Solar system

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Fatrick Vandamme Gregorio
Antonio Labuguen
Cristine Joyce Perez
Margarita Villiota
Roxanne Umayam

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  • Nebula theory formation of starsCredit:NASA/JPL-Caltech/R. Hurt (SSC-Caltech)http://ipac.jpl.nasa.gov/web_movies/pa/ssc2004-08v2_full.wmv
  • Asteroid Ida - Date: 28 Aug 1993Mosaic of five image frames acquired by the Galileo spacecraftat ranges of 1900 to 2375 miles. Galileo flew about 1,500 miles from Ida at a relative velocity of 28,000 miles per hour. Asteroid and spacecraft were 441 million kilometers 274 million miles from the Sun. Ida is the second asteroid ever encountered by a spacecraft. It appears to be about 52 kilometers (32 miles) in length, more than twice as large as Gaspra, the first asteroid observed by Galileo in October 1991. Image Source: NASA (public domain)http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/multimedia/display.cfm?IM_ID=886
  • …it doesn’t work. Can get up to planetesimals, but not planets.
  • Image sourcehttp://creationwiki.org/Creation_vs._evolution
  • Mercuryhttp://creationwiki.org/Mercury_(planet)The closest planet to the SunSmaller than all planets except Pluto – even smaller than Ganymede and Titan (moons of Jupiter and Saturn)Temperatures of 840 to -180 degrees.Looks much like our Moon.Image source: NASA (public domain) Photo by Messenger spacecraft - 2008.http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/messenger/multimedia/mercury_color.html
  • Mercury looks much like our Moon with lots of craters. Photographed by Messenger spacecraft - 2008.Image source: NASA (public domain)http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/ap080121.htmlExplanation: What would it look like to fly past Mercury? Just such an adventure was experienced last week by the MESSENGER spacecraftduring its first flyby of the strange moon-like world nearest the Sun. Pictured above is the limb of Mercury seen by MESSENGER upon approach, from about 1 1/2 Earth diameters away. Visible on the hot and barren planet are many craters, many appeared to be more shallow than similarly sized craters on the Moon. The comparatively high gravity of Mercury helps flatten tall structures like high crater walls. MESSENGER was able to take over 1,000 images of Mercury which will be beamed back to Earth for planetary geologists to study. The robotic MESSENGER spacecraft is scheduled to fly past Mercury twice more before firing its thrusters to enter orbit in 2011.
  • Colorized image of Mercury from Mariner 10 spacecraft - 1974 and 1975.Image source: NASA (public domain)http://creationwiki.org/Mercury_(planet)http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/ap011124.htmlExplanation: Mercury, the closest planet to the Sun, remains the most mysterious of the Solar System's inner planets. Hiding in the Sun's glare it is a difficult target for Earth bound observers. The only spacecraft to explore Mercury close-up was Mariner 10 which executed three flybys of Mercury in 1974 and 1975, surveying approximately 45 percent of its surface. Mariner 10 deftly manuevered to photograph part of the sunlit hemisphere during each approach, passed behind the planet, and continued to image the sun-facing side as the spacecraft receded. Its highest resolution photographs recorded features approximately a mile across. A reprocessing of the Mariner 10 data has resulted in this dramatic mosaic. Like the Earth's Moon, Mercury's surface shows the scars of impact cratering - the smooth vertical band and patches visible above represent regions where no image information is available.
  • Problem is – mercury is too small to have such a high density. Its small size means it doesn’t have a strong gravitational field and should not have compacted all the material to such a high density.Image source: NASA (public domain)http://creationwiki.org/Mercury_(planet)http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/ap011124.html
  • Taylor, Solar System Evolution: A New Perspective, p. 194
  • “This artist's concept shows a celestial body about the size of our moon slamming at great speed into a body the size of Mercury… Astronomers say a similar type of event stripped Mercury of its crust early on in the formation of our solar system, flinging the removed material away from Mercury, out into space and into the sun.” Quote and image source: NASA (public domain)http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/spitzer/multimedia/spitzer-20090810.html
  • Image source: NASA (public domain) Photo by Messenger spacecraft - 2008.http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/messenger/multimedia/mercury_color.htmlVerse on mouseclick: 1 Corinthians 1:27: “But God hath chosen the foolish things of the world to confound the wise; and God hath chosen the weak things of the world to confound the things which are mighty.”
  • Venus (Uranus, and Pluto) rotate retrograde with respect to their orbit.Explanations for backward rotation….Formerly: Gravitational braking on a tidal bulge - But Venus doesn’t have a tidal bulge, it’s almost perfectly round.Today’s explanation: Venus formed as predicted by nebula accretion, but then an asteroid hit it and spun it around the “wrong” way.Image source: NASA (public domain)http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/planetary/factsheet/venusfact.html
  • Today’s explanation for backward rotation: Venus formed as predicted by nebula accretion, but then an asteroid hit it and spun it around the “wrong” way.What you aren’t being told about Venus:It should be similar to Earth, but it has no magnetic field, and its crustal structure is very differentIts surface is obviously youngIt rotates the “wrong” wayImage Source: NASA (public domain)http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/multimedia/display.cfm?IM_ID=886
  • No Evidence for CollisionImage Source: NASA (public domain)http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/multimedia/display.cfm?IM_ID=886
  • Earthhttp://creationwiki.org/Earth
  • Rotation speeds in our solar system range from Jupiter’s 9.84 Earth hours to Venus 243 Earth days.Verse on mouseclick - Isaiah 45:18: For thus saith the LORD that created the heavens; God himself that formed the earth and made it; he hath established it, he created it not in vain, he formed it to be inhabited: I am the LORD; and there is none else.
  • Specific heat = heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of a substance one degree.Latent heat = the heat absorbed or released during a change of phase (evaporating water absorbs enormous heat that is released when condensing).
  • Meteorites (no asteroids) are thought to have deposited the water found on Earth.Source: NASA (public domain)http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/multimedia/display.cfm?IM_ID=886
  • Earth’s Magnetosphere – protects the Earth from cosmic radiation. If our Earth is billions of years old, somehow the magnetic field must be sustained – the theory developed to explain the regular rejuvenation of the magnetic field is called the Dynamo theory (the process through which a rotating, convecting, and electrically conducting fluid can maintain a magnetic field over astronomical time.).Image from the "Touch the Sun" book include views from the SOHO and TRACE spacecraft. Credit: NASA/ESA/LMSALhttp://www.nasa.gov/vision/universe/solarsystem/touch_sun_prt.htm
  • Dynamo theory (the process through which a rotating, convecting, and electrically conducting fluid can maintain a magnetic field over astronomical time.).http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dynamo_theory
  • http://earth.agu.org/revgeophys/roberp01/node1.html
  • (Dynamo theories can’t explain these facts.)“Evidence” for water has other explanationsWater is impossible there todaySaying that it used to be there is hypocrisy
  • The moon is about the size of a tennis ball if the Earth were a basketball….The “Moon ABCs Fact Sheet” lists the Earth's diameter as 12,756 km and the Moon's diameter as 3,476 km. Therefore, the Moon's diameter is 27.25% of Earth's diameter. An official basketball has a diameter of 24 cm. This can serve as a model for Earth. A tennis ball has a diameter of 6.9 cm which is close to 27.25% of the basketball. (The tennis ball is actually 28.8% the size of the basketball.) These values are very close to the size relationship between Earth and the Moon. The tennis ball, therefore, can be used as a model of the Moon.Info source:http://ares.jsc.nasa.gov/education/activities/expmoon/distancemoon.pdfMore info: World Book at NASAhttp://www.nasa.gov/worldbook/moon_worldbook.html
  • The moon is uniquely positioned to serve as signs to mark seasons and days and years. Lunar eclipses are used to track the progression through months.Verse on mouseclick: Genesis 1:14 And God said, "Let there be lights in the expanse of the sky to separate the day from the night, and let them serve as signs to mark seasons and days and years,Solar eclipses happen because the sun is 400 times that of the moon, which is also 400 times further away, making the moon and Earth exactly the same size from our perspective. (The sun is ~100 times the diameter of the Earth - 109 to be precise.)The perfect eclipse, makes the study of the Sun's thin outer layer possible. Perfect eclipses and the resultant rare shot of the chromosphere offer the optimal setting for discovering the nature of the Sun's atmosphere, measuring the deflection of starlight, testing the Theory of General Relativity, and timing Earth's rotation. And if the size of the moon differed even slightly, the perfect eclipse wouldn't be possible. Info source:http://www.discovery.org/a/1931Further readinghttp://creationwiki.org/Eclipse
  • When Apollo spacecraft traveled to the dark side of the moon, scientists were surprised to learn that the Maria, which as so clearly visible on our side of the moon were conspicuously absent.The dark areas on the moon are known as maria (MAHR ee uh). The word maria is Latin for seas; its singular is mare (MAHR ee). The term comes from the smoothness of the dark areas and their resemblance to bodies of water. (names were assigned to them, such as the Sea of Tranquility, Sea of Fertility)The maria were partly flooded by lava when volcanoes erupted – probably as a result of massive impacts that triggered volcanic flow. The lava then froze, forming rock. Since that time, meteoroid impacts have created craters within the maria.If the moon were billions of years old, you would expect it to be reasonably uniform, the absence of Maria on the dark side indicates that at one point in time (fairly recently) and moon suffered a terrible catastrophe – perhaps the asteroid shower that triggered the global flood of Noah.Maria info source:http://www.nasa.gov/worldbook/moon_worldbook.htmlhttp://pds.jpl.nasa.gov/planets/captions/earth/basalt.htmA view of the Moon taken by the Galileo spacecraft in 1992.Image source: NASA (public domain)http://discovery.nasa.gov/grail.htmlOrigin theories info:http://imagine.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/ask_astro/answers/970626.html
  • Maria stand out as distinct from the surrounding terrain…The maria were partly flooded by lava when volcanoes erupted – probably as a result of massive impacts that triggered volcanic flow. The lava then froze, forming rock. Since that time, meteoroid impacts have created craters within the maria.Info source:http://pds.jpl.nasa.gov/planets/captions/earth/basalt.htmIf the moon were billions of years old, you would expect it to be reasonably uniform, but when the dark side of the moon was finally seen, the Maria are conspicuously absent, indicating that at one point in time (fairly recently) and moon suffered a terrible catastrophe.
  • Image source: NASA (public domain)http://www.nasa.gov/multimedia/hd/apollo11.html
  • Apollo 11 - BuzzAldrin next to a seismometer.During their time, they collected rocks and soil and emplaced instruments including the first of three seismometers. Apollo 15 carried the third seismometer emplaced on the Moon. After it was deployed, the simultaneous operation of the three working instruments permitted calculations of the seismic properties of the lunar interior.Image and info source: NASAhttp://rst.gsfc.nasa.gov/Sect19/Sect19_6.html
  • Apollo 15 carried the third seismometer emplaced on the Moon. After it was deployed, the simultaneous operation of the three working instruments permitted calculations of the seismic properties of the lunar interior.Apollo 15.James Irwin next to the Lunar Rover lunarLander. A mobile, self-powered vehicle, the Lunar Rover, was first used at the Apollo 15 site to transport the astronauts on long (kilometers) excursions to visit places too far for foot excursions. The Rover, also called the "Lunar Buggy" Image and info source: NASA (public domain)http://rst.gsfc.nasa.gov/Sect19/Sect19_6.html
  • There are 3 possibilities for its formation from natural processes:1. it formed near the Earth as a separate body (Accretion/Condensation)2. it formed somewhere else and was captured by the Earth (Capture)3. it formed as part of the Earth and separated from it (Fission)Any theory which explains the existence of the Moon must naturally explain the following facts: The Moon's low density (3.3 g/cc) shows that it does not have a substantial iron core like the Earth does. Moon rocks contain few volatile substances (e.g. water), which implies extra baking of the lunar surface relative to that of Earth. The relative abundance of oxygen isotopes on Earth and on the Moon are identical, which suggests that the Earth and Moon formed at the same distance from the Sun. Info source:http://starchild.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/StarChild/questions/question38.htmlA view of the Moon taken by the Galileo spacecraft in 1992.Image source: NASA (public domain)http://discovery.nasa.gov/grail.html
  • The Condensation Theory: This theory proposes that the Moon and the Earth condensed individually from the nebula that formed the solar system, with the Moon formed in orbit around the Earth. However, if the Moon formed in the vicinity of the Earth it should have nearly the same composition. Specifically, it should possess a significant iron core, and it does not. Also, this hypothesis does not have a natural explanation for the extra baking the lunar material has received. Also, the Moon has a different chemical composition that the Earth...which some scientists believe points to it having formed as a separate body, either near or farInfo source:http://starchild.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/StarChild/questions/question38.htmlhttp://imagine.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/ask_astro/answers/970626.html
  • Fission: it formed as part of the Earth and separated from it. The early Earth was spinning rapidly. A chunk of material tore off and became the Moon.Pacific Ocean Basic in thought by some to be the origin of the moon.This theory was thought possible since the Moon's composition resembles that of the Earth's mantle and a rapidly spinning Earth could have cast off the Moon from its outer layers. However, the present-day Earth-Moon system should contain "fossil evidence" of this rapid spin and it does not. Also, this hypothesis does not have a natural explanation for the extra baking the lunar material has received. Independent researchers have proposed a nuclear explosion based fission – rather than spinning.http://lunarscience.arc.nasa.gov/articles/did-the-moon-form-in-natural-nuclear-explosionInfo source:http://starchild.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/StarChild/questions/question38.htmlA view of the Moon taken by the Galileo spacecraft in 1992.Image source: NASA (public domain)http://discovery.nasa.gov/grail.html
  • Mars-sized asteroid thought to have impacted the Earth – leading to the formation of the moon.
  • Not proof, just a storyNot even necessarily a good story – computer simulations are approximationsRequires everything to be just rightWhy doesn’t Venus have a Moon?Requires the Moon to be formed 4.5 billion years agoQuote source: World Book at NASAhttp://www.nasa.gov/worldbook/moon_worldbook.html
  • Scientists who analyze data from the Lunar Laser Ranging Experiment have reported some watershed results from these long-term experiments, begun 25 years ago when the Apollo 11 astronauts deployed a reflector array in the Sea of Tranquillity. "Using the Lunar Laser Ranging Experiment, we have been able to improve, by orders of magnitude, measurements of the Moon's rotation," said Jet Propulsion Laboratory team investigator Dr. Jean Dickey. "We also have strong evidence that the Moon has a liquid core, and laser ranging has allowed us to determine with great accuracy the rate at which the Moon is gradually receding from the Earth.“The first laser ranging retroreflector was positioned on the Moon in 1969 by the Apollo 11 astronauts. By beaming laser pulses at the reflector from Earth, scientists have been able to determine the round-trip travel time that gives the distance between the two bodies at any time to an accuracy of about 3 centimeters. The laser reflector consists of 100 fused silica half-cubes, called corner cubes, mounted in a 46-centimeter square aluminum panel. Each corner cube is 3.8 centimeters in diameter. Corner cubes reflect a beam of light directly back toward the point of origin."Lunar ranging involves sending a laser beam through an optical telescope," Dickey said. "The beam enters the telescope where the eye piece would be, and the transmitted beam is expanded to become the diameter of the main mirror, then bounced off the surface toward the reflector on the Moon."Info source: NASA (Public domain)http://eclipse.gsfc.nasa.gov/SEhelp/ApolloLaser.htmlImage sources:http://www.nasa.gov/centers/goddard/news/topstory/2007/lsso2.html
  • U.S. Apollo program and Russian/France Luna (robotic probe) reflector placements.The Apollo 11 placement is in the Sea of Tranquility.
  • Scientists who analyze data from the Lunar Laser Ranging Experiment have reported some watershed results from these long-term experiments, begun 25 years ago when the Apollo 11 astronauts deployed a reflector array in the Sea of Tranquillity. "Using the Lunar Laser Ranging Experiment, we have been able to improve, by orders of magnitude, measurements of the Moon's rotation," said Jet Propulsion Laboratory team investigator Dr. Jean Dickey. "We also have strong evidence that the Moon has a liquid core, and laser ranging has allowed us to determine with great accuracy the rate at which the Moon is gradually receding from the Earth.“The first laser ranging retroreflector was positioned on the Moon in 1969 by the Apollo 11 astronauts. By beaming laser pulses at the reflector from Earth, scientists have been able to determine the round-trip travel time that gives the distance between the two bodies at any time to an accuracy of about 3 centimeters. The laser reflector consists of 100 fused silica half-cubes, called corner cubes, mounted in a 46-centimeter square aluminum panel. Each corner cube is 3.8 centimeters in diameter. Corner cubes reflect a beam of light directly back toward the point of origin."Lunar ranging involves sending a laser beam through an optical telescope," Dickey said. "The beam enters the telescope where the eye piece would be, and the transmitted beam is expanded to become the diameter of the main mirror, then bounced off the surface toward the reflector on the Moon."Info source: NASA (Public domain)http://eclipse.gsfc.nasa.gov/SEhelp/ApolloLaser.htmlSatellite laser ranging is routinely performed at the Goddard Geophysical and Astronomical Observatory. This facility, along with other satellite laser ranging telescopes around the world, could be used to precision range to a laser transponder placed on the lunar surface. Currently, only the largest of telescopes can be used to laser range to the lunar retroreflectors. Credit: NASA Image source:http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/LRO/news/LRO_lr.htmlhttp://www.nasa.gov/centers/goddard/news/topstory/2007/lsso2.html
  • The Moon is receding at about 4 cm (1.5 inches) per yearLooking backwards in time, the recession rate was faster.Image source:http://www.grc.nasa.gov/WWW/K-12/rocket/TRCRocket/rocket_principles.html
  • TLP reported here
  • TLP reported here
  • What you aren’t being told about the Moon:There is exists no sound explanation for its originLunar recession says it can’t be billions of years oldTLP / liquid core say it can’t be billions of years oldImage source:CreationWiki (NASA) Public domainhttp://creationwiki.org/Apollo_8http://www.nasa.gov/vision/earth/features/bm_gallery_4.html
  • Marshttp://creationwiki.org/MarsImage source:http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/ap010718.html
  • Artist rendition of Mars rover Spirit / Opportunity. After more than a year on Mars, rovers Spirit and Opportunity are still actively exploring. Spirit's solar panels are collecting a fine layer of dust, which has reduced energy levels. Despite the dust, Spirit has recently visited "Cumberland Ridge" and has been moving towards "Larry's Lookout." Opportunity is in good health, and has completed its investigation of a trench and soil materials under clear skies. Both rovers are scheduled for software updates. Image source:http://astrogeology.usgs.gov/HotTopics/index.php?/categories/1-MER
  • Mars landscape from the robotic Spirit rover.Explanation: What created this unusually textured rock on Mars? Most probably: a volcano. Dubbed Bumpy Boulder, the strange stone measuring just under a half-meter high was found by the robotic Spirit rover currently rolling across Mars. Pits on the ragged rock are likely vesicles and arise from hot gas bubbling out of hot rock ejected by an active Martian volcano. Several similar rocks are visible near Bumpy Boulder that likely have a similar past. The above true-color image was taken about one month ago. The Spirit rover, now in its third year of operation on Mars, is weathering the low sunlight winter of Mar's northern hemisphere on a hillside slope in order to maximize the amount of absorbable battery-refreshing sunlight. Image source:http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/ap060515.html
  • Dust storms come up suddenly that cover the entire planet
  • These dust storms dramatically effect temperatures. Thermal infrared measurements by TES orbiting Mars aboard Mars Global Surveyor reveal how the Martian atmosphere has substantially warmed during the ongoing dust storm.http://science.nasa.gov/science-news/science-at-nasa/2001/ast16jul_1/http://science.nasa.gov/media/medialibrary/2001/07/16/ast11oct_2_resources/temperature_movie_big.gif
  • Because of the presence of oxygen on earth, chemical evolution of the organic polymers necessary for life is simply impossible. All attempts to show how there polymers could have formed from racemic (L&D mixtures) mixture have ended in failure. But if evidence of life elsewhere (or even life-giving water) could be found, t would provide evidence that life might have originated elsewhere, and then made its way to Earth.
  • The gas giant are the four largest planets in the solar system. Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune. Gas giants are also the largest known type of planet in the universe. From current observations they are largely composed of gas and liquid. On account of their thick atmospheres and their distances from Earth, astronomers do not know whether the gas giants have a solid surface like the terrestrial planets. Other gas giants ("hot Jupiters") may also exist outside of the solar system, and are believed by a number of astronomers to be of sufficient size to be detectable from Earth. Reports of gas giants in other star systems have already appeared in the astronomical and astrophysical literature. Info source:http://creationwiki.org/Gas_giants
  • Famous for the giant red spot – a huge storm that has been there as long as we’ve been able to see the planet up close.Info and Image source: public domain (NASA)http://creationwiki.org/Jupiterhttp://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/jpeg/PIA01527.jpg
  • The Galilean moons are the four satellites of Jupiter discovered on January 7, 1610by Galileo Galilei. They were the first natural satellites of any planet other than Earth to be discovered and are in fact the only four known dwarf planet sized satellites that Jupiter has. Image and info source: CreationWiki / NASA (public domain)http://creationwiki.org/Galilean_moonhttp://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA00600
  • Io's Tvashtar volcano extends 330 kilometers (200 miles) above the moons surface.The problem that Io is tiny and should be cold and dead – not geologically active, but it is…Five frame sequence snapped by the probes Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) as the spacecraft flew past Jupiter earlier this year, this first-ever movie of an Io plume clearly shows motion in the cloud of volcanic debris.Animation source: NASA (public domain)http://sse.jpl.nasa.gov/multimedia/display.cfm?IM_ID=5503
  • Io's Tvashtar volcano extends 330 kilometers (200 miles) above the moons surface.The problem that Io is tiny and should be cold and dead – not geologically active, but it is…Five frame sequence snapped by the probes Long Range Reconnaissance Imager (LORRI) as the spacecraft flew past Jupiter earlier this year, this first-ever movie of an Io plume clearly shows motion in the cloud of volcanic debris.Animation source: NASA (public domain)http://sse.jpl.nasa.gov/multimedia/display.cfm?IM_ID=5503
  • Cracks in the ice surface.
  • Has weird grooved surface with odd streaks that looks like someone took a paint brush and smoothed them all out.
  • Has weird grooved surface with odd streaks that looks like someone took a paint brush and smoothed them all out.What you’re not being told about Jupiter:Can’t be spinning as fast as it isIo appears to be young, Ganymede can’t have a magnetic field, etc.
  • Saturn is the sixth planet from the sun and the second largest planet in the solar system. Saturn is a gas giant with an atmosphere predominantly of hydrogen, with a small fraction of helium and trace amounts of several other compounds. The most prominent feature of Saturn is its ring system, which has been known to astronomy since less than half a century after the invention of the telescope and was for more than three centuries the only ring system known to man. Distance from Earth - 746 million miles (1.2 billion km). 4011 light seconds / 66.8 light minutes from Earth.Info and Image Source: CreationWikihttp://creationwiki.org/SaturnImage source: NASA (public domain)http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/planets/profile.cfm?Object=Saturn&Display=OverviewLong
  • The particles in Saturn's rings are composed primarily of water ice and range from microns to meters in size. Saturn was the first planet observed to have rings. It wasn't until 1977 that it was discovered that Uranus also had rings. Later the rings of Jupiter and Neptune were also observed. Image Source: NASA (Public Domain)Saturn (Hubble image)http://antwrp.gsfc.nasa.gov/apod/ap040117.html
  • Enceladus- one of Saturn’s moons - visible beneath the rings of saturn
  • Enceladus is one of Saturn’s moons
  • Emissions believed to be water geysers
  • Emissions shooting far into space.Far too “old” to be geologically active!
  • Titan also about the same size, but has an atmosphere – made largely of methane. The problem is - Methane broken down by sunlight – so astronomers theorized that Titan has seas of methane that would replenish the atmosphere.
  • When we got there and were able to examine Titan beneath the clouds – no methane was found on the surface.If Titan is billions of years old, its atmosphere should not be there.
  • Orbiting Saturn at a few 10s of miles apart, periodically these moon change places. First one is closer to Saturn and they orbit like that for a while, then change places…What you aren’t being told about Saturn:Rings are young, Enceladus is young, Titan is youngDancing moons, odd ring phenomenaThe Creator is not only skilled, but He appreciates beauty
  • It is believed that a giant asteroid smashed into the planet knocking it on its side.But Uranus’ orbit is one of the most circular of all the planets (only Venus, Earth, and Neptune have orbits that are more circular)Uranus’ orbit lies more closely within the ecliptic plane than any other planet except Earth.Source: NASA (public domain)http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/multimedia/display.cfm?IM_ID=886
  • But Uranus’ orbit is one of the most circular of all the planets (only Venus, Earth, and Neptune have orbits that are more circular)Uranus’ orbit lies more closely within the ecliptic plane than any other planet except Earth.
  • All the other gas planets radiate more energy into space than they get from the sun. Uranus does not.
  • Source: NASA (public domain)http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/multimedia/display.cfm?IM_ID=886
  • What you aren’t being told about Uranus:Sideways rotation conflicts nebula theoryMagnetic field conflicts nebula theoryShould be radiating energy but isn’tMiranda is a complete mystery
  • The big spot in this picture has disappeared since this image was captured.
  • Solar system

    1. 1. Chris Ashcraft
    2. 2. Creation Cosmology Solar System: Evidence of DesignAre we being told all the evidence or just selected information to support a particular idea?
    3. 3. Nebula Theory
    4. 4. Nebula theory video
    5. 5. Our Solar System formed billions of years ago from a large swirling cloud of gas and dust (nebula).As it rotated, it flattened into a disk. A central bulge in the middle formed and became our Sun.
    6. 6. Our Solar System formed billions of years ago from a large swirling cloud of gas and dust (nebula).As it rotated, it flattened into a disk. A central bulge in the middle formed and became our Sun.As the gas and dust coalesced, larger grains of dust formed. These stuck together to become rocks…. which became bigger rocks… which became ―planetesimals‖… which became planets.
    7. 7. What We’re Told about the Sun
    8. 8. ―Once these planetesimals have been formed, further growth of planets may occur through their gravitational accretion into large bodies. Just how that takes place is not understood.‖ Martin Harwit, Astrophysical Concepts, p. 553
    9. 9. This theory explains:The flat shape of our Solar SystemThe counterclockwise orbits of all the planets.The rocky inner planets and the gaseous outer planets.
    10. 10. According to the nebularhypothesis, every moon or planetformed along similar lines andshould not be too different fromeach other and conform to a singlepattern.
    11. 11.  The solar nebula model (formed from gas and dust billions of years ago) A Biblical model (formed recently by an intelligent Creator for signs, seasons, and His own glory)
    12. 12.  The closest planet to the Sun Smaller than all planets except Pluto – even smaller than Ganymede and Titan Temperatures of 840 to -180 degrees F. Looks much like our Moon.
    13. 13. Messenger spacecraft 2008.
    14. 14. Mariner 10 spacecraft - 1974 and 1975.
    15. 15.  Scientists were surprised when the Mariner 10 space probe visited Mercury. We measured the planet‘s gravitational pull and other properties. We discovered that Mercury is extremely dense: the highest known density of all planets other than Earth.
    16. 16. ―The driving force behind previous attempts to account for Mercury has been to fit the high density of the planet into some preferred overall solar system scheme… It has become clear that none of these proposed models work, and the high density is conveniently accommodated by the large- impact hypothesis, which makes Mercury unique.‖ Taylor, Solar System Evolution: A New Perspective, p. 194
    17. 17. It is believed that early in itshistory, an asteroid must havecrashed into Mercury. The lightermaterial must have been strippedaway, leaving behind the denseplanet we see today.
    18. 18. ―Scientists theorized that Mercury consistedof a silicate mantle surrounding a solid ironcore. This iron was considered solid - or sothe theory went - because small planets likeMercury cool off rapidly after theirformation. If Mercury followed this pattern,then its core should have frozen long ago.‖NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory – Mission News. May 03 2007
    19. 19. May 03 2007 – ―Researchers working with high-precision planetary radars, including theGoldstone Solar System Radar of NASAs JetPropulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif., havediscovered strong evidence that the planetMercury has a molten core. The finding explainsa more than three-decade old planetary mysterythat began with the flight of JPLs Mariner 10spacecraft. The research appears in this weeksissue of the journal Science.‖NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory – Mission News. May 03 2007
    20. 20. If the nebula theory is true:  It can‘t be dense, but it is.  It can‘t have a magnetic field, but it does.  It can‘t have a molten core, but it does.1 Corinthians 1:27: ―But God hath chosen the foolishthings of the world to confound the wise; and Godhath chosen the weak things of the world to confoundthe things which are mighty.‖
    21. 21.  Atmosphere is primarily carbon dioxide, with clouds of concentrated sulfuric acid. A massive greenhouse effect makes Venus the hottest place in the Solar System: 900 degrees Fahrenheit. Pressure is 90 atmospheres. Has no magnetic field.
    22. 22. Venus‘ surface is young and fresh – it doesn‘t have billions of years of erosion.
    23. 23.  Venus‘ axial tilt is only 2 degrees from perfectly perpendicular to the ecliptic plane Its orbit is the most circular in the Solar System. The only evidence is that otherwise, Venus would contradict the nebula theory
    24. 24.  Rotation period: Too slow would mean extreme temperature changes. Too fast would cause violent winds. Axial tilt: Gives us moderate seasons. Circular orbit: Gives us climate stability.Isaiah 45:18: For thus saith the LORD that created theheavens; God himself that formed the earth and made it;he hath established it, he created it not in vain, heformed it to be inhabited: I am the LORD; and there isnone else.
    25. 25.  High specific heat Enormous latent heat High surface tension Super solvent Hydrogen bonding
    26. 26. Dynamo theory:the process throughwhich a rotating,convecting, andelectrically conductingfluid can maintain amagnetic field overastronomical time.
    27. 27. ―The mechanism for generating thegeomagnetic field remains one ofthe central unsolved problems ingeoscience.‖National Geomagnetic Initiative, Dec, 19 2002
    28. 28. ―Magnetism is almost as much of apuzzle now as it was when WilliamGilbert (1544-1603) wrote his classictext ‗Concerning Magnetism, MagneticBodies, and the Great Magnet, Earth‘in 1600.‖Taylor, Destiny or Chance: our solar system and its placein the cosmos, p 163-164
    29. 29.  Since its first measurement in 1829, its total energy has fallen by 14%. Loses half its energy every 700 years or so. Archaeomagnetic and paleomagnetic measurements show wild fluctuations of polarity in the past. Field can only be tens of thousands of years old, not billions
    30. 30. Moon is at exactly the right distance. Close enough - so that its gravity creates tides in Earth‘s oceans preventing stagnation. Far enough – so the tides are not harmful to us.
    31. 31. Genesis 1:14 And God said, "Let there be lights in the expanse of the sky to separate the day from the night, and let them serve as signs to mark seasons and days and years,
    32. 32. Apollo 11, Neil Armstrong & Buzz Aldrin (1969)
    33. 33. Buzz AldrinApollo 11, 1969.
    34. 34. SeismometerBuzz Aldrin (Apollo 11)
    35. 35. Mare Basalt Breccia
    36. 36.  Accretion Theory Capture Theory Fission Theory
    37. 37. The early Earth formed by the nebula theory mechanism - out of a swirling cloud of gas and dust.Particles combine due to gravitational attraction, leading to ever larger celestial bodies.The Moon formed out of the same material as the Earth.
    38. 38.  Apollo missions showed lunar rocks are different than Earth rocks. Moon‘s core is proportionally smaller than Earth‘s. Collapse of a gas/dust cloud into two bodies is problematic.
    39. 39. What reduced its speed at just the right moment?Lunar rocks are the same isotopically as Earth rocks.
    40. 40.  Tests showed that lunar rocks are different than Earth rocks in some important ways (Moon is relatively deficient in iron) Earth‘srotation would need to be incredibly fast (once per ~2.6 hours)
    41. 41.  ―Ifthe rotation of the earth had been slowed by tidal friction from 4 to 24 hours, there would have been an energy dissipation of 1.2x1010 ergs…such an energy release is sufficient to raise the temperature of the entire earth by 1000o C.‖ R.B. Baldwin, A fundamental survey of the moon, pp 42-43
    42. 42. ―In spite of everything that we have learned during the last few years, we still cannot decide between these three theories. We will need more data and perhaps some new theories before the origin of the Moon is settled to everyone‘s satisfaction.‖Berian M. French, The New Moon: A Window on the Universe (Washington D.C.: NASA, 1975), p. 11
    43. 43. ―Scientists believe that the moon formed as aresult of a collision known as the Giant Impactor the "Big Whack." According to this idea,Earth collided with a planet-sized object 4.6billion years ago. As a result of the impact, acloud of vaporized rock shot off Earthssurface and went into orbit around Earth. Thecloud cooled and condensed into a ring ofsmall, solid bodies, which then gatheredtogether, forming the moon.‖ Spudis, Paul D. "Moon." World Book Online Reference Center. 2004. World Book, Inc. (http://www.nasa.gov/worldbook/moon_worldbook.html)
    44. 44. Satellite laser ranging performed at the GoddardGeophysical and Astronomical Observatory.
    45. 45. Lunar Recession
    46. 46. Lunar Recession1,000 years ago 125 feet closer1 million years ago 28.4 miles closer10 million years ago 284 miles closer100 million years ago 2,840 miles closer1 billion years ago 28,400 miles closer1.4 billion years ago contact
    47. 47. Lunar RecessionDistance from Earth 1.4 bya 1.0 bya today Time
    48. 48. Gassendi Crater
    49. 49. Aristarchus Plateau
    50. 50. ―The origin of the moon is still unresolved.‖ A. Snyder Ruzicka and L. A. Taylor, ―Giant Impact and Fission Hypotheses for the origin of the moon: a critical review of some geochemical evidence, International Geology Review, 1998, p. 851. The best explanation is the moon was created in its present orbit very recently
    51. 51.  Liquid water on Mars is impossible – it would boil away in hours. Recent soil samples by probes found only trace amounts of carbonates (e.g., limestone), and instead found minerals like olivine, which break down in the presence of water. Evolutionists want to find evidence of water elsewhere – because origin of life theories here on Earth have all ended in failure.
    52. 52. Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune
    53. 53. Jupiter spins on its axis once every 10 hours!
    54. 54. Jupiter spins on its axis once every 10 hours!― ‗We came to the conclusion,‘ says Lissauer, ‗that if you accrete planets from a uniform disk of planetesimals, prograde rotation just can‘t be explained.‘ The simulated bombardment leaves a growing planet spinning once a week at most, not once a day.‖ Richard A. Kerr, ―Theoreticians Are Putting a New Spin on the Planets,‖ Science, Vol. 258, 23 October 1992, p. 548
    55. 55. ―Jupiter is the largest of all the planets. Butresults in Nature now reveal theembarrassing fact that we know next tonothing about how—or where—it formed.‖Philip Ball, Nature Science Update, Nov 18, 1999
    56. 56. Tvashtar
    57. 57. Tvashtar
    58. 58.  Smoothestbody in the Solar System Some speculate about water under the ice
    59. 59.  Most heavily cratered object in the Solar System in contrast to Europa Both Europa and Callisto are ½ ice Europa has a core, Callisto doesn‘t
    60. 60. Grooved terrain
    61. 61. More bizarre terrain…and a magnetic field that shouldn‘t be there
    62. 62. Pale Dione
    63. 63. "After all this time were still not sure about the origin of Saturns rings," says Jeff Cuzzi, a planetary scientist at the NASA Ames Research Center. Astronomers once thought that Saturns rings formed when Saturn did: 4.8 billion years ago as the Sun and planets coalesced from a swirling cloud of interstellar gas. "But lately," Cuzzi says, "theres a growing awareness that Saturns rings cant be so old." The Real Lord of the Rings, Science@NASA Headline News, 2002 http://science.nasa.gov/headlines/y2002/12feb_rings.htm
    64. 64.  Rings are bright and shiny, but they sweep up space dust as Saturn orbits the Sun. After a few hundred million years, they‘d be darkened. Moons and ring material are exchanging angular momentum. Eventually moons will be flung away while outer half of rings will fall toward the planet. But we ―know‖ Saturn is old So where did these young rings come from?
    65. 65. ―Cuzzi speculates that some hundreds of millions of years ago—a time when the earliest dinosaurs roamed our planet—Saturn had no bright rings. Then, he says, something unlikely happened: ‗A moon-sized object from the outer solar system might have flown nearby Saturn where tidal forces ripped it apart. Or maybe an asteroid smashed one of Saturns existing moons.‘ The debris encircled the planet and formed the rings we see today.‖ The Real Lord of the Rings, Science@NASA Headline News, 2002 http://science.nasa.gov/headlines/y2002/12feb_rings.htm
    66. 66. water geysers?
    67. 67. Far too ―old‖ tobe geologicallyactive!
    68. 68. Same-size neighbor with no geological activity
    69. 69. No methane was found on the surface
    70. 70. ―Models for the development of thesolar system cannot produce suchan orientation without invoking acollision with another object.‖Christiansen and Hamblin, Exploring the Planets,p. 405
    71. 71. •Moons orbitperpendicular to theplain of the ecliptic.•Radiates no energy.•Magnetic axis is alsooffset from the center ofthe planet.
    72. 72. ―To the complete astonishment of scientists, the magnetic axis [of Uranus] is tilted approximately 60 degrees with respect to its axis of rotation. It is not known why.‖Christiansen and Hamblin, Exploring the Planets, p. 406
    73. 73. ―No one predicted anything looking like Miranda.‖ Taylor, Destiny or Chance: our solar system and its place in the cosmos, p. 86―The central problem in modeling the thermal histories of the uranian satellites is accounting for Miranda.‖ Croft, Uranus conference extracts, 5.10
    74. 74.  ―Scientists believe that Miranda may have been shattered as many as five times during its evolution. After each shattering the moon would have reassembled from the remains of its former self with portions of the core exposed and portions of the surface buried. Mirandas appearance can be explained by theories, but the real reason is still unknown.‖ http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/features/planets/uranus/miranda.html, 15 Jan 2002
    75. 75.  ―Although some sort of collisional disruption appears to be required, it is not obvious that the present terrain, with relief up to 20 km, would survive catastrophic disruption and reassembly.‖ Taylor, Solar System Evolution: A New Perspective, p. 261
    76. 76. Neptune Farthest large planet from the Sun: 30 times as far away as Earth. Supposedly formed billions of years ago: old, cold, and dead  Not cold: radiates 2x energy received  Not dead: Great Spot storm disappeared since Voyager II in 1989
    77. 77. The most violent winds in the Solar System (1,300 mph)
    78. 78.  In 1986, Voyager discovered Uranus‘ magnetic field was tilted and offset. ―Scientists suggested that Voyager had caught the field in the middle of a reversal (when the magnetic north and south poles switch places)‖ Christiansen and Hamblin., Exploring the Planets, p. 424 But then in 1989 Voyager discovered that Neptune‘s magnetic field was the same way! ―It seems that the possibility of finding two planets both experiencing magnetic polarity reversals is small.‖ Ibid Creationist Dr. Russell Humphreys had successfully predicted the strengths of both fields years earlier, by basing his model on the Bible. (His predictions were 100,000 times greater than evolutionist predictions. He was right and they were wrong.)
    79. 79. ―Pssst ... astronomers who model the formation ofthe solar system have kept a dirty little secret:Uranus and Neptune don‘t exist. Or at leastcomputer simulations have never explained howplanets as big as the two gas giants could form sofar from the sun. Bodies orbited so slowly in theouter parts of the sun‘s protoplanetary disk that theslow process of gravitational accretion would needmore time than the age of the solar system to formbodies with 14.5 and 17.1 times the mass ofEarth.‖R.N., Birth of Uranus and Neptune, Astronomy 28(4):30, 2000
    80. 80. ―What is clear is that simple bangingtogether of planetesimals to constructplanets takes too long in this remote outerpart of the solar system. The time neededexceeds the age of the solar system. Wesee Uranus and Neptune, but the modestrequirement that these planets exist has notbeen met by this model.‖S.R. Taylor, Destiny or Chance: our solar system and its place in the cosmos, p. 73
    81. 81.  ―There have been many attempts to model the evolution of a swarm of colliding planetesimals... Safronov calculated the characteristic timescales for planetary growth. In the terrestrial region he found timescales of 107 [10,000,000] years but the time estimates increased rapidly in the outer regions of the solar system and was 1010 [10,000,000,000] years for Neptune – which is twice the age of the solar system. ―It is clear that, in view of the large timescales found for the formation of the outer planets, a satisfactory theoretical model for the accretion of planets from diffuse material is not available at present.‖ Dormand, J.R. and Woolfson, M.M., The Origin of the solar system: the capture theory, p. 39 News? Nope – Safronov published this in 1972!
    82. 82.  ―It‘s clear that our level of sophistication of studying planet formation is relatively primitive…So far, it‘s been very difficult for anybody to come up with a scenario that actually produces Uranus and Neptune.‖ Martin Duncan, Queens University, quoted in Astronomy 28(4):30
    83. 83. Chris Ashcraft

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