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Effects of Globalisation on Indian Society

Amit  Anand
Amit  Anand
Amit AnandIPS at GOI

Effects of Globalisation on Indian Society , For Civil Services Examination, CSE 2016. GS Paper 1. 1. Impact on Religion and Culture 2.Impact on Agriculture 3. Impact on Economy 4. Impact on Social, Health and Education 5. Impact on Old people 6. Impact on Women 7. Impact on Environment

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Effects of Globalisation on Indian Society
Amit Kumar Anand
www.amitkanand.com
August 26, 2016
1 Introduction
• Globalization is an umbrella term that
refers to increasing global connectivity,
integration and interdependence in the
economic, social, technological, cultural,
political, and ecological spheres.
• Globalisation is a process of interaction
and integration among the people, com-
panies and governments of different na-
tions, a process driven by international
trade and investment and aided by in-
formation technology. This process has
effects on the environment, on culture,
on political systems, on economic devel-
opment and prosperity, and on human
physical well being in societies around the
world.
2 Impact on Religion and cul-
ture
2.1 Spreading
• Globalisation is aided by information
technology. Spread of IT has allowed eas-
ier transmission of religious ideas. This
has allowed people to be affront of multi-
ple religions. This has allowed pluralism
and greater religious tolerance.
• Religious authorities are making use of
IT (e.g. youtube, websites, blogs etc.) to
spread their views and opinions.
• Greater freedom of travel has allowed eas-
ier spread of religious ideas.
• Religious leaders are playing active role
in maintaining peace in the world aided
by globalisation
1. Role of Sri Sri Ravishankar ap-
preciated by Columbian Parliament
in promoting peace and conferred
highest civilian award of Columbia.
2. Pope played instrumental role in
changing US foreign policy towards
Cuba and establishment of normal
diplomatic relation in 2014.
2.2 Intermingling & Mixing culture
• Globalisation has allowed people of differ-
ent religion to come together and inter-
act. Increased pluralism and tolerance.
• People from different countries and na-
tionalities can follow any religion no mat-
ter how far are they from the centres of
those religion. e.g. Indian gurus have fol-
lowing all over the world. These follow-
ers of different nationalities when interact
leads to mixing of culture.
2.3 Religious wars
• Globalisation has allowed easier spread-
ing of fanatic ideas.
• Terrorist organisation like ISIS, Al-
Qaeda etc. spreading hateful ideas and
using religion to support their ideology.
Waging religious wars. Recently Indian
religious leader Zakir Naik is been investi-
gated for spreading hateful ideas through
its TV network and speeches.
• Recruiting people for religious war from
all over the world which could not have
1
been possible without globalisation. Re-
ports of Indian youths joining ISIS have
come in recent times.
• Lone wolf attacks. e.g in Paris, Turkey,
Dhaka were inspired from the hateful
ideas received over internet. Globalisa-
tion has made easier to wage such attacks
much convenient.
• In recent times ISIS flags have been
waved during protests in J&K.
3 Impact on Agriculture
3.1 Increased Competition
• When domestic market is also open to
foreign country farmers then it increases
pressure on domestic farmers. Developed
nations produce is price wise competi-
tive because of better technological in-
puts, subsidies and economies of scale.
Governments has to take special mech-
anisms to protect domestic farmers. e.g
ban on import, increased duties or Spe-
cial Safguard Mechanisms under WTO.
3.2 Spread of technology and in-
creased productivity
• Increased competition has forced domes-
tic farmers to improve. Also globalisation
has allowed spread of better technology,
equipments and best practices. This al-
lowed increased productivity.
• GMO crops are been introduced in India
by foreign companies. There are appre-
hensions against the GMO in the soci-
ety. But it was readily adopted by farm-
ers in case of Bt Cotton where it showed
marked difference.
3.3 Food Security
• Globalisation has allowed nations to im-
port deficient food items from foreign na-
tions in times of scarcity hence improving
food security in short term.
• Globalisation has also led farming of one
type of crop replacing various indigenous
crops which were suitable to the local
conditions. This has endangered food se-
curity in long term.
3.4 Inflationary pressure
• When international prices are high farm-
ers and traders prefer to export their pro-
duce. This sometimes creates scarcity
in domestic market leading to high infla-
tion in crop prices (Also due to less pro-
duce). In such times government has to
take knee jerk reactions such as banning
exports of particular crops.
• Price Monitoring Cell (PMC) has been
formed under Department of Consumer
Affairs to monitor prices of selected es-
sential commodities in domestic and for-
eign markets and avoid sudden inflations
in their prices and take appropriate mar-
ket intervention activities.
3.5 Restrictions on Government
• WTO rules constrain the extent to which
countries can protect themselves.
• India lost the case in WTO for ban on
poultry from US.
• Banana Wars - European nations lost
the case against group of Latin American
countries in WTO for favouring import of
Bananas from their former colonies.
3.6 Farm Jobs
• Globalisation has created more jobs op-
portunities in secondary and tertiary sec-
tor. This allowed workers to shift from
low paying agriculture activities to more
profitable activities.
• Technology, know-how and competition
bought by globalisation has led to in-
creased production and efficiency leading
to more profits and better pay.
2
3.7 Venture into Foreign Lands
• Globalisation has allowed Indian corpo-
rations to move outside India and pursue
farming activities in foreign countries.
• Indian Companies are investing in Africa
for farming activities.
3.8 Improved Infrastructure
• Foreign food & beverages companies op-
erating in India require farm products.
This has led to standardisation and im-
proved quality.
• Companies have invested in farm sector
to improve backward and forward link-
ages. e.g. e-Choupal initiative by ITC.
4 Impact on Economy
4.1 Trade
• India’s Trade has increased due to glob-
alisation.
4.2 Job Creation
• New jobs created in secondary and ter-
tiary sector. Growth of BPO’s in India is
tremendous due to globalisation.
• More formal jobs. New jobs created in
banking, tourism etc. sectors.
• Better income.
4.3 Interdependence
• Economies of nations today are more in-
tertwined and interdependent.
• 2008 Economic crisis in US had reverber-
ations all over the globe. India too went
into recession.
• Economic policies of other countries af-
fect India. Speculations of US Fed rate
hike rate led to huge outgo of money from
Indian markets leading to weakening of
rupee.
4.4 Laws
• Indian laws needs to be in conformity of
international standards to have smooth
trade and commerce. e.g. Indian ex-
porters have to conform to CODEX and
phyto-sanitary measures.
• WTO rules are to be adhered.
• Trading blocks like TIPP, TPP etc. have
stringent labour, environment and intel-
lectual proprietary laws. It would force
India in future to conform to such stan-
dards to remain competitive in global
markets.
4.5 Competition
• MNC’s presence has increased this has
led to more competition in the market.
More choice to consumer and improved
quality due to competition.
5 Impact on Family & Values
5.1 Forms of Families
• More migration among family members
leading to increase in nuclear families.
• Difficult to adhere to Indian customs and
rituals leading to weakening of it.
• Modern technological solutions like
Whatsapp, Skype, mobile phones etc.
has allowed family members to stay
connected even if they are geographically
very far.
5.2 Foreign Culture
• More westernisation of Indian culture.
• Foreign films. TV shows are now avail-
able to Indians. Influencing the value sys-
tem of the society.
5.3 Backlash
• Conservative groups against too much
westernisation of Indian society.
3
• This has led to violent protests too. Dis-
turbances during certain events which are
considered against Indian values such as
celebration of Valentine’s day.
• More focus on promoting Indian values
and systems. Hence, call for boycotting
foreign goods and adopting ‘swadeshi’
products.
6 Social, Health & Education
6.1 Inequality
• Inequality has increased. Increased di-
vide between rich and poor. According
to IMF GINI coefficient has rose to 51 by
2013 from 45 in 1990.
6.2 Poverty
• Increased no. of jobs with higher payouts
has led to reduction in poverty.
• India halved its incidence of extreme
poverty from 49.4% in 1994 to 24.7%
in 2011 ahead of the 2015 deadline
set by Millennium Developmental Goals
(MDG).
6.3 Health
• Diseases spreading at much faster rate
becoming pandemics. e.g Ebola, MERS-
CoV, SARS.
• Better access to health services.
• Improved IMR, MMR, life expectancy
and other health indicators.
• Availability of better diagnostic equip-
ments has led to menace of sex selection
leading to worsening sex ratio.
• India has emerged as major centre of
Medical tourism.
6.4 Education
• Access to better educational facilities.
e.g. pursuing higher studies in foreign
nations, MOOCs etc.
• Educational exchange programs.
7 Impact on Old People
• India has the second largest population
of elderly in the world. Due to increase
in life expectancy to availability of better
medical facilities and nutrition.
• Left out to fend themselves due to in-
creased nuclearisation of families.
• Worsening of social security cover.
• Outdated skill wise to the new jobs cre-
ated in the economy.
• Obsolete in today’s society. In the older
time when young ones took the profes-
sions of their father such as agriculture
elders were relevant in society for their
knowledge and wisdom. In today’s mod-
ern society this is no longer true. Once
they retire, elderly people find that their
young ones are not seeking their advice
and wisdom.
• Increased economic dependence. Their
skills and wisdom now even less required
in modern society.
• Psychological problems like feeling of
powerlessness, feeling of inferiority, de-
pression, uselessness, isolation and re-
duced competence.
7.0.1 Law & Schemes for Elderly
• National Policy on Older Peo-
ple(NPOP), 1999 covers all concerns
pertaining to the welfare of older persons
and recognises a person aged 60 years and
above as senior citizens.
• National Council for Older People
(NCOP, 1999) to oversee implementa-
tion of NPOP.
• Maintenance & Welfare of Parents
& Senior Citizen Act, 2007 (i) en-
sures need based maintenance for par-
ents and senior citizens and their wel-
fare.(ii) Maintenance of parents/senior
4
citizens by children/ relatives made oblig-
atory and justiciable through tribunals.
(iii) Establishment of Old age homes.
• Integrated programme for Older
Persons (IPOP, 1992) for improving
the quality of life of the senior citizens
by providing basic amenities like shelter,
food, medical care and entertainment op-
portunities and by encouraging produc-
tive and active ageing.
• National Programme for the Health
Care of Elderly (NPHCE) to address
health related issues of elderly.
• Varishta Pension Bima Yojana
• Atal Pension Yojana
• Tax benefits.
• Facilities in railways and airlines.
8 Impact on Women
8.1 Working Women
• New jobs created. Most jobs in service
sector.
• Feminization of workplace.
• Economic independence.
• Better position in family.
• Promotion of idea of equality. SDG Goal
no. 5 Gender Equality; Bejing Declara-
tion.
• Women emigrating to work in foreign
countries. e.g Many nurses from Kerala
working in Gulf countries.
• Commoditization of women. Films & Ad
films.
• Many jobs in informal sector. Vulnerable
to exploitation. Poor pay. Lack of skills.
No job security and social security.
• Sexual harassment at workplace.
(Vishakha Guidelines, Sexual Harrss-
ment of Women at Workplace (Preven-
tion, Prohibition and Redressal) Act
2013).
• Number of women working in night shifts
have increased due to increase in call
centers and export oriented companies.
Lack of protection and transport facili-
ties hence increasing incidence of crime
against women in night.
8.2 Urban Women
• More jobs.
• More opportunities for self development.
e.g education, health, loan etc.
• Better position in family.
• Increased incidence of crime.
8.3 Rural Women
• Rural women labour became replaceable
due to mechanization of farm activities.
• Economic independence threatened due
decline of low skill, low wage casual jobs.
• Unequal pay.
• Migration to urban areas for informal
jobs.
• Lack of job security and social security.
• Condition worsened in family due to
worsening of their economic indepen-
dence. Less say in financial and family
decisions.
8.4 Adolescent Girl
• Better access to health and education op-
portunities due to IT.
• Gender empowerment.
5
8.5 Girl Child
• Availability of better diagnostic equip-
ments. This has promoted gender selec-
tion leading to poor sex ratio. (PCPNDT
Act to prevent sex selection).
8.6 Trafficking
• Increased interconnectedness has pro-
moted trafficking of women to foreign
countries.
9 Impact on Environment
9.1 Developed Nations
• Factories shifted to other countries (De-
veloping and LDCs) because of price
competitiveness. Positive impact on car-
bon emissions in these countries.
9.2 Developing Nations
• Increased economic activity generally
employing less efficient methods and
technology because of major increase in
informal sector leading to negative im-
pact on environment.
• Technology transfer from developed na-
tions leading to better efficiency and pro-
ductivity having positive impact on envi-
ronment.
9.3 Global Cooperation
• Global cooperation to meet the common
challenges and climate change.
• COP-21 Paris, Convention on Biologi-
cal Diversity (CBD), Cartegena Proto-
col, Nagoya Protocol, Basel Convention,
Rotterdam Convention, Stockholm Con-
vention, Minimata Convention, Montreal
Protocol, Ramsar Convention, REDD+
etc.
6

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Effects of Globalisation on Indian Society

  • 1. Effects of Globalisation on Indian Society Amit Kumar Anand www.amitkanand.com August 26, 2016 1 Introduction • Globalization is an umbrella term that refers to increasing global connectivity, integration and interdependence in the economic, social, technological, cultural, political, and ecological spheres. • Globalisation is a process of interaction and integration among the people, com- panies and governments of different na- tions, a process driven by international trade and investment and aided by in- formation technology. This process has effects on the environment, on culture, on political systems, on economic devel- opment and prosperity, and on human physical well being in societies around the world. 2 Impact on Religion and cul- ture 2.1 Spreading • Globalisation is aided by information technology. Spread of IT has allowed eas- ier transmission of religious ideas. This has allowed people to be affront of multi- ple religions. This has allowed pluralism and greater religious tolerance. • Religious authorities are making use of IT (e.g. youtube, websites, blogs etc.) to spread their views and opinions. • Greater freedom of travel has allowed eas- ier spread of religious ideas. • Religious leaders are playing active role in maintaining peace in the world aided by globalisation 1. Role of Sri Sri Ravishankar ap- preciated by Columbian Parliament in promoting peace and conferred highest civilian award of Columbia. 2. Pope played instrumental role in changing US foreign policy towards Cuba and establishment of normal diplomatic relation in 2014. 2.2 Intermingling & Mixing culture • Globalisation has allowed people of differ- ent religion to come together and inter- act. Increased pluralism and tolerance. • People from different countries and na- tionalities can follow any religion no mat- ter how far are they from the centres of those religion. e.g. Indian gurus have fol- lowing all over the world. These follow- ers of different nationalities when interact leads to mixing of culture. 2.3 Religious wars • Globalisation has allowed easier spread- ing of fanatic ideas. • Terrorist organisation like ISIS, Al- Qaeda etc. spreading hateful ideas and using religion to support their ideology. Waging religious wars. Recently Indian religious leader Zakir Naik is been investi- gated for spreading hateful ideas through its TV network and speeches. • Recruiting people for religious war from all over the world which could not have 1
  • 2. been possible without globalisation. Re- ports of Indian youths joining ISIS have come in recent times. • Lone wolf attacks. e.g in Paris, Turkey, Dhaka were inspired from the hateful ideas received over internet. Globalisa- tion has made easier to wage such attacks much convenient. • In recent times ISIS flags have been waved during protests in J&K. 3 Impact on Agriculture 3.1 Increased Competition • When domestic market is also open to foreign country farmers then it increases pressure on domestic farmers. Developed nations produce is price wise competi- tive because of better technological in- puts, subsidies and economies of scale. Governments has to take special mech- anisms to protect domestic farmers. e.g ban on import, increased duties or Spe- cial Safguard Mechanisms under WTO. 3.2 Spread of technology and in- creased productivity • Increased competition has forced domes- tic farmers to improve. Also globalisation has allowed spread of better technology, equipments and best practices. This al- lowed increased productivity. • GMO crops are been introduced in India by foreign companies. There are appre- hensions against the GMO in the soci- ety. But it was readily adopted by farm- ers in case of Bt Cotton where it showed marked difference. 3.3 Food Security • Globalisation has allowed nations to im- port deficient food items from foreign na- tions in times of scarcity hence improving food security in short term. • Globalisation has also led farming of one type of crop replacing various indigenous crops which were suitable to the local conditions. This has endangered food se- curity in long term. 3.4 Inflationary pressure • When international prices are high farm- ers and traders prefer to export their pro- duce. This sometimes creates scarcity in domestic market leading to high infla- tion in crop prices (Also due to less pro- duce). In such times government has to take knee jerk reactions such as banning exports of particular crops. • Price Monitoring Cell (PMC) has been formed under Department of Consumer Affairs to monitor prices of selected es- sential commodities in domestic and for- eign markets and avoid sudden inflations in their prices and take appropriate mar- ket intervention activities. 3.5 Restrictions on Government • WTO rules constrain the extent to which countries can protect themselves. • India lost the case in WTO for ban on poultry from US. • Banana Wars - European nations lost the case against group of Latin American countries in WTO for favouring import of Bananas from their former colonies. 3.6 Farm Jobs • Globalisation has created more jobs op- portunities in secondary and tertiary sec- tor. This allowed workers to shift from low paying agriculture activities to more profitable activities. • Technology, know-how and competition bought by globalisation has led to in- creased production and efficiency leading to more profits and better pay. 2
  • 3. 3.7 Venture into Foreign Lands • Globalisation has allowed Indian corpo- rations to move outside India and pursue farming activities in foreign countries. • Indian Companies are investing in Africa for farming activities. 3.8 Improved Infrastructure • Foreign food & beverages companies op- erating in India require farm products. This has led to standardisation and im- proved quality. • Companies have invested in farm sector to improve backward and forward link- ages. e.g. e-Choupal initiative by ITC. 4 Impact on Economy 4.1 Trade • India’s Trade has increased due to glob- alisation. 4.2 Job Creation • New jobs created in secondary and ter- tiary sector. Growth of BPO’s in India is tremendous due to globalisation. • More formal jobs. New jobs created in banking, tourism etc. sectors. • Better income. 4.3 Interdependence • Economies of nations today are more in- tertwined and interdependent. • 2008 Economic crisis in US had reverber- ations all over the globe. India too went into recession. • Economic policies of other countries af- fect India. Speculations of US Fed rate hike rate led to huge outgo of money from Indian markets leading to weakening of rupee. 4.4 Laws • Indian laws needs to be in conformity of international standards to have smooth trade and commerce. e.g. Indian ex- porters have to conform to CODEX and phyto-sanitary measures. • WTO rules are to be adhered. • Trading blocks like TIPP, TPP etc. have stringent labour, environment and intel- lectual proprietary laws. It would force India in future to conform to such stan- dards to remain competitive in global markets. 4.5 Competition • MNC’s presence has increased this has led to more competition in the market. More choice to consumer and improved quality due to competition. 5 Impact on Family & Values 5.1 Forms of Families • More migration among family members leading to increase in nuclear families. • Difficult to adhere to Indian customs and rituals leading to weakening of it. • Modern technological solutions like Whatsapp, Skype, mobile phones etc. has allowed family members to stay connected even if they are geographically very far. 5.2 Foreign Culture • More westernisation of Indian culture. • Foreign films. TV shows are now avail- able to Indians. Influencing the value sys- tem of the society. 5.3 Backlash • Conservative groups against too much westernisation of Indian society. 3
  • 4. • This has led to violent protests too. Dis- turbances during certain events which are considered against Indian values such as celebration of Valentine’s day. • More focus on promoting Indian values and systems. Hence, call for boycotting foreign goods and adopting ‘swadeshi’ products. 6 Social, Health & Education 6.1 Inequality • Inequality has increased. Increased di- vide between rich and poor. According to IMF GINI coefficient has rose to 51 by 2013 from 45 in 1990. 6.2 Poverty • Increased no. of jobs with higher payouts has led to reduction in poverty. • India halved its incidence of extreme poverty from 49.4% in 1994 to 24.7% in 2011 ahead of the 2015 deadline set by Millennium Developmental Goals (MDG). 6.3 Health • Diseases spreading at much faster rate becoming pandemics. e.g Ebola, MERS- CoV, SARS. • Better access to health services. • Improved IMR, MMR, life expectancy and other health indicators. • Availability of better diagnostic equip- ments has led to menace of sex selection leading to worsening sex ratio. • India has emerged as major centre of Medical tourism. 6.4 Education • Access to better educational facilities. e.g. pursuing higher studies in foreign nations, MOOCs etc. • Educational exchange programs. 7 Impact on Old People • India has the second largest population of elderly in the world. Due to increase in life expectancy to availability of better medical facilities and nutrition. • Left out to fend themselves due to in- creased nuclearisation of families. • Worsening of social security cover. • Outdated skill wise to the new jobs cre- ated in the economy. • Obsolete in today’s society. In the older time when young ones took the profes- sions of their father such as agriculture elders were relevant in society for their knowledge and wisdom. In today’s mod- ern society this is no longer true. Once they retire, elderly people find that their young ones are not seeking their advice and wisdom. • Increased economic dependence. Their skills and wisdom now even less required in modern society. • Psychological problems like feeling of powerlessness, feeling of inferiority, de- pression, uselessness, isolation and re- duced competence. 7.0.1 Law & Schemes for Elderly • National Policy on Older Peo- ple(NPOP), 1999 covers all concerns pertaining to the welfare of older persons and recognises a person aged 60 years and above as senior citizens. • National Council for Older People (NCOP, 1999) to oversee implementa- tion of NPOP. • Maintenance & Welfare of Parents & Senior Citizen Act, 2007 (i) en- sures need based maintenance for par- ents and senior citizens and their wel- fare.(ii) Maintenance of parents/senior 4
  • 5. citizens by children/ relatives made oblig- atory and justiciable through tribunals. (iii) Establishment of Old age homes. • Integrated programme for Older Persons (IPOP, 1992) for improving the quality of life of the senior citizens by providing basic amenities like shelter, food, medical care and entertainment op- portunities and by encouraging produc- tive and active ageing. • National Programme for the Health Care of Elderly (NPHCE) to address health related issues of elderly. • Varishta Pension Bima Yojana • Atal Pension Yojana • Tax benefits. • Facilities in railways and airlines. 8 Impact on Women 8.1 Working Women • New jobs created. Most jobs in service sector. • Feminization of workplace. • Economic independence. • Better position in family. • Promotion of idea of equality. SDG Goal no. 5 Gender Equality; Bejing Declara- tion. • Women emigrating to work in foreign countries. e.g Many nurses from Kerala working in Gulf countries. • Commoditization of women. Films & Ad films. • Many jobs in informal sector. Vulnerable to exploitation. Poor pay. Lack of skills. No job security and social security. • Sexual harassment at workplace. (Vishakha Guidelines, Sexual Harrss- ment of Women at Workplace (Preven- tion, Prohibition and Redressal) Act 2013). • Number of women working in night shifts have increased due to increase in call centers and export oriented companies. Lack of protection and transport facili- ties hence increasing incidence of crime against women in night. 8.2 Urban Women • More jobs. • More opportunities for self development. e.g education, health, loan etc. • Better position in family. • Increased incidence of crime. 8.3 Rural Women • Rural women labour became replaceable due to mechanization of farm activities. • Economic independence threatened due decline of low skill, low wage casual jobs. • Unequal pay. • Migration to urban areas for informal jobs. • Lack of job security and social security. • Condition worsened in family due to worsening of their economic indepen- dence. Less say in financial and family decisions. 8.4 Adolescent Girl • Better access to health and education op- portunities due to IT. • Gender empowerment. 5
  • 6. 8.5 Girl Child • Availability of better diagnostic equip- ments. This has promoted gender selec- tion leading to poor sex ratio. (PCPNDT Act to prevent sex selection). 8.6 Trafficking • Increased interconnectedness has pro- moted trafficking of women to foreign countries. 9 Impact on Environment 9.1 Developed Nations • Factories shifted to other countries (De- veloping and LDCs) because of price competitiveness. Positive impact on car- bon emissions in these countries. 9.2 Developing Nations • Increased economic activity generally employing less efficient methods and technology because of major increase in informal sector leading to negative im- pact on environment. • Technology transfer from developed na- tions leading to better efficiency and pro- ductivity having positive impact on envi- ronment. 9.3 Global Cooperation • Global cooperation to meet the common challenges and climate change. • COP-21 Paris, Convention on Biologi- cal Diversity (CBD), Cartegena Proto- col, Nagoya Protocol, Basel Convention, Rotterdam Convention, Stockholm Con- vention, Minimata Convention, Montreal Protocol, Ramsar Convention, REDD+ etc. 6