Educational Changes 20th Century


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Educational Changes 20th Century

  1. 1. ALTERNATIVE SCHOOLS John Bronkhorst & Jan Dekker Radboud University Edith Stein/OCT Netherlands
  2. 2. Is it possible to learn in total freedom? (Rousseau; romanticism) Nature educates. Can people only learn in a structured environment? School? (Itard & Sequin; Herbart; Montessori) Theodor Litt “Führen oder Wachsen lassen?” (1929) Ivan Illich “Deschooling Society” (1960)
  3. 3. Topics <ul><ul><li>Fundamental choices in education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is the main objective? What is your position? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What is reform education ; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two other waves? Why? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>What schools are (still) working? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Alternative schools : what? Why? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge society and alternative schools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Results from research , and new sciences (neuropsychology, neurodidactics) </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. Fundamental choices. Führen /closed Wachsen lassen; open Herbart Rousseau reform education Peter Petersen Helen Parkhurst Maria Montessori Célestin Freinet Knowledge is objective direct instruction Science: empirism Knowledge is subjective Constructivism Science: case based cultural transmission romanticism Materialism (Aristoteles) Idealism (Plato) Waldorf school(Steiner)
  5. 5. Learning <ul><li>Knowledge is objective </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge has to be transferred </li></ul><ul><li>Adults know what has to be transferred </li></ul><ul><li>Direct Instruction </li></ul><ul><li>Empiric knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge is subjective </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge constructed by the individual </li></ul><ul><li>Cooperative work is positive; role of peers </li></ul><ul><li>Constructivism </li></ul><ul><li>Case based knowledge </li></ul>
  6. 6. Reform education New Educational Fellowship Basic points <ul><li>School situated at the countryside </li></ul><ul><li>Pupils have to be active </li></ul><ul><li>Pupils should choose their own activities </li></ul><ul><li>School and family have to cooperate as much as possible </li></ul><ul><li>discipline and order arise from structured work situations </li></ul><ul><li>authentic learning: like real life (or in) </li></ul><ul><li>learning is problem solving </li></ul>
  7. 7. Why reformeducation? <ul><li>Neo-romanticism end 19th century; more freedom; no useless disciplin; back to nature, to the authentic, the pure </li></ul><ul><li>Socialism: being strong for the weakest </li></ul><ul><li>WO-I: better society through education (and possible role for schools) </li></ul>
  8. 8. Democracy; self government; Personal experience as learning start Democratic socialism Freinet Work related to stages in life; No choices; idealism Antroposophy Steiner Choosing Tasks; individual Pragmatic liberalism Dalton (parkhurst) Education above teaching; group; community; humanism Jenaplan (petersen) Choosing M. learning materials; individual liberalism Montessori emphasis philosophy Who
  9. 9. 1920 reform education 1970 seventies anti-authoritarion education reform sudbury valley summerhill tvind etc. 2000 reform home education new age Socrates 4th century (BC) Comenius (17 th century) Froebel (19 th century) Pestalozzi (19 th century) Alternative schools….. A never ending story
  10. 10. Student protest: Middle class society Materialistic; more freedom and less adaptation ; post modern anti-autoritarian schools ; hippy movement ; eastern relgions (bagwhan, buddhism etc.);“all you need is love…” Vietnam war: better society; capitalism vs communism New socialistic and communistic experiments (china; cuba; commune; Why a new educational revolution in the seventies?
  11. 11. New schools 1970 Anti-authoritarion education (neo-romantic; psycho-analytic) Tvind (Denmark) Traveling as a model for learning; learning by comparing and doing Summerhill school/England (romanticism) Reggio Emilia Laborschule Bielefeld (progressivism) Sudbury Valley (USA) Rebecca Wild (Costa Rica) Many others……
  12. 12. New world order : collapse communism; need for new educational models, also in former Eastern countries; Criticizing schoolsystem ; freedom on paper;not enough changes in daily practice; learning has to be more authentic Learning outside school ( homeschooling ; ICT); lifelong learning; J.I.T. ; global society; role of ICT in learning Changes: school: more educational institute , learning also at home Better society : war (Africa; Irak; Afghanistan, terrorism) Schoolboards have to put themselves in front (competition) Why a third wave around 2000?
  13. 13. Constructivist purposes and designs <ul><li>problem oriented activities </li></ul><ul><li>visual formats and mental models </li></ul><ul><li>rich environments </li></ul><ul><li>cooperative and collaborative learning </li></ul><ul><li>learning through exploration </li></ul><ul><li>authentic learning; authentic assessment methods </li></ul>
  14. 14. 21th century <ul><li>Reggio Emilia (art as important factor) </li></ul><ul><li>Rebecca and Maurizio Wild </li></ul><ul><li>Sudbury Valley school </li></ul><ul><li>Home school movement </li></ul><ul><li>Reform education revival </li></ul><ul><li>New Age/idealism </li></ul><ul><li>Netherlands: ‘het nieuwe leren’ </li></ul>
  15. 15. Three waves In the 20th century
  16. 16. K N O W L E D G E E X P E R I E N C E Norms and values General aims of the school Specific aims of the school Learning situations Children/Students What is the kernel of a good schoolconcept?
  17. 17. The new generation.. <ul><li>Non linear thinkers </li></ul><ul><li>Living in a global society </li></ul><ul><li>multi tasking </li></ul><ul><li>technologically fluent at a very young age </li></ul><ul><li>learning all the time; learning cooperative/ICT </li></ul><ul><li>controlling their media </li></ul><ul><li>looking for “hard fun”, challenges, solving problems </li></ul><ul><li>no need for a step by step approach; figuring out the rules </li></ul><ul><li>high tech is my tech </li></ul>Tapscott, D.: Growing up digital
  18. 18. Learning and ICT linear, sequential hypermedia learning instruction construction absorbing materials learning to learn school lifelong one-size-for-all customized school as torture school as fun teacher as transmitter teacher as facilitator broadcast learning interactive learning
  19. 19. Teacher qualifications <ul><li>Knowledge of learning processes </li></ul><ul><li>Knowing the tools: e-mail, www, video-conferencing, multi-media, edutainment, computoys. </li></ul><ul><li>Flexible didactical knowledge and attitudes </li></ul><ul><li>Helicopterview </li></ul><ul><li>Global awareness, knowledge and skills </li></ul><ul><li>Higher Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) </li></ul>
  20. 20. Canadian Dutch Exchange (1995) E-zine “ My grandpa was in your country during the war. He mentioned the town of Groesbeek. Do you know it? His friend died there, during a German attack….” Melvin, 11 year, Toronto
  21. 21. Educational future What will education look like in 2030? Same educational concept all over Europe Or all over the the world? Same kind of schools in every country? Same kind of content in every country? Teachers able to work in all countries?
  22. 22. Or still in the footprints of….. “ In the footprints of Comenius…” From Naarden to Uhersky Brod..” Preparation by using ICT making a multimedia product writing an article in a periodical, using ICT A rich learning environment; meeting Comenius, Froebel, Petersen, Luther and many more.. Sharing the heritage of famous educators Naarden, where Comenius is buried Uhersky brod, where Comenius was born
  23. 23. Assignment/task *Choose for one or more Alternative schools and write a report on it (description page 8) First wave-Second wave-Third wave *Compose a map of educational changes, including school concepts mentioned, for an European region with a short description of the changes (aims and causes) * Compose a map of educational changes, including school concepts mentioned, for your own country with a description of the changes (aims and causes) and the connection with the educational system and the teacher training education