University of Trinidad and TobagoSchool for Studies in Learning Cognition and Education EDFN204B – Curriculum Studies Students: Christina Sookdeo – 52927 Rosemary Mansingh – 110006027 Trisha Assing-Raghoonath – 50996 Vieanna Khadan - 51026 Assignment Due Date: 26th March, 2012 Assignment: Educational Reform Quality Education for all Instructor: Ms Leela Ramsook
A local problemThe need to attain full national identity andindependenceA system that met the needs of the citizensA system that provided young people with skills toconfidently enter the workforceCapitalization of the human resource for effectiveparticipation in socioeconomic activities at the local,regional and international levels.Education was seen as the vehicle for social change.
2000 – Signatory of the Millennium Summit 2000Committed to achieving theThe Goals are:1.Eradicate extreme hunger and poverty2.Achieve universal primary education3.Promote gender equality and empower women4.Reduce child mortality5.Improve maternal health6.Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases7.Ensure environmental sustainability8.Develop a global partnership for development
2000 – Signatory for the 2000 Dakar Framework for ActionCommitted to achieving six major goals All citizens have a role to play in this educational reform. The six goals of ‘Education for All’ (EFA) have become UNESCO’s overriding priority in educationExpand early childhood care and educationThe goal calls for better and more possibilities to support young children, andtheir families and communities, in all the areas where the child is growing –physically, emotionally, socially and intellectually.Provide free and compulsory primary education for allTherefore this goal sets the objective of seeing that all children – girls as well asboys – go to school and finish primary education.Promote learning and life skills for young people and adultsThis goal places the emphasis on the learning needs of young people and adultsin the context of lifelong learning.
Increase adult literacy by 50 per centThis goal calls for a certain level of improvement in adult literacy by 2015 – itsays that it should be 50 per cent better than it was in 2000.Achieve gender parity by 2005, gender equality by 2015This goal calls for an equal number of girls and boys to be enrolled in primaryand secondary school by 2005 – this is what gender parity means.Improve the quality of educationThis goal calls for improvement in the quality of education in all its aspects,aiming for a situation where people can achieve excellence.
Seven goals have been placed on the national agenda:1) The achievement of a high level of human development and standard of living2) Full participation of citizens in the mainstream socioeconomic activities3) Strong and salient economy4) Good effective governance of the country5) Social cohesion6) Preservation of the natural environment7) Efficient and effective social institutional structures
This outlined four major objectives:1) Accessibility to educational opportunities for all2) Delivery of quality education to citizens at all levels of the education system3) Sustainable policy development for the education sector4) Continuous alignment of the strategic direction in the education system with objectives set for national development.Five priorities for the quantitative provision of education and seven priorities for the qualitative provision of education were set.
• The Ministry of Education has implemented major strides to reform the primary school educational sector.• Many advances, refurbishments, and modernization within the primary schools has been made by the Ministry of Education.• This is to ensure quality primary school education for all.
ADOPTION OF MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS – 2000Among the key eight (8) goals of the MDG is one goal that pertainsdirectly to the primary school educational sector. The achievement of universal primary education.
REFORM ACTION TAKEN:• Current student enrollment• Building of primary schools• Refurbishment of primary schools
COMMITMENT TO ACHIEVING EDUCATION FOR ALL (EFA GOALS): In the year 2000 this country also made a commitment to achieving ‘Education For All’ (EFA). Among the six (6) major EFA goals there are two major goals for primary school reform system.1) To ensure that by 2015 all children especially girls, children in difficult circumstances and those belonging to ethnic minorities, have access to and complete free and compulsory primary education of good quality.2) To eliminate gender disparities in primary and secondary education by 2005, and achieving gender equality in education by 2015, with a focus on ensuring girls’ full access to and achievement in basic education of good quality.
REFORM: TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCES• The Ministry of Education is equipping primary schools with the necessary technology to lay the groundwork for the establishment of a knowledge-based workforce.• To date, one hundred and twenty-four (124) primary schools have been equipped with a total of 1,499 computers.
REFORM: EDUCATION AND GENDER ISSUES• The reformation process has sought to ensure that all students have access to the educational opportunities. (Education Policy Paper (1993 — 2003))• Reform action taken place: 1) Gender discrimination is eliminated from theschool curriculum, textbooks and subject access. 2) Gender sensitive curriculum strategies aredeveloped and continue to be implemented at all levels ofthe education system.
THE REFORM OF THE EDUCATION SYSTEM- 2002-2006Two major priorities:• Continuation of the construction of primary schools under the Fourth Basic Education Programme.• Expansion of facilities at existing secondary schools to ensure placement of all students exiting the primary system and to facilitate the deshifting of schools.
CURRICULUM REFORM:The educational system must produce graduates with thenecessary skills to boost the working force. Hence, the Ministryof Education has sought to focus on two major developments ofthe educational sector.• Quantitative• Qualitative
CURRICULUM IMPROVEMENTS:• Revision of the primary school social studies syllabus.• Introduction of a Health and Family Life Education (HFLE) programme within the education system.• Infusion of Values Education across the subject areas.
The modernization and reform of the education systemstarted in the 1900’s and is still a priority today. Themost current and forthcoming reforms which seek toaddress the restructuring of the entire education systemare:
•Enrollment Level-•SEMP (Secondary Education ModernizationProgramme)Local School Boards were established in ten PublicSecondary Schools to assist in the school’s policy andimprovement plans and also to assist in raising funds forthe school.
The goals of SEMP are:1. The reform and expansion of the secondary school system that will result in five (5) years of high quality secondary education for all the nation’s children regardless of the social and economic status2. The creation of a curriculum that relevant to the very demanding and dynamic world of work3. The development of teaching technologies that will produce graduates who can adapt to the rapid changes being brought about through technological advances and globalization.
Education Policy Paper 1993-2003; “de-shifting” and conversion of all Junior Secondary and Senior Comprehensive schools into full five and seven year schools to ensure equitable access to full day secondary education for all children. Teacher morale through training and streamlining of the education system. Decentralization of control from the Ministry of Education to school boards. The introduction of more broad based curricular such as the infusion of Information and Communication Technology
•Technical Vocational Education, Specialized CraftSubjects•HFLE (Health and Family Life Education)•Modules on Aids and Social Reproduction Health•Values Education•At risk youth, Project PeaceCAPE (Caribbean Advanced Proficiency Examination)
•School Transport Service- Currently over 200 maxi taxis transportstudents daily, students are also transported by Public TransportService Commission (PTSC) buses at an annual cost of $30millionTT.•School Nutrition Programme- This programme provides dailybreakfast and daily lunches for students from early childhood tosecondary levels.•The Text Book Rental Programme- provides essential textbookson loan to 75,000 secondary school students.•Book Grants of one thousand dollars per student are providedthrough an innovative visa card. For September 2004, thirtythousand students entering fourth and sixth form classes weretargeted to receive the grant.
It is well recognized that teachers along with otherschool administrators lie “at the heart of the nation’sdrive” because they are the professionals chargedwith the responsibility of translating into effectiveclassroom practice the conviction that every child canlearn”.
PrincipalsExecutive Diploma in Diploma in TechnologySchool Management and EducationEffective LeadershipProgramme, Multi-media SpecialistsCertification Programme in Special Education TeachersSchool Management andEffective Leadership, Post-graduate diploma in Visual and Performing ArtsBachelor’s in Educationprogramme Specialized Craft TeachersMaster’s in Education for School Librarians
CETT – Caribbean Centre of Excellence for Teacher TrainingThis centre was set up to provide innovative leadership in inspiring,empowering and equipping teachers in the first three grades of theprimary school, to improve the teaching of reading and thereby assiststudents in mastering the fundamentals of reading.Provision of ramps at all new primary and secondary schools tofacilitate access of students in wheelchairsProvision of additional diagnostic and intervention support throughpsychologists at the educational district level as well as ensuringprescriptive services at some educational districtsIncreases in the number of concessions granted to students withphysical and learning disabilities that are registered for national,regional and international examinations
Co-ordination with the Ministry of Health to have all studentsscreened for visual and learning disabilities. This would includetesting and provision of spectacles and hearing aids wherenecessary.Continuation of the issue of book grants for students insecondary schoolsContinuation of providing school meals for students at all levelson a daily basisProvision of Special Education Teachers, Guidance Officers andSchool Social Workers in primary schools to work with learning andbehaviourally challenged students.
The groups of exceptional students, apart from thosewith early recognisable abilities are:•Those with sensory abilities – 50% with undetectedvision impairments•Those intellectually below normal – app.25%•Students with learning disabilities – app.10%•The gifted and talented – app.2%
Maurice Report (1959)The Private School Ordinance (1961)The Education Act (chapter 39:1, 1966)Save the Children International Network (late (1960’s)Bernard van Leer Foundation (1970’s)UNICEF Conference “ the Need for Young Child in the Caribbean”The International Year of the Child (IYC) 1980sConvention on the Rights of the Child (1989)
1990- World Summit Goals for Children1986- 91 -SERVOL partner with the Ministry of Education1989- National Council For Early Childhood Care and Education1992- National Task Force on Education NTFE Education Policy Paper(1993-2003)1994-95- Government in corporation with the World Bank. Begunthe Fourth Basic Education Project.1995- National ECCE Survey, Phase 1 conducted by High/Scope forthe Ministry of Education.1997- National ECCE Survey Phase II, High/Scope/M.O.E. Adoptionof the Caribbean Plan of Action
2000- National ECCE Survey Phase III2005 –Approved -Draft Standards for Regulating Early ChildhoodServices in Trinidad and Tobago2006- Draft National ECCE Curriculum Guide developed andapproved