The Individual in the Information Society: A Summary of Recent Developments 

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The Individual in the Information Society: A Summary of Recent Developments 

  1. 1. The Individual in the Information Society: A Summary of Recent Developments 30th Jubilee International Conference on Organizational Science Development Portorož, 23. March 2011 Hans-Dieter Zimmermann FHS St. Gallen, University of Applied Sciences, St. Gallen, Switzerland www.hdzimmermann.net This presentation is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.5 Switzerland License http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.5/ch/
  2. 2. AgendaThe Web: From 1991 until todayGeneral Developments on different levelsEmergence of Electronic MarketsThe eCommerce PioneersThe Customer in the Center: eCommerce 2.0  Five conceptsConclusions 2
  3. 3. The World Wide Web – still a TeenagerDo you remember?There was a lifebefore the Web !The Web startedonly in August 1991 ! http://www.flickr.com/photos/27443865@N08/ 3
  4. 4. The E-Business Hype Cycle Seite 4
  5. 5. http://www.flickr.com/photos/27048731@N03/3764657489/ The Web DevelopmentsSeite 5
  6. 6. … and TodayThe Web is part of our daily life … at work, at home, on the road … as employer, as mom and dad, as consumer, a citizen, as patient, … basically in any role we can take … the respective infrastructures are availableEmergence of Web 2.0 and Social Media 6
  7. 7. http://www.flickr.com/photos/popoever/234877734/7
  8. 8. http://www.flickr.com/photos/fredcavazza/2564571564/
  9. 9. Web 2.0 and Social Media:It‘s not about tools and technology!It‘s about behavior!… on the  Societal  Organizational  IndividualLevel http://www.flickr.com/photos/pigatto/332193181/ 9
  10. 10. Societal Level – (1) Facebook-/Twitter- Revolutions in the Arab World …http://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=10150435486980651 http://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=1850044009242 10
  11. 11. Facebook-/ Twitter - Revolutions … http://www.flickr.com/photos/syoung/3955230375/… the right term?No!Revolutions are initiatedby people who fight for their rightsbut …(Social) Media support people in terms ofcoordination, organizing, communication 11
  12. 12. http://www.facebook.com/home.php?sk=group_200863076591392&ap=1 „e-Egypt Party“
  13. 13. The fear of the mighty …http://www.facebook.com/photo.php?fbid=490028917075
  14. 14. Societal Level –(2) Open, transparent, participatory societiesThe Web as Enabler for  eGoverment  eParticipation  eInclusion  eDemocracy  …… for new civil societies… (primarily) in western countries http://www.flickr.com/photos/oxfam/3982928597/ 14
  15. 15. Open Goverment: USAhttp://www.whitehouse.gov/open 15
  16. 16. Open Goverment: UKhttp://data.gov.uk/ 16
  17. 17. eZurich - eParticipation The eZürich Ideas Competition collected >600 ideashttp://www.ezurich.ch/en 17
  18. 18. City of St. Gallen – Social Media & eParticipationhttp://www.stadt.sg.ch 18
  19. 19. City of St. Gallen – MySG.ch A Facebook like community platform for citizenshttp://mysg.ch 19
  20. 20. Organizational LevelMajor steps of ICT application within andacross organizations 1960s Automation and improvements in efficiency Electronic Data Interchange (EDI) Interorganizational Systems (IOS) eBusiness and Supply Chain Management (SCM) today Enterprise 2.0 20
  21. 21. Individual LevelMajor steps of ICT utilization through individuals Automated Teller Machines (ATM) 1980s Online Networks for Consumers  Compuserve, Videotex, Bildschirmtext, Minitel, Prodigy, AOL, … Personal Computer (PC) World Wide Web (WWW) today Web 2.0 and Social Media 21
  22. 22. Individual LevelMajor areas of ICT utilization through individuals 1990s eCommerce Consumer eGoverment, e.g., eTax Citizen eHealth Patient eHealth 2.0 ePatient eDemocracy and eParticipation Citizen 2.0 today 22
  23. 23. A Major Trend on the Individual Level:Selftracking and Selfmonitoring (Personal Informatics)Individuals track personal data to monitor personal activities to share their data with  Friends on social networks  Doctors Enabling Self Management  For people having chronic diseases  For people to stay healthy and active 23
  24. 24. Selftracking and Selfmonitoring http://www.fitbit.com 24
  25. 25. http://www.fitbit.com Selfmonitoring Selftracking and http://blogs.forbes.com/kashmirhill/2011/02/25/adventures-in-25 self-surveillance-fitbit-tracking-my-movement-and-sleep/
  26. 26. Selftracking and Selfmonitoring “ithlete - new heart rate technology that tells you when to train and when to rest” Calculates recommendations based on the Heart-rate variability (HRV)http://www.myithlete.com/ 26
  27. 27. The ePatient Equipped with the skills to manage their own condition. Enabled to make choices about self-care and those choices are respected. Empowered Engaged patients are engaged in their own care Equals in their partnerships with the various physicians involved in their care Emancipated Expert patients can improve their self-rated health status, cope better with fatigue and other generic features of chronic disease such as role limitation, and reduce disability and their dependence on hospital care. 27
  28. 28. Emergence of Electronic Markets or How it Began
  29. 29. Electronic Market HypothesisCACM paperJune 1987Based onTransaction CostEconomicsMain idea:More market-likecoordination Malone, Thomas; Yates, Joanne; Benjamin, Robert I.: Electronic markets and electronic hierarchies, Communication of the ACM 30, 484-497 (1987) 29
  30. 30. Electronic Markets Newsletter SSCI listed journal September 1991 Vol 20 (2010) 32
  31. 31. Also the Bled eConference started in 1987 http://bledconference.org 33
  32. 32. The eCommerce Pioneers
  33. 33. 1995 - AmazonStart as an Online booksellerToday: Online shopping center Market platforms for  Consumers and  Businesses
  34. 34. 1995 - eBayStart as an Online auction based marketplace („flea market“)Today:marketplace for C2C and B2C Auctions Fixed prices New products 36
  35. 35. Changing Value Creation in the Digital Economy: Changing Value Creation Processes: The Integration of Customers into Value Creation
  36. 36. The Integration of Customers into Value Creation Supplier Wholesaler Retailer Customer Traditional Value Chain  ‘Production’  Need Inter- Emerging Customers mediary Value Network  Solution 41
  37. 37. The Integration of Customers into Value CreationeBay Individual as seller or buyer Through ratings the individual contributes to the business partner’s profile  new responsibilityAmazon Evaluation of products Individual Recommendations Affiliate program …  the individual as co-creator of services 42
  38. 38. The Customer in the Center: eCommerce 2.0
  39. 39. 1. Comments, Evaluation, Recommendations, …Individuals can give feedback on any transaction  Product related  Business partner related 44
  40. 40. 1. Comments, Evaluation, Recommendations, … 45
  41. 41. 1. Comments, Evaluation, Recommendations, … 46
  42. 42. 1. Comments, Evaluation, Recommendations, … 47
  43. 43. 1. Comments, Evaluation, Recommendations, …[http://faz-community.faz.net/blogs/netzkonom/archive/2008/11/23/marketing-im-web-2-0.aspx]
  44. 44. [http://faz-community.faz.net/blogs/netzkonom/archive/2008/11/23/marketing-im-web-2-0.aspx]
  45. 45. http://www.flickr.com/photos/ross/3941293767/2. Social Software Engage people Connect peopleWeblogsMicroblogs (Twitter, …)WikisSocial Network Services (Facebook, LinkedIn, XING, …)… location based SNS (Foursquare, Gowalla, …)Social Bookmarking (del.icio.us, …) … for scholarly references (BibSonomy, CiteULike, Mendeley, …)Social Music (blip.fm, spotify, simfy, …)Social ShoppingSocial Media Sharing (Flickr, Youtube, …)SocialTV… http://www.flickr.com/photos/thbernhardt/2984100802/ 50
  46. 46. Social Software Value Matrix52 http://www.flickr.com/photos/ross/3486654131/
  47. 47. 2. Social Software – Social Networks: FacebookCreate your communityhttp://www.facebook.com/adidasoriginals 53
  48. 48. 3. CrowdsourcingUtilizing the intelligence of the massesOutsourcing of tasks  Brainstorming, design, funding, … http://www.flickr.com/photos/beansandgrapes/4196948772/Examples  spreadshirt.de  Starbucks Idea (mystarbucksidea.force.com)  IdeaStorm (Dell) (www.ideastorm.com)  Library of Congress & Flickr (www.loc.gov/rr/print/flickr_pilot.html)  … Platforms  atizo.ch, bonspin.de, ideabounty.com, … 54
  49. 49. 3. Crowdsourcing - Example www.thejohnnycashproject.com 55
  50. 50. 4. Mass CustomizationCombining individualization of products and efficiencies of mass productionExamples Books (pegastar.com) Watches (121time.com) Shirts (dolzer.de) Parts (emachineshop.com) Sport shoes http://nikeid.nike.com 56
  51. 51. 4. Mass Customization http://nikeid.nike.com/nikeidhttp://shop.adidas.de/miadidas mongolianshoebbq.puma.comhttp://www.miadidas.com/Main.action Seite 57
  52. 52. Mass Customization - Example58 http://www.myswisschocolate.ch/
  53. 53. 5. The Long Tail
  54. 54. ‚Web 2.0‘ – The Long Tail(Chris Anderson, 2004, www.wired.com/wired/archive/12.10/tail.html)The Three Forces of the Long Tail  Force 1: Democratize the tools of production  Force 2: Democratize the tools of distribution  Force 3: Connect supply and demand
  55. 55. 61
  56. 56. Conclusions
  57. 57. The role of the individual has changeddramatically in the last two decadesWeb 1.0: Individuals are at the end of theone-way digitalized value chainWeb 2.0: Individuals are able to activelyparticipate in value creation in differentstages Citizens, Patients, Consumers … are at eye-level with their partners … have to take responsibilities for themselves and for others … need media and information literacy 63
  58. 58. „Wir teilen Informationen undunterschätzen doch ihre Macht“(We share informationbut underestimate their power) Yasuhisa Hasegawa, Blogger from Tokio, Japan [FAZ.net 23.3.2011] 64

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