Players active in DFS…so
far
DFS Active Player Spending:
•50% Spend $500+ per year *
•70% spend $300+ per year *
Other:
• Online Poker Player: $765+ per year **
• Sports Gambling: $80B - $360B per year
***
As DFS awareness spreads to the season-long fantasy
player & sports enthusiast, DFS revenues will climb.
41.5 Million
Total Fantasy
Players
2M
Fantasy Sports in 2014
DFS = $91M
Source: Company reports, Eilers Research, LLC
*Source: Source: Company reports, Eilers Research, LLC
**Source: Academicon, October 16, 2013
***Source: Washington Post, Feb 27, 2015: Sports gambling in U.S.: Too prevalent to remain Illegal?
Sulsky (2015)
» THE NEW BOOM: DAILY FANTASY SPORTS (DFS)
41.5 Million
Total Fantasy Players
2M
Fantasy sports in 2014
DFS = $91M
3
2
.
5
2
1
.
5
1
0
.
5
0
Baseline
Bullish
14 15 16 17
Year
18 19 20 21
DFS revenues estimated to increase by $1.69B over the next 5 years
Rate of growth of 36%-46% vs. Overall Fantasy Industry of 10.62%
DFS is the GROWTH Opportunity in Social, Mobile & Gaming
Sulsky (2015)
» FANTASY SPORTS MARKET OPPORTUNITY
Source: Ipsos Public Affairs and University of Mississippi Studies
•60+% of Fantasy players have wagered at a casino or racetrack
•DFS has only converted <5% of 41m+ total players
Demographics
# Description
13% N Americans (41.5M)
21% All 18-34 age group
18% All College Degrees
19% Among Males
80% Male
49.9% Married
79% Owns own home
$94,566 Avg HHI
Behavior
% Description
40% Paying - will pay more
10% Used Offshore Site
22% Wagered - Horse-track
42% Wagered at a Casino
22% Placed Vegas Bet
12% Placed On-Line Bet
42% Cell - Fantasy
96% E-mail for Fantasy
Buying Habits
Fantasy
Player Category
US Sports
Fan
72% Beer 49%
69% Alcohol 53%
93% Fast Food 86%
95% Soda 88%
90% Athletic Shoes 81%
58% Video Consoles 42%
93% Cell Phone 89%
63% Reads Sports Mags 49%
Sulsky (2015)
NFL Football 77%
MLB Baseball 33%
NASCAR 21%
NBA Basketball 20%
College Football 20%
NHL Hockey 18%
Golf 15%
Pro Soccer 12%
Sports Wagering Distribution
» FANTASY PLAYER
DYNAMICS
41.5M
Classic Fantasy Player
“GM” mentality
• Season-long engagement
• Plays with groups/friends
• Much more social
•
• 50+% have gambled at a
casino/racetrack
2M
Daily Fantasy Player
Spends time every day
• 1 day at a time gaming
• Plays alone
•
• Gambler mentality
Sulsky (2015)
• Long history in U.S. Began in the late 1950s, 1960s.
• Really took off in the 1990s with the saturation of
high speed internet usage ; Watershed moment in
1997 Commissioner.com and RotoNews.com;
2008 Montana State Lottery starts its own fantasy
sports.
• Today: Fantasy Sports is becoming a
MAINSTREAM SOCIAL ACTIVITY with large
corporations Investing hundreds of millions to
increase playing.
Why Fantasy Sports?
• “Someone has been convinced that daily fantasy is
the panacea, discovery of the Golden Fleece, solving
the riddle of the Gordian Knot, free passes to Willy
Wonka’s Chocolate Factory and who knows what
else” (Mickey Charles, The Sports Network, June
2015).
• Disney intended to invest $250 million in Draft Kings
(on proviso they would invest $500 million in
advertising on ESPN); other leading investors MLB,
NBA, NFL, Comcast.
• Can play for little money or significant amounts of
money.
Why Fantasy Sports?
•It’s not going away but will only get bigger &
bigger” (Nic Sulsky, Sportech, 2015).
•Business to Business Model (60% of Fantasy
Sports players also gamble in a casino).
Fantasy Sports: A Socially
Acceptable Activity
Casual Players 13% $0-20 annually- primarily engaged
in for entertainment & maintain interest.
Skilled Players 21% highly involved; 4-5 hrs per week
$12-50 annually - Maintain interest,
distraction from daily routines, money
enhances the “fantasy experience”.
Isolationist Thrill Seeker 9.5% - average age 20, Spends about
$20 per year-not very serious players,
signs of addictive behaviors-rely upon
hope that victory is just around the
corner; concern about keeping up with
their buddies.
A Classification Scheme (Farquhar & Meeds; 2007) N=42
Trash Talkers 9.5% 1-2hrs per week, <20.5
years old, “bragging rights” ;
escape, a form of healthy
distraction, love of winning.
Formatives 5% average age 20.5; played
because its harmless good fun. 
A Classification Scheme (Farquhar & Meeds; 2007) N=42
Is Fantasy Sports wagering for
money legal?
• Many operators and proponents seem to believe that the
UIGEA creates a safe harbor for all Fantasy Sports.
FanDuel declared: Fantasy Sports is considered a game of
skill and received a special exemption from the 2006
Unlawful Internet Gambling enforcement Act, FanDuel uses
exactly the same rules as any other season-long Fantasy
Sports format, the only difference is that our games last
only one day or one week” (www.fanduel.com/Legal) 2015.
• Draft Kings states on its website the business is in a “game
of skill” and is “100% legal in Canada and the U.S.”
Fantasy Sports and Gambling:
The Line is Blurred
• Former Rep. Jim Leach, author of the 2006 UIGEA, said “no
one ever conceived of it [fantasy sports] becoming a large
scale activity or that it could transition into one-day contests”
(Pempus, May, 2015).
• No current court opinions on whether daily fantasy games
has sufficient skill elements to keep it out of the category of
sports wagering (Rose, 2015).
• “Fantasy Sports currently operate in a murky legal
environment” (Gemignani & Gaynor, June, 2015).
Fantasy Sports and Gambling:
The Line is Blurred
• Fantasy Sports laws are complex & intricate (Light,
Rutledge & Singleton, 2011).
• On a given day an injury, a hailstorm or a ball bouncing
strangely could affect the result. In this regard, playing
daily fantasy seems very similar to placing a bet with a
bookmaker (Ryan Rodenberg, Professor of Sports Law,
Florida State University, CNBC, March, 2013).
Fantasy Sports and Gambling:
The Line is Blurred
Should we be concerned? Does it
really matter?
Nesbit & King (2010) MLB & NFL ESPN Poll
•Fantasy Sports participation leads to increased interest in
and number of games watched.
•Participants engaged in Fantasy Sports showed a 75%
increase in viewing MLB games; 35% NFL games.
Davis & Duncan (2006)
•Fantasy Sports was used as a “means of reaffirming
masculinity.”
Stafford, Stafford & Schikade (2004)
•3 reasons for engaging in Fantasy Sports:
• content
• entertainment/escape
• social interaction
Motivating Factors
Suh, Lim Kwak & Pedersen (2010)
•N=334 UG students in Midwest US
•161 play FS (48%)
•90.1% males; 9.9% Females
•Need for winning money
•Competition
•Achievement
•Fantasy (e.g., being a general manager)
•Constraints (time, accessibility)
•Mobile devices breaking barriers
Motivating Factors
Lee, Kwak, Lim, Pedersen & Miloch (2011) N=244
•Impulsivity influenced behavioral intensions.
•Fantasy Sports players indicated higher degrees of
novelty seeking and desire for “complex
experiences”.
Motivating Factors
Is there a relationship between fantasy
sports and problem gambling?
some empirical evidence
  Total (N=1556) Males (N=557) Females (N=996)
Past year fantasy 
sports participation for 
no money
100 (6.5%) 85 (15.3%) 15 (1.5%)
Past year fantasy 
sports participation for 
money
78 (5.0%) 72 (12.9%) 6 (0.6%)
Past year Fantasy Sports participation among a sample of
college students (N=1556)
Martin & Nelson (2014)
Martin & Nelson (2014)
Fantasy Sports Participation: College Students DSM >1 (N=1556)
Fantasy Sports: Free play Fantasy Sports: Money
Total
(N=100)
Males
(N=85)
Females
(N=15)
Total
(N=78)
Males
(N = 72)
Females
(N=6)
14.9% 11.8% 26.7% 26.9% 27.8% 16.7%
Martin & Nelson (2014)
Fantasy Sports Participation
Male Female
Social 
Gamblers
At-
Risk/PPG
Social 
Gamblers
At-
Risk/PPG
Free 
Fantasy 
Leagues 52.2% 65.4% 8.5% 44.4%
Fee-Based 
Fantasy 
Leagues 18.4% 48.1% 1.8% 25.0%
Participation in Fantasy Sports by Gambling Severity (2012)
Marchica & Derevensky (2015)
Forms of Sports Betting Undertaken by Male Student-Athletes
Who Wagered on Sports During the Past Year
Details on Pay Fantasy Sports
Participation in Fantasy Sports
Daily
About
once a
week
About
once a
month
Less
than
once a
month
Total
Bet money on sports teams
(pro, college or amateur
1.1% 1.7% 3.3% 7.4% 13.5%
Bet money on fantasy sports or
games (with an entry fee)
1.1% 1.4% 1.4% 3.4% 7.3%
Bet money on daily fantasy
sports (FanDuel or DraftKings,
etc.)
1.3% .9% 1.2% 1.7% 5.1%
Prevalence of Sports Wagering Among
Adolescents Ages 12 to 18 in Wood County,
Ohio (n=5242)
Ivoska (2016)
Gender Daily
About
once a
week
About
once a
month
Less than
once a
month
Total
Bet money on sports
teams (pro, college, or
amateur)
Female
Male
.3
1.8
.3
3.0
1.4
5.4
5.0
9.8
7.0%
20.0%
Bet money on fantasy
sports or games (with an
entry fee)
Female
Male
.3
1.9
.1
2.6
.2
2.7
1.7
4.9
2.3%
12.1%
Bet or wager on daily
fantasy sports (FanDuel
or DraftKings, etc.)
Female
Male
.3
2.2
0
1.8
.2
2.3
.9
2.4
1.4%
8.7%
Prevalence of Sports Wagering by Gender
Among Adolescents Ages 12 to 18 in Wood
County, Ohio (n=5183)
Age Daily
About
once a
week
About
once a
month
Less than
once a
month
Total
Bet money on sports
teams (pro, college, or
amateur)
14-16
17-19
2.2
2.9
3.3
4.2
7.0
5.3
20.4
22.8
22.8%
24.2%
Bet money on fantasy
sports or games (with an
entry fee)
14-16
17-19
2.4
2.0
2.9
4.6
3.1
3.5
5.4
5.5
13.8%
15.7%
Bet or wager on daily
fantasy sports (FanDuel
or DraftKings, etc.)
14-16
17-19
2.5
3.5
1.9
3.1
2.8
2.4
2.6
2.4
9.8%
11.5%
Prevalence of Sports Wagering by Age Among
Males Ages 14 to 18 in Wood County, Ohio
(n=1800)
Ivoska (2016)
• There have been no court challenges to the 
legality of daily fantasy sports wagering.
• Sports wagering internationally remains 
highly popular and will likely increase with 
legislative changes regarding sports 
wagering in general.
• Fantasy Sports wagering may just be one 
more form of gambling for social/recreational 
gamblers as well as problem gamblers.
Conclusions
• It is important to examine the relationship 
between problem gambling and fantasy sports 
gambling among diverse populations not just 
college students.
• Operators of fantasy sports wagering sites 
should provide age verification checks and 
include more responsible gambling features.
• Need to examine not only prevalence but the 
psychological factors placing some individuals 
at risk for problems.
Conclusions
• The legality of fantasy sports wagering will be 
decided by the judicial system state by state.
• Operators are beginning to take problem 
gambling more seriously.
• Recent decision by SportsKing and FanDuel will 
stop accepting wagers on college games.
• America’s fascination with sports gambling will 
continue.
• Fantasy sports operators will need to take a 
responsible approach toward underage & PGs
Conclusions
• Understanding informed decision-making.
• Methods for permitting players to set limits and 
self-exclusion.
• Should have signs and symptoms of gambling 
problems posted prominently on website.
• No solicitation/incentives through advertising for 
people self-excluding.
• Where to seek help if a customer develops a 
problem.
Recommendations
• Easy access to playing history.
• Customers should be encouraged to set 
gambling limits.
• Fees, net wins, and deposits should be 
prominently displayed.
• Site must be allowed to take wagers in the 
jurisdiction in which it operates.
• Age restrictions and age verification procedures 
must be in place.
• Behavioral analytics may help establish future 
problems.
       
                   Thank you!

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Dr. Jeffrey L. Derevensky

  • 1. Fantasy sports wagering: Should we be concerned? Jeffrey L. Derevensky, Ph.D. Professor, School/Applied Child Psychology Professor, Psychiatry Director, International Centre for Youth Gambling Problems and High-Risk Behaviors McGill University www.youthgambling.com New Horizons Conference, February, 2017
  • 2. Sports gambling: A favorite pastime
  • 3. • Sports Gambling $380 billion industry • Nevada's legal sports book $3 billion <1% of the market. • Insatiable appetite for sports wagering in the U.S. as well as Canada. Sports Wagering in the U.S.
  • 4. • Recent poll: 65% of fans support regulated sports wagering (AGA, 2016) • Americans bet $4.2 billion on Super Bowl; $9.2 billion on NCAA March madness tournament (estimates 40 million people wagered) • Powerball odds 1 in 292 million; perfect bracket 1 in 2.4 trillion Sports Wagering in the U.S.
  • 5. What is fantasy sports wagering and is it really gambling?
  • 6. • Pick players and follow their performance-not wagering on the outcome of a game but rather player statistics and player performance. Fantasy Sports Trade Association (2013) • Player draft before the season, allows for management of one's team-periodic line-up changes, player drops and player adds. • Daily/weekly-pick players from different teams. Fantasy Sports
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  • 31. Cincinnati Reds great Pete Rose is still revered by many fans, but Major League Baseball as a whole keeps its distance because of Rose’s ties to gambling. However, it endorses fantasy leagues.
  • 33. » CLASSIC FANTASY SPORTS INDUSTRY MARKET FACTS • $2B Industry with a $5B Economic Impact • 41.5M Fantasy Players in North America (13% of online) • The Average Fantasy Player Spends $467 each year on Fantasy Sports • Almost 50% of major sports sites’ traffic comes from Fantasy Sports Players looking at scores, stats and reading articles/blogs: 46% CBS, 47% Yahoo! Year Estimated Number of Players 1988 500,000 1991-1994 1 - 3 Million 2003 15.2 Million 2004 13.5 Million 2005 12.6 Million 2006 18 Million 2007 19.4 Million 2008 29.9 Million 2009 28.4 Million 2010 32 Million 2011 35.9 Million 2014 41.5 Million Sulsky (2015)
  • 34. » GLOBAL FANTASY MARKET FORECAST • The Global Fantasy Sports market was valued at $3.78 billion in 2014 • Expected to reach $6.26 billion by 2019 • Growing at a rate of 10.62 percent during the forecast period. Sulsky (2015)
  • 35. » THE NEW BOOM: DAILY FANTASY SPORTS (DFS) • Fanduel & Draft Kings raised a combined $111M in 2014 • Draft Kings raised $250M ($900m valuation) in April ‘15 • Only <5% of total Fantasy Players active in DFS…so far DFS Active Player Spending: •50% Spend $500+ per year * •70% spend $300+ per year * Other: • Online Poker Player: $765+ per year ** • Sports Gambling: $80B - $360B per year *** As DFS awareness spreads to the season-long fantasy player & sports enthusiast, DFS revenues will climb. 41.5 Million Total Fantasy Players 2M Fantasy Sports in 2014 DFS = $91M Source: Company reports, Eilers Research, LLC *Source: Source: Company reports, Eilers Research, LLC **Source: Academicon, October 16, 2013 ***Source: Washington Post, Feb 27, 2015: Sports gambling in U.S.: Too prevalent to remain Illegal? Sulsky (2015)
  • 36. » THE NEW BOOM: DAILY FANTASY SPORTS (DFS) 41.5 Million Total Fantasy Players 2M Fantasy sports in 2014 DFS = $91M 3 2 . 5 2 1 . 5 1 0 . 5 0 Baseline Bullish 14 15 16 17 Year 18 19 20 21 DFS revenues estimated to increase by $1.69B over the next 5 years Rate of growth of 36%-46% vs. Overall Fantasy Industry of 10.62% DFS is the GROWTH Opportunity in Social, Mobile & Gaming Sulsky (2015)
  • 37. » FANTASY SPORTS MARKET OPPORTUNITY Source: Ipsos Public Affairs and University of Mississippi Studies •60+% of Fantasy players have wagered at a casino or racetrack •DFS has only converted <5% of 41m+ total players Demographics # Description 13% N Americans (41.5M) 21% All 18-34 age group 18% All College Degrees 19% Among Males 80% Male 49.9% Married 79% Owns own home $94,566 Avg HHI Behavior % Description 40% Paying - will pay more 10% Used Offshore Site 22% Wagered - Horse-track 42% Wagered at a Casino 22% Placed Vegas Bet 12% Placed On-Line Bet 42% Cell - Fantasy 96% E-mail for Fantasy Buying Habits Fantasy Player Category US Sports Fan 72% Beer 49% 69% Alcohol 53% 93% Fast Food 86% 95% Soda 88% 90% Athletic Shoes 81% 58% Video Consoles 42% 93% Cell Phone 89% 63% Reads Sports Mags 49% Sulsky (2015)
  • 38. NFL Football 77% MLB Baseball 33% NASCAR 21% NBA Basketball 20% College Football 20% NHL Hockey 18% Golf 15% Pro Soccer 12% Sports Wagering Distribution
  • 39. » FANTASY PLAYER DYNAMICS 41.5M Classic Fantasy Player “GM” mentality • Season-long engagement • Plays with groups/friends • Much more social • • 50+% have gambled at a casino/racetrack 2M Daily Fantasy Player Spends time every day • 1 day at a time gaming • Plays alone • • Gambler mentality Sulsky (2015)
  • 40. • Long history in U.S. Began in the late 1950s, 1960s. • Really took off in the 1990s with the saturation of high speed internet usage ; Watershed moment in 1997 Commissioner.com and RotoNews.com; 2008 Montana State Lottery starts its own fantasy sports. • Today: Fantasy Sports is becoming a MAINSTREAM SOCIAL ACTIVITY with large corporations Investing hundreds of millions to increase playing. Why Fantasy Sports?
  • 41. • “Someone has been convinced that daily fantasy is the panacea, discovery of the Golden Fleece, solving the riddle of the Gordian Knot, free passes to Willy Wonka’s Chocolate Factory and who knows what else” (Mickey Charles, The Sports Network, June 2015). • Disney intended to invest $250 million in Draft Kings (on proviso they would invest $500 million in advertising on ESPN); other leading investors MLB, NBA, NFL, Comcast. • Can play for little money or significant amounts of money. Why Fantasy Sports?
  • 42. •It’s not going away but will only get bigger & bigger” (Nic Sulsky, Sportech, 2015). •Business to Business Model (60% of Fantasy Sports players also gamble in a casino). Fantasy Sports: A Socially Acceptable Activity
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  • 44. Casual Players 13% $0-20 annually- primarily engaged in for entertainment & maintain interest. Skilled Players 21% highly involved; 4-5 hrs per week $12-50 annually - Maintain interest, distraction from daily routines, money enhances the “fantasy experience”. Isolationist Thrill Seeker 9.5% - average age 20, Spends about $20 per year-not very serious players, signs of addictive behaviors-rely upon hope that victory is just around the corner; concern about keeping up with their buddies. A Classification Scheme (Farquhar & Meeds; 2007) N=42
  • 45. Trash Talkers 9.5% 1-2hrs per week, <20.5 years old, “bragging rights” ; escape, a form of healthy distraction, love of winning. Formatives 5% average age 20.5; played because its harmless good fun.  A Classification Scheme (Farquhar & Meeds; 2007) N=42
  • 46. Is Fantasy Sports wagering for money legal?
  • 47. • Many operators and proponents seem to believe that the UIGEA creates a safe harbor for all Fantasy Sports. FanDuel declared: Fantasy Sports is considered a game of skill and received a special exemption from the 2006 Unlawful Internet Gambling enforcement Act, FanDuel uses exactly the same rules as any other season-long Fantasy Sports format, the only difference is that our games last only one day or one week” (www.fanduel.com/Legal) 2015. • Draft Kings states on its website the business is in a “game of skill” and is “100% legal in Canada and the U.S.” Fantasy Sports and Gambling: The Line is Blurred
  • 48. • Former Rep. Jim Leach, author of the 2006 UIGEA, said “no one ever conceived of it [fantasy sports] becoming a large scale activity or that it could transition into one-day contests” (Pempus, May, 2015). • No current court opinions on whether daily fantasy games has sufficient skill elements to keep it out of the category of sports wagering (Rose, 2015). • “Fantasy Sports currently operate in a murky legal environment” (Gemignani & Gaynor, June, 2015). Fantasy Sports and Gambling: The Line is Blurred
  • 49. • Fantasy Sports laws are complex & intricate (Light, Rutledge & Singleton, 2011). • On a given day an injury, a hailstorm or a ball bouncing strangely could affect the result. In this regard, playing daily fantasy seems very similar to placing a bet with a bookmaker (Ryan Rodenberg, Professor of Sports Law, Florida State University, CNBC, March, 2013). Fantasy Sports and Gambling: The Line is Blurred
  • 50. Should we be concerned? Does it really matter?
  • 51. Nesbit & King (2010) MLB & NFL ESPN Poll •Fantasy Sports participation leads to increased interest in and number of games watched. •Participants engaged in Fantasy Sports showed a 75% increase in viewing MLB games; 35% NFL games. Davis & Duncan (2006) •Fantasy Sports was used as a “means of reaffirming masculinity.” Stafford, Stafford & Schikade (2004) •3 reasons for engaging in Fantasy Sports: • content • entertainment/escape • social interaction Motivating Factors
  • 52. Suh, Lim Kwak & Pedersen (2010) •N=334 UG students in Midwest US •161 play FS (48%) •90.1% males; 9.9% Females •Need for winning money •Competition •Achievement •Fantasy (e.g., being a general manager) •Constraints (time, accessibility) •Mobile devices breaking barriers Motivating Factors
  • 53. Lee, Kwak, Lim, Pedersen & Miloch (2011) N=244 •Impulsivity influenced behavioral intensions. •Fantasy Sports players indicated higher degrees of novelty seeking and desire for “complex experiences”. Motivating Factors
  • 54. Is there a relationship between fantasy sports and problem gambling?
  • 56.   Total (N=1556) Males (N=557) Females (N=996) Past year fantasy  sports participation for  no money 100 (6.5%) 85 (15.3%) 15 (1.5%) Past year fantasy  sports participation for  money 78 (5.0%) 72 (12.9%) 6 (0.6%) Past year Fantasy Sports participation among a sample of college students (N=1556) Martin & Nelson (2014)
  • 57. Martin & Nelson (2014) Fantasy Sports Participation: College Students DSM >1 (N=1556) Fantasy Sports: Free play Fantasy Sports: Money Total (N=100) Males (N=85) Females (N=15) Total (N=78) Males (N = 72) Females (N=6) 14.9% 11.8% 26.7% 26.9% 27.8% 16.7%
  • 59. Male Female Social  Gamblers At- Risk/PPG Social  Gamblers At- Risk/PPG Free  Fantasy  Leagues 52.2% 65.4% 8.5% 44.4% Fee-Based  Fantasy  Leagues 18.4% 48.1% 1.8% 25.0% Participation in Fantasy Sports by Gambling Severity (2012) Marchica & Derevensky (2015)
  • 60. Forms of Sports Betting Undertaken by Male Student-Athletes Who Wagered on Sports During the Past Year
  • 61. Details on Pay Fantasy Sports
  • 63. Daily About once a week About once a month Less than once a month Total Bet money on sports teams (pro, college or amateur 1.1% 1.7% 3.3% 7.4% 13.5% Bet money on fantasy sports or games (with an entry fee) 1.1% 1.4% 1.4% 3.4% 7.3% Bet money on daily fantasy sports (FanDuel or DraftKings, etc.) 1.3% .9% 1.2% 1.7% 5.1% Prevalence of Sports Wagering Among Adolescents Ages 12 to 18 in Wood County, Ohio (n=5242) Ivoska (2016)
  • 64. Gender Daily About once a week About once a month Less than once a month Total Bet money on sports teams (pro, college, or amateur) Female Male .3 1.8 .3 3.0 1.4 5.4 5.0 9.8 7.0% 20.0% Bet money on fantasy sports or games (with an entry fee) Female Male .3 1.9 .1 2.6 .2 2.7 1.7 4.9 2.3% 12.1% Bet or wager on daily fantasy sports (FanDuel or DraftKings, etc.) Female Male .3 2.2 0 1.8 .2 2.3 .9 2.4 1.4% 8.7% Prevalence of Sports Wagering by Gender Among Adolescents Ages 12 to 18 in Wood County, Ohio (n=5183)
  • 65. Age Daily About once a week About once a month Less than once a month Total Bet money on sports teams (pro, college, or amateur) 14-16 17-19 2.2 2.9 3.3 4.2 7.0 5.3 20.4 22.8 22.8% 24.2% Bet money on fantasy sports or games (with an entry fee) 14-16 17-19 2.4 2.0 2.9 4.6 3.1 3.5 5.4 5.5 13.8% 15.7% Bet or wager on daily fantasy sports (FanDuel or DraftKings, etc.) 14-16 17-19 2.5 3.5 1.9 3.1 2.8 2.4 2.6 2.4 9.8% 11.5% Prevalence of Sports Wagering by Age Among Males Ages 14 to 18 in Wood County, Ohio (n=1800) Ivoska (2016)
  • 68. • The legality of fantasy sports wagering will be  decided by the judicial system state by state. • Operators are beginning to take problem  gambling more seriously. • Recent decision by SportsKing and FanDuel will  stop accepting wagers on college games. • America’s fascination with sports gambling will  continue. • Fantasy sports operators will need to take a  responsible approach toward underage & PGs Conclusions
  • 69. • Understanding informed decision-making. • Methods for permitting players to set limits and  self-exclusion. • Should have signs and symptoms of gambling  problems posted prominently on website. • No solicitation/incentives through advertising for  people self-excluding. • Where to seek help if a customer develops a  problem. Recommendations
  • 70. • Easy access to playing history. • Customers should be encouraged to set  gambling limits. • Fees, net wins, and deposits should be  prominently displayed. • Site must be allowed to take wagers in the  jurisdiction in which it operates. • Age restrictions and age verification procedures  must be in place. • Behavioral analytics may help establish future  problems.