Maria y maria del mar


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Maria y maria del mar

  1. 1. THE UNIVERSE Is the sum of all that exists, this includes the time,the space,the matter, the energy,etc… The universe has an approximated age of thirteen billion years and visible extension of ninety-three billion light years.
  2. 2. HISTORY OF THE UNIVERSE • THE GEOCENTRIC MODEL: Aristotle established that the Earth is motionless and that it is located in the center of the universe. • THE HELIOCENTRIC MODEL: by Copernicus.Sunis motionless, it is located in the center of the universe and the Earthand planets revolve around it.
  3. 3. THE DISCOVERY OF THE ANDROMEDA GALAXY • Hubble found this galaxy in 1917 using the great Hooker telescope in California. •
  4. 4. THE BIG BANG THEORY • Thanks to this phenomenon Hubble realized that galaxy are moving away.Therefore the universe is dynamic,it is and universe in expansion.As a result,the universe is getting bigger.Which means that in the past it was smaller and compacted.So the universe began as an explosion,which resulted in the current expansion of the universe.
  5. 5. AFTER THE BIG BANG • The universe was very hot,it was formed by plasma of protons and electrons particles.Nuclear reactions were produced and atomic nuclei were formed . • As the atomic nuclei were formed light didn´t interact with them,so the gases were transparent.The expansion continued and the atoms were grouped and they formed higher density structures(galaxies which contain stars and planets)
  6. 6. UNIVERSO OSCILANTE • Si la densidad es grande , la fuerza de la gravedad será muy intensa ,podría llegar a frenar la expansión. Si la gravedad sige actuando hará que toda la materia vuelva a concentrarse en un punto ,como en el origen. Podría darse el caso de que este punto a su vez volviera a explotar y a un nuevo universo en expasión de forma cíclica.
  7. 7. POR EL CONTRARIO…. • Si la densidad del Universo no es suficiente para que la gravedad frene la expansión el Universo se expanderá para siempre . • La densidad del Universo es la justa para que la expansión se frene en un tiempo infinito, se le llama densidad crítica. • El Universo estará siempre en expansión pero lentamente y tendiendo a detenerse
  8. 8. FORMAS DE MEDIR LA DENSIDAD • MEDIR LA MATERIA BRILLANTE: es sólo un 4% de la necesaria para frenar la expansión. Por tanto la expansión nunca se detendrá. • MEDIR LA MASA DINÁMICA: representa el 30% de la densidad crítica. Tampoco es suficiente para frenar la expansión.
  9. 9. LA MATERIA OSCURA • La masa determinada de forma dinámica es mucho mas grande que la obtenida observando la materia brillante. • Hay una gran cantidad de materia que sabemos que existe pero que sin embargo no vemos. Esta materia existe en todas las galaxias.
  10. 10. OTRA FORMA DE ESTUDIAR EL FUTURO DEL UNIVERSO • MEDIR LA VARIACIÓN DE LA VELOCIDAD DE EXPANSIÓN: En el pasado la expansión era más lenta que en la actualidad. El universo no está frenando está acelerando. Debe existir una fuerza desconocida, de tipo repulsivo. • No sabemos qué es esa fuerza ni qué la origina.
  11. 11. CUMULUS AND GALAXIES • Galexies are huge of stars gas and dust. • Diferent types: • Spiral galaxies. • Elliptical galaxies. • Irregular galaxies.
  12. 12. • The galaxies are grouped to form larger structures, called cumulus. In the cumulus the elliptical galaxies are located in the center, and the spiral and the irregular galaxies are locatd around.
  13. 13. NEBULAE • Are giant clouds of gas and dust with different shapes. Are the result of big explosions that occur at the end of the life of very massive stars. • Novae and súpernovae are examples of nebulae.
  14. 14. QUASARS AND BLACK HOLES • QUASARS: are stellar objet that emit a large amount of energy and radio waves. • BLACK HOLES: are objects in which the light can´t escape because of their enormous gravitational attraction.
  15. 15. THE STARS Starts: are huge spheres of hydrogen and helium gas. According to the color and temperature of the stars, they are classified in different types, blue, orange, red…
  16. 16. • PROTOSTAR: The contraction of the nebula due to gravitational attraction produce the formation of thousands of stellar-mass fragment, called protostars. Formed by hydrogen. • YOUNG STAR: gradually the hydrogen will become into helium through nuclear fusion. Nuclear reaction take place mainly in the center of the star. The energy generated in the core is released to the surface keeping the whole star hot.
  17. 17. • RED GIANT STAR: Nuclear reaction take place outside the core in what it is called the layerof production of energy. • The production of energyincreases and therefore the thermal perssureand radiaction pressure increases,both pressures will be greater than the force of gravityso there will bean expansionof the star.The star becomes bigger, the outer layers cool down and the star gets red.
  18. 18. When the hydrogen is consumed ,the stars contracts and reduces its size enormously to form white dwarfs stars. Its is white because is quite hot,over time they will cool off it will form a black dwarf star.
  19. 19. RED SUPERGIANT STAR • The massive star have a more complicated final.During the contractionof the helium nucleus ,temperature new chains of nuclear reactions begin.Now the star has two areas of energy production:the core where the helium is converted into oxygen and carbon the outer layer where the hydrogen is converted into helium.The pressure increases and the star expands becoming a red supergiant star.
  20. 20. Las estrellas súper gigantes rojas pueden llegar a explotar al final de su ciclo de vida expulsando grandes cantidades de gas y polvo. Esta materia es la base para formar nuevas estrellas.
  21. 21. LOS SISTEMAS PLANETARIOS Están formados por grupos de planetas satélites y otros objetos (cometas, asteroides…) Nuestro sistema solar contiene 8 plantas,4 interiores ( mas rocosos y próximos al sol) y 4 exteriores ( gaseosos y mas alejados)
  22. 22. • SATÉLITES: son astros que orbitan alrededor de los planetas. • ASTEROIDES: objetos de menos tamaño que los planetas y satélites. • COMETAS: formados por un núcleo sólido formado por agua y amoniaco. • METEORITOS: fragmentos de plantas, cometas y asteroides a la deriva en el espacio.