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Origin of the Universe
• Great explosion (BIG
    BANG)
•   10.000 / 18.000 years
    ago
Composition of the Universe
• Chemical elements    • Energy in the
    in the Universe        Universe
• Gases : Hydrogen,    •   Light Energy
    Helium             •   Heat energy
•   Other elements:    •   Nuclear Energy
    Oxygen, Silicon,   •   Magnetism
    metals
                       •   Electricity
•   Compounds:Water,
    Carbon dioxide
Composition of the Universe
• The Universe is made
  up of galaxies
Our galaxy : Milky Way
• Our galaxy, Milky
  Way, is a spiral galaxy
Star systems
• Star systems are           • Solar system is made
    made up of:                  up of:
•   Central star             •   The Sun
•   Stars grouped in         •   Ursa Major (The
    constellations               Plough); Ursa Minor,
•   Planets and satellites       Orion, Zodiac .
•   Asteroids or             •   Eight planets
    metreorites
Stars and constellations
• Stars are huge balls of         • The Sun
  gas that give out light
  and heat energy
• The stars are fixed in the
  sky
• The stars are bright (the
  closer, the brighter)
• Stars colour
   – Blue stars are colder than
     red stars.
   – Yellow stars (Sun) have
     medium heat
Constellations
• Constellations are
  groups of stars with
  special patterns
8 planets in the Solar system
• Planets haven’t light and
    energy, they reflect light
    from the Sun
•   Heliocentric theory:
    Planets go around the
    Sun.
    Copernicus, XVI century
• Geocentric theory ,wrong:
    the Sun and planets go
    around the Earth
Relative size of the Sun and planets
Distances in the Universe




•   The Universe is very very big (infinite)
•   Telescope. Galileo XVII century.
•   Actual telescope : Hubble telescope
•   Light year : Distance that the light travels in one year
    with the speed 300.000 Km/s
Movements of the Earth and Moon

• Rotation movement         • The Moon is the satellite
  – Around its axis             of the Earth
  – 24 hours                •   Rotation movement
  – Consequence : day and       – Around its axis
    night
                                – 28 days
• Revolution movement       • Revolution movement
  –   Around the Sun
                                – Around the Earth
  –   365 + ¼ days:
                                – 28 days
  –   Consequence :
                                – Consequence : Phases of
  –   Year / Leap year            the Moon
Phases of the Moon
• The Moon doesn’t give out
  light, but reflects the Sun’s
  light
• Rotation and revolution
  movement of the Moon have
  the same period : 28 days.
• So, we always see the same
  face of the Moon in different
  phases:
   –   New Moon
   –   Waxing Moon (First Quarter)
   –   Full Moon
   –   Waning Moon (Last Quarter)
Gravity pull force
• Gravity is the force of attraction of heavenly bodies in the Universe
• Everything in the Universe is attracted, by the force of gravity, to
    everything else.

• The Earth and Moon are attracted by gravity.
• Gravity’s Moon causes tides on the Earth
• Tides =Mareas. High tide marea alta. Low tide marea baja
• Gravity of the Earth causes revolution movement of the Moon
  around the Earth.
• Gravity depends on the size of heavenly bodies (big planets have
    high gravity)
• Gravity depends on the distance between heavenly bodies
    (The Earth and Neptune are very far, so there is a weak attraction
    between them)
Seasons of the year
• Cause : The axis of the Earth is tilted
• Consequence :The seasons of the year.
   – When the Northern hemisphere tilts towards the Sun, it gets
     more light and heat
   – And is summer in the Northern hemisphere
Seasons of the year
• Cause :The Earth’s axis of rotation is tilted with respect
  to the Sun’s radiation.
• Consequence: The seasons of the year.
   – The tilted Hemisphere to the Sun receives more light and heat .
   – So, it will be summer in this Hemisphere
Eclipses
• Lunar eclipse
   – The Earth is between the
     Sun and the Moon
   – Total and partial eclipse


• Solar eclipse
   – The Moon is between the
     Sun and the Earth
   – Total and partial eclipse

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Origin of the universe

  • 1. Origin of the Universe • Great explosion (BIG BANG) • 10.000 / 18.000 years ago
  • 2. Composition of the Universe • Chemical elements • Energy in the in the Universe Universe • Gases : Hydrogen, • Light Energy Helium • Heat energy • Other elements: • Nuclear Energy Oxygen, Silicon, • Magnetism metals • Electricity • Compounds:Water, Carbon dioxide
  • 3. Composition of the Universe • The Universe is made up of galaxies
  • 4. Our galaxy : Milky Way • Our galaxy, Milky Way, is a spiral galaxy
  • 5. Star systems • Star systems are • Solar system is made made up of: up of: • Central star • The Sun • Stars grouped in • Ursa Major (The constellations Plough); Ursa Minor, • Planets and satellites Orion, Zodiac . • Asteroids or • Eight planets metreorites
  • 6. Stars and constellations • Stars are huge balls of • The Sun gas that give out light and heat energy • The stars are fixed in the sky • The stars are bright (the closer, the brighter) • Stars colour – Blue stars are colder than red stars. – Yellow stars (Sun) have medium heat
  • 7. Constellations • Constellations are groups of stars with special patterns
  • 8. 8 planets in the Solar system • Planets haven’t light and energy, they reflect light from the Sun • Heliocentric theory: Planets go around the Sun. Copernicus, XVI century • Geocentric theory ,wrong: the Sun and planets go around the Earth
  • 9.
  • 10. Relative size of the Sun and planets
  • 11. Distances in the Universe • The Universe is very very big (infinite) • Telescope. Galileo XVII century. • Actual telescope : Hubble telescope • Light year : Distance that the light travels in one year with the speed 300.000 Km/s
  • 12. Movements of the Earth and Moon • Rotation movement • The Moon is the satellite – Around its axis of the Earth – 24 hours • Rotation movement – Consequence : day and – Around its axis night – 28 days • Revolution movement • Revolution movement – Around the Sun – Around the Earth – 365 + ¼ days: – 28 days – Consequence : – Consequence : Phases of – Year / Leap year the Moon
  • 13. Phases of the Moon • The Moon doesn’t give out light, but reflects the Sun’s light • Rotation and revolution movement of the Moon have the same period : 28 days. • So, we always see the same face of the Moon in different phases: – New Moon – Waxing Moon (First Quarter) – Full Moon – Waning Moon (Last Quarter)
  • 14. Gravity pull force • Gravity is the force of attraction of heavenly bodies in the Universe • Everything in the Universe is attracted, by the force of gravity, to everything else. • The Earth and Moon are attracted by gravity. • Gravity’s Moon causes tides on the Earth • Tides =Mareas. High tide marea alta. Low tide marea baja • Gravity of the Earth causes revolution movement of the Moon around the Earth. • Gravity depends on the size of heavenly bodies (big planets have high gravity) • Gravity depends on the distance between heavenly bodies (The Earth and Neptune are very far, so there is a weak attraction between them)
  • 15. Seasons of the year • Cause : The axis of the Earth is tilted • Consequence :The seasons of the year. – When the Northern hemisphere tilts towards the Sun, it gets more light and heat – And is summer in the Northern hemisphere
  • 16. Seasons of the year • Cause :The Earth’s axis of rotation is tilted with respect to the Sun’s radiation. • Consequence: The seasons of the year. – The tilted Hemisphere to the Sun receives more light and heat . – So, it will be summer in this Hemisphere
  • 17. Eclipses • Lunar eclipse – The Earth is between the Sun and the Moon – Total and partial eclipse • Solar eclipse – The Moon is between the Sun and the Earth – Total and partial eclipse