SUGGESTOPEDIAA teaching method based on the idea how the humanbrain works and how we learn most effectively. It includesa rich sensory learning, a positive expectation of successand the use of a varied range of methods like dramatisedtexts, music, active participation in songs and games, etc.
BACKGROUNDSuggestology is tied to :1) yoga, techniques for altering states of consciousness and concentration, and use of rhythmic breathing2) Soviet psychology stress in the learning environmentThe most conspicuous feature of suggestopedia is the use of "music" and "musical rhythm”.
GEORGI LOZANOV Suggestopedia was originally developed in the 1970s by the Bulgarian psychoterapist and educator Georgi Lozanov (July 22, 1926, Sofia, Bulgaria – May 6, 2012) Suggestopedia is based on his early-1960s study of suggestion which is called as "suggestology".He introduced the contention that students naturally set up psychological barriersto learning - based on fears that they will be unable to perform and are limited interms of their ability to learn. Based on psychological research on extrasensoryperception, Lozanov began to develop a language learning method that focusedon "desuggestion" of the limitations learners think they have, and providing thesort of relaxed state of mind that would facilitate the retention of material to itsmaximum potential.Lozanov has claimed that most students use only 5 to 10 percent of their mentalcapacity and by using this method they can learn a language approximately threeto five times as quickly as through conventional teaching methods.
THREE BARRIERS TO SUGGESTION1) Logical-critical "That s not possible" "Others may be able to do that, but not me."2) Affective-emotional "I won t do it. It just makes me feel uneasy. I can t explain it really. I d rather not, thank you."3) Ethical "I really think that s slightly dishonest." "I don t think it s fair."
APPROACH Theory of Language Lozanov does not articulate a theory of language, He emphasizes: the importance of experiencing language material in ―whole meaningful texts‖ communication‖ refers most often to the language to be learned as ―the material.‖ the centrality of memorization of vocabulary and lexical translation recommends the use of stories with emotional content
Theory of learning There are some principal theoretical components through which desuggestion and suggestion operate and that set up access to reserves: AUTHORITY INFANTILIZATION DOUBLE-PLANEDNESS INTONATION RHYTHM CONCERT PSEUDO-PASSIVENESS
DESIGNObjective The main aim of teaching is not memorization, but the understanding and creative solution of problems, HOWEVER, memorization of vocabulary pairs is an important goal of Suggestopedia.The syllabus 30-day course, 10 units4 hours a day, six days a week(within each unit)Unit is organized around three days
day 1 – half a day,: a test is given to check the level the students’ knowledge and to provide a basis for dividing students into two groups, one of new beginners and one of modified (false) beginners. The teacher then briefs the students on the course and explains the attitude they should toward it, students are given a new name in L2 and a new identity in L2 cultureday 2 – full day: students are encouraged to practice the target language in a setting where it might be used, such as hotels and restaurants.day 3 – half a day: is devoted to a performance in which every student participates. The students construct a play built on the material of the course.
THEORY OF LEARNING AND TEACHING ACTIVITIES imitation, question and answer role play listening activities
TEACHER’S ROLES Teacher should create situations in which learners are most suggestible and then to present linguistic material in a way most likely to encourage positive reception and retention by learners. Show absolute confidence in the method. Organize properly, and strictly observe the initial stages of the teaching process—this includes choice and play of music, as well as punctuality. Give tests and respond tactfully to poor papers (if any). Maintain a modest enthusiasm. Teachers are expected to be skilled in acting, singing and psychotherapeutic techniques
LEARNERS’ ROLES Students volunteer for a suggestopedic course Learners must not try to figure out , manipulate, or study the material presented but must maintain a pseudo-passive state
THE ROLE OF INSTRUCTIONAL MATERIALS direct text and tape indirect classroom fixtures and music
PROCEDURE3 distinct parts of four-hour class:1. oral review of the material previously learned2. a new material is presented and discussed3. concert session --- the heart of the method!!
KEY FEATURES OF SUGGESTOPEDIA Comfortable environment In the classroom, the chairs are arranged semicircle and faced the black or white board in order to make the students pay more attention and get more relaxed. The light in the classroom is dim in order to make the students’ mind more relaxed The use of music Use of Baroque music during the learning process. Baroque music, with its 60 beats per minute and its specific rhythm, created the kind of relaxed states of mind for maximum retention of material. Peripheral Learning The students learn English not only from direct instruction but also from indirect instruction. It is encouraged through the presence in the learning environment of posters and decoration featuring the target language and various grammatical information. They are changed everyday.
Free Errors In the teaching learning process, students who make mistakes are tolerated, for example in pronouncing the word. The emphasis is on the content not the structure. Grammar and vocabularies are presented and given treatment from the teachers, but not dwelt on. Homework is limited Students reread materials given in the classroom once before they go to sleep at night and once in the morning before they get up. Music, drama and art are integrated in the learning process They are integrated as often as possible.
TYPICAL TECHNIQUES Classroom set-up Emphasis is placed on creating a physical environment that does not "feel" like a normal classroom, and makes the students feel as relaxed and comfortable as possible Peripheral Learning Students can absorb information "effortlessly" when it is perceived as part of the environment, rather than the material "to be attended to„ Positive Suggestion teachers appeal to students consciousness and subconscious in order to better orchestrate the "suggestive“ factors involved in the learning situation Visualization Students are asked to close their eyes and visualize scenes and events, to help hem relax, facilitate positive suggestion and encourage creativity from the students Choose a New Identity Students select a target language name and/or occupation that places them "inside" the language they are learning
Role-play Ss pretend temporarily that they are someone else and perform a role using the target language First Concert T does a slow, dramatic reading of the dialog synchronized in intonation with classical music Second Concert Students put aside their scripts and the teacher reads at normal speed according to the content, not the accompanying pre-Classical or Baroque music - this typically ends the class for the day Primary Activation Students "playfully" reread the target language out loud, as individuals or in groups Secondary Activation Students engage in various activities designed to help the students learn the material and use it more spontaneously - activities include singing, dancing, dramatizations and games - "communicative intent" and not "form" being the focus
THE SUGGESTOPEDIC LESSON Introduction Concert sessions (active and passive) Development of the syllabus introduced in the concert sessions Summary HERE IS A LINK TO FRAGMENT OF SUGGESTOPEDIC LESSON http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OAvCnY6HS08
ADVANTAGES OF SUGGESTOPEDIA students can lower their affective filter. Classes are held in ordinary rooms with comfortable chairs, a practice that may also help them relaxed. Authority concept Students remember best and are most influenced by information coming from an authoritative source, teachers. Double-planedness theory: It refers to the learning from two aspects. They are the conscious aspect and the subconscious one. Students can acquire the aim of teaching instruction from both direct instruction and environment in which the teaching takes place. Peripheral learning: Suggestopedia encourages the students to apply language more independently, takes more personal responsibility for their own learning and get more confidence. Peripheral information can also help encourage students to be more experimental, and look to sources other than the teacher for language input.
DISADVANTAGES OF SUGGESTOPEDIAThe main disadvantages of suggestopedia are as follow: Environment limitation: Most schools in developing countries have large classes. Each class consists of 30 to 40 students. There should be 12 students in the class. The use of hypnosis: Some people say that suggestopedia uses a hypnosis, so it has bad deep effects for human beings. Lazanov strongly denied about it. Infantilization learning: Suggestopedia class is conditioned be child-like situation. There are some students who do not like to be treated like this as they think that thay are mature.
REFERENCES1. Chapter. 10. Suggestopedia” in J. C. Richards and T. S. Rodgers. (1986). Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching. Cambridge University Press.2. www.jwelford.demon.co.uk/brainwaremap/suggest.html3. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Suggestopedia4. www.anglisci.pl/otwarta-biblioteka-pomocy-studenckich- metodyka/suggestopedia.html5. www.onestopenglish.com/support/methodology/teaching- approaches/teaching-approaches-what-is-s