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  1. 1. Antonio Ruiz Fernández 1ºA de Bachillerato
  2. 2. The cosmology is the study of structure and history of Universe. The Universe is the sum of all that exist, this included the time, the space, the matter, the energy, etc. The Universe has an approximated age of thirteen billion years.
  3. 3.  The Geocentric Model. Aristotle established that Earth is motionless an that it is located in the center of the universe. The sun, moon and planets revolve in perfect circles arounth the Earth.  The Heliocentric Model. It was proposed by Copernicus. The sun is motionless, it is located in the center of the Universe and the Earth and planets revolve around it.
  4. 4. Hubble and his collaborators found this galaxy in 1997 using the great Hooker Telescope in California. It wasn´t formed just by our galaxy, but it was much more expensive and consisted of millions of galaxies like ours.
  5. 5.  The Universe was very hot, it was formed by a plasma of protons and electrons particles. Ligth interacted with this plasma. Nuclear reactions were produced and atomic nuclei were formed. This phenom is called primary nucleosynthesis.  Universe gases: 25% helium and 74% hydrogen.  As the atomic nuclei were formed ligth didn´t interact with them, so the gases were transparent. The expansion continued and the atoms were grouped and they formed galaxies.  Big bang was a explosion in wich surged the universe.
  6. 6.  El Universo esta en expansión debida a la gran explosión (big bang).En el la única fuerza que actúa a gran escala es la gravedad que hace que las galaxias se atraigan unas a otras y por tanto se opone a la expansión que en consecuencia debería ser más lenta.  Si la densidad del universo es grande, la gravedad sería muy intensa y podría llegar a frenar la expansión y a unir el universo en un punto que volvería a estallar dando lugar a un nuevo universo en espansión. Universo Oscilante.
  7. 7.  Si la densidad del universo no es suficiente para que la gravedad frene la expansión el universo se extenderá para siempre. El estudio de la densidad de la materia brillante (la que vemos) y la masa dinámica o materia oscura (la que no vemos) apunta a que el universo se expandirá eternamente y nunca se detendrá, ya que la densidad solo llega al 30% de la densidad crítica que se necesita para frenar la expansión.
  8. 8. El universo en el pasado se expandía de forma más lenta que en el pasado, por lo que el universo se encuentra acelerado por una fuerza que desconocemos y que es de carácter repulsivo que en las grandes distancias actúa con mayor intensidad que la gravedad.
  9. 9.  Galaxies are a groups of stars, gas and dust. There are a different types:  -Spiral Galaxies.  -Elliptical Galaxies.  -Irregular Galaxies.  The galaxies are grouped to form even larger structures, called cumulus. In the cumulus the elliptical galaxies are in the center an the spiral and the irregular galaxies are located around.  Galaxies: The Milky Way, the Andromeda Galaxy and the galaxy M33.
  10. 10. Nebulae are a giant clouds of gas and dust with different shapes. Novae and supernovae are examples of nebulae. They are the result of a big explosions.
  11. 11. Quasars are a stellar objects that emit a large amount of energy as radio waves. Its believed that they are nuclei of galaxies in formation.
  12. 12. Black holes are objects in wich the ligth can´t escape because of their enormous gravitational attraction.
  13. 13. The stars are huge spheres of hydrogen and helium gas. They are formed in a nebulae and like live being, tehy get old and die when they have out of combustible after thousands of millions of years. The starts emit energy due to nuclear reactions that are produced inside . Nuclear fusion.
  14. 14.  Protostars. The contraction of the nebula due to gravitional attraction produce the formation of thousands of stellar-mass fragments, called protostars. The protostars are formed mainly by hydrogen.  Young Star. Gradually the hydrogen will become into helium trougth nuclear fusion. Then the protostar will become a star. Nuclear reactions take place mainly in the center of the star.
  15. 15.  Red giant star. Throughout its life, the star has produced energy by converting hydrogen into helium, so that the structure of the stars changes. The core is new formed by helium and nuclear reactions dont´t occur in it any more. The star becomes bigger, the outer layers cool down and the star gets red. It has become a red giant star. When the sun becomes a red giant stars, it engulf Mercury and Venus. The earth will be melted.
  16. 16.  When the hydrogen is consumed, the star contracts and reduces its size enourmusly to form a white dwarfs stars. It will form a black dwarf star when cool off.  Not all the stars end its life as red giant star. The core where the helium is converted into oxygen and carbon and the outher layer where the hydrogen is converted into helium. The percentage of energy productions is very large.
  17. 17.  Los sistemas planetarios están formados por grupos de planetas, satélites y otros objetos como cometas y asteroides que giran alrededor de una estrella.  Cuando una gigante roja explosiona puede dar lugar a la formación de nuevas estrellas y planetas.  Nuestro Sistema solar tiene 8 planetas 4 interiores rocosos (Mercurio , Venus , Tierra y Marte) y 4 exteriores gaseosos (Júpiter, Saturno, Urano y Neptuno).  Además existen satélites, asteroides, cometas y meteoritos.