David y carlos s.

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David y carlos s.

  1. 1. Summary of the first and second tasks Resumen del primer y segundo tema
  2. 2. The universe • We call the universe to the set of matter, energy, time and space existing. At first, it was thought that the Universe was just formed by the Milky Way. Several models were created in this period: The geocentric model stablished that every object in the space revolved around the Earth, which was thought to be motionless The heliocentric model proposed that the Sun was motionless and the planets and the moon revolved around it. The discovery of the Andromeda Galaxy supposed that scientist realised that our galaxy is not alone, the universe is much more extense.
  3. 3. The Big Bang Theory • It stablishes that the universe was formed after a big explotion: The Big Bang. It also supposes that the universe is in expansion since the Big Bang. • After that the Universe was very hot and formed by a plasma of protons and electrons. The formers formed atomic nuclei. Then the Universe cooled down and nucleosynthesis ended.
  4. 4. Materia oscura y universo en expansion • Es la materia que no vemos pero detectamos su masa dinamica • La masa de la materia oscura sumada a la materia brillante es insuficiente para detener la expansion del universo con lo cual dicha expansion sera eterna • Estudiando la velocidad de la expansion del universo podemos observar que la actual es mayor que antes por lo que podemos deducir que hay una fuerza que no conocemos que hace que la expansion sea acelerada
  5. 5. La exploracion del espacio • La atmosfera supone una barrera para la radiacion electromagnica ya que retiene parte de esta • Por ello las diferentes potencias del mundo se encuentran en una continua carrera por conquistar el espacio, gracias a esto, el hombre a podido alcanzar la luna • La exploracion espacial tiene aplicaciones en muchas campo: investigación científica, observación
  6. 6. Cumulus and galaxies • Galaxies are huge groups of stars, gas and dust. They have different shapes and sizes.  Spiral galaxies contain a central area and several arms. The Milky Way is a good example.  Elliptical galaxies are the largest ones and they haven’t got any arms.  Irregular galaxies are the most abundant and do not have definite form. • Nebulae are clouds of gas and dust. Stars are formed here, and also the result of their explosions when they die. • Quasars are stellar objects that emit radio waves. • Black holes where light is “trapped” because the gravitational attraction is very high.
  7. 7. Stars • They are huge spheres of hydrogen and helium gas and they are born in nebulae. It has several phases: 1. Protostar: the nebula contracts due to the gravitational attraction, forming stellar-mass fragments, mainly formed by hydrogen. 2. When the helium starts to be formed from H in the nucleus, they become young stars, and it starts to release energy to the surface, which becomes hot. 3. It becomes a red giant star when the layer of production of energy is not in the nucleous any more, but in an outter part of the star. The star expands because of the increase in temperature, and therefore, in thermal and reactive pressure, apart from the increase of density in the star. The surface becomes red because it cools down. When the H is consumed the star contracts and forms a white dwarf star. When it cools down, it forms a black dwarf star. 4. Sometimes the nucleous starts producting energy in the nucleous, forming oxygen and Carbon, and more and more energy is producted and becomes a red supergiant star. The end of this star can be similar to the one in red giant stars, but it can also explote.
  8. 8. Formacion de los planetas • Parte de la materia resultante de la explosion de una estrella permanece alrededor de la nueva estrella formando un disco protoplanetario, en el cual aparecerán más tarde los planetas por una serie de procesos. • Nuestro Sistema Solar tiene 4 planetas interiores rocosos (Mercurio, Venus, la Tierra y Marte), cuyo núcleo es metálico y cuya corteza es de aspecto rocoso, y 4 exteriores gaseosos (Júpiter, Saturno, Urano y Neptuno) cuyo núcleo también es metálico y que tienen una corteza compuesta por gases, sobre todo H y He. • En el sistema solar existen otros objetos en el Sistema Solar (siguiente):
  9. 9. • Satélites: cuerpos celestes que giran alrededor de los planetas. • Asteroides: Objetos de menor tamaño que los planetas y los satélites. Un ejemplo es el cinturón de asteroides entre Marte y Júpiter. • Cometas: objetos de núcleo sólido formado por H2O y NH3 que desprenden sustancias al acercarse al Sol, las cuales forman parte de su cola. • Fragmentos de planetas, cometas y asteroides: Van a la deriva por el espacio y pueden caer sobre la superficie de los planetas. Su masa varía de unos pocos gramos a toneladas.
  10. 10. Hecho por Carlos Sánchez Rodríguez
  11. 11. y… David Molina Alonso

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