Unit 1 The Universe


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Unit 1 The Universe

  2. 2. THE UNIVERSE <ul><li>What are the points of light in this photo? </li></ul><ul><li>What’s the difference between </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A star and a planet? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A moon and a comet? </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. WHAT IS THE UNIVERSE LIKE? <ul><li>The Universe is all the matter , energy and space that exists. </li></ul><ul><li>The Universe is made up of galaxies which contains stars and planetary systems. </li></ul><ul><li>Galaxies are a vast of collection of stars, dust and gases, held together by the gravitational attraction. Our galaxy is the Milky Way . </li></ul><ul><li>Stars are massive spherical bodies of gases. They emit heat and light. </li></ul><ul><li>Planets are spherical bodies which orbit some stars. They do not emit light. Our planetary system is the Solar System .(8 planets and the Sun) </li></ul><ul><li>Natural satellites orbit some planets. The Earth’s satellite is the Moon . </li></ul><ul><li>Asteroids are rocky objetcs with irregular shape. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Galaxy The Milky Way Asteroid </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Galaxies appear in groups called galaxy clusters . The Milky Way belongs to the Local Group galaxy cluster. </li></ul><ul><li>The Milky Way over Utah. </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>Different theories to explain the Universe: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Geocentric theory : 2nd Century BC. Ptolomy proposed that the Earth was the centre of the Universe. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Heliocentric theory: In 1542 Copernicus proposed that the Sun was at the centre of the Universe. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In 1570 Lippershey invented the telescope, and Galileo proved that the planets revolve around the Sun. </li></ul><ul><li>Geocentric </li></ul><ul><li>Heliocentric </li></ul>
  7. 7. ACTIVITIES <ul><li>Imagine an alien friend from another galaxy wants to write to you. Write your galactic addres. </li></ul><ul><li>Make a drawing of the heliocentric and geocentric theories, label their components and the person who proposed it. </li></ul><ul><li>Find ten words. </li></ul>M P L A N E T S I G R L A A S A L U A T S R P T K N E L T T A E Y S E N A H C L W O H B R X E L A T M S U N Y I Y M O O N L G T K E S W C P A E
  8. 8. HOW BIG IS THE UNIVERSE? <ul><li>The Big Bang theory says that the universe was once in an extremely hot and dense state that expanded rapidly 13.700 millions years ago. </li></ul><ul><li>The Earth seems huge, but it’s small compared to the Sun. </li></ul><ul><li>The Sun is 1.300.000 times greater than the Earth. </li></ul><ul><li>Astronomers use units of measurenment: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AU (Astronomical Unit). Approximately 150 million kilometres. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Light-year: The distance light travels in one year. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>ACTIVITY: </li></ul><ul><li>Express the distance of Mercury, Mars and Pluto from the Sun in kilometres. </li></ul><ul><li>Mercury is 0.4 AU: </li></ul><ul><li>Mars is 1.5 AU: </li></ul><ul><li>Plutos is 39.4 AU: </li></ul>
  9. 9. WHAT MAKES UP THE SOLAR SYSTEM? <ul><li>The Solar System was formed five thousand million years ago from the gas and dust of a nebula . </li></ul><ul><li>Our Solar System is made up of the Sun , eight planets with their satellites, dwarf planets and small solar system bodies . </li></ul><ul><li>The Sun consists mainly of two gases: hydrogen and helium . </li></ul><ul><li>Planets revolve around the Sun in elliptical orbits . Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars are made up of rock. Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune are made up of gases. </li></ul><ul><li>Dwarf planets are smaller than planets and they orbit the Sun. Pluto . </li></ul><ul><li>Small solar system bodies are other celestial bodies which orbit the Sun. They include asteroids, comets and satellites. </li></ul>
  10. 11. HOW DO THE PLANETS MOVE? <ul><li>Celestial bodies like Earth have two types of movement: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rotation : Celestial bodies spin or rotate on an invisible axis. This invisible line is called rotational axis . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Revolution: Celestial bodies revolve around other celestial bodies. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>An orbit is a curved path which a celestial body follows in its revolution around another celestial body. The orbit of the Earth around the Sun is an ellipse. </li></ul>
  11. 12. <ul><li>Revolution </li></ul><ul><li>Rotation </li></ul>
  12. 13. ACTIVITIES <ul><li>1. Do some research at home. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Which planet takes the longest to orbit the Sun? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Which planet takes the fastest to orbit the Sun? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Which planet has the longest day? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Which planet has the shortest day? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>2. What is an orbit? </li></ul><ul><li>3. What do you call the imaginary plane of the Earth’s orbit? </li></ul>
  13. 14. WHICH ARE THE INNER PLANETS? <ul><li>The inner planets are the four planets closest to the Sun: Mercury, Venus, the Earth and Mars. </li></ul><ul><li>They are terrestrial or rocky planets. The crust and mantle are made of rock. The core is metallic. </li></ul><ul><li>The Earth is the only planet that has life on it. </li></ul><ul><li>In 2004, the robots Spirit and Opportunity landed on Mars. </li></ul>
  14. 15. Inner planets Mercury Venus Earth Mars Interesting characteristics The smallest and closest to the Sun Rotates in opposite direction The only planet with life Very thin atmosphere Average surface temperature -180ºC to 430ºC 465ºC -89ºC to 58ºC -82ºC to 0ºC
  15. 16. WHICH ARE THE OUTER PLANETS? <ul><li>Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune are the four outer planets. They are called gas giants . </li></ul>Outer planets Jupiter Saturn Uranus Neptune Interesting characteristics Largest planet, most satellites System of rings Rotational axis almost horizontal Greatest distance from the Sun Average surface temperature -150ºC -170ºC -200ºC -210ºC
  16. 17. <ul><li>Did you know that Pluto used to be a planet? In 2006 the International Union of Astronomers reclassified it as a dwarf planet. </li></ul><ul><li>Most of the asteroids are between Mars and Jupiter. This area is called asteroid belt. </li></ul><ul><li>When comets travel close to the Sun, some of the ice on it evaporates, creating the long, bright tails. </li></ul>
  17. 18. ACTIVITIES <ul><li>Answer these questions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Which planet has the most satellites? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Which planet is closest to the Sun? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Which planet supports life? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Which planet is the largest is the Solar System? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Which planet spin on its axis in the opposite direction? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Draw a diagram of the Solar System seen from above. Include the rotation and revolution movements of each planet. </li></ul>