Draft National Education Policy
Amit Kumar Anand
October 29, 2016
• The ultimate aim of education in ancient
India was not knowledge, as preparation
for life in this world or for life beyond,
but for complete realization of the self.
• The world’s ﬁrst university was estab-
lished in Takshila in 700 BC.
• Nalanda University was established in
4th century BC.
• In its heyday, in the 7th century AD,
Nalanda University had some 10,000 stu-
dents and 2,000 teachers.
• Nalanda University attracted pupils and
scholars from China, Indonesia, Korea,
Japan, Persia, Turkey and other parts of
• During the freedom struggle, several
leaders like Gokhale, Ram Mohan Roy,
Pt. Madan Mohan Malaviya and Gand-
hiji worked for better education for the
people of India.
• India from time to time to formulate poli-
cies and programmes required to enhance
access to and participation in education
and improve quality of education.
• University Education Commission (1948-
49), the Secondary Education Commis-
sion (1952-53), the Education Commis-
sion (1964-66), and the National Com-
mission on Teachers - I & II (1983-85).
• National Policy on Education 1986 (re-
vised in 1992) envisaged a National sys-
tem of education which implies that “up
to a given level, all students, irrespective
of caste, creed, location or sex, have ac-
cess to education of a comparative qual-
• 42nd Amendment - Education trans-
ferred from State list to Concurrent list.
• Any policy on education will have in-
ter sectoral and inter ministerial nature.
Need to recognize the role of National
Policy on Early Childhood Care and Edu-
cation (ECCE) adopted in 2013, National
Youth Policy (NYP), 2014 and the Na-
tional Policy for Skill Development and
• India’s political, social and economic de-
velopment is passing through a phase
which necessitates a robust and forward
looking education system.
• 86th Constitutional Amendment - Article
• The Right of Children to Free and Com-
pulsory Education (RTE) Act, 2009.
• The educational activities and learning
process are no longer conﬁned to the
classroom and, therefore, the domain of
education is no longer limited to formal
schooling or higher education.
• Learners today have access to more cur-
rent knowledge through non- institution-
alized means.- Media both print and elec-
tronic, ICTs etc.
• promote the acquisition by learners of
knowledge and skills on a life-long ba-
sis to enhance their capacity to adapt to
changing skill requirements.
• The new technologies have brought about
easy access to new pools of information
and learning resources and new learning
opportunities for learners.
• The National Education Policy, 2016 en-
visions a credible education system capa-
ble of ensuring inclusive quality educa-
tion and lifelong learning opportunities.
• developing responsible citizens who re-
spect the Indian tradition of acceptance
of diversity of India’s heritage, culture
and history and promote social cohesion
and religious amity.
• role of education in inculcating values,
providing skills and competencies to citi-
zens, and enabling them to contribute to
the nation’s wellbeing.
• Long term economic growth and develop-
ment of the nation crtically depends upon
the quality of the products of the educa-
2 Key Challenges in Educa-
1. Access and Participation
• Percentage of out of school children
have dramatically declined since
2000. However, absolute number re-
• Lower enrollment rate in upper pri-
mary and secondary education com-
pared to primary education.
• Upward transition/mobility of stu-
dents from elementary - secondary
- higher secondary - tertiary educa-
tion remains a challenge.
• India has the 2nd largest education
system in the world.
• Gross Enrollment Ratio education
remains low at 23.6% (2014-15).
• Slow progress in reducing num-
ber of illiterates remains a concern.
Largest non-literate population in
the world. 283 million (2011).
2. Quality Issues
• Poor quality of education resulting
in poor outcome.
• inappropriate curriculum.
• lack trained educator and ineﬀective
• As per National Achievement Sur-
vey (NAS) covering Grades III, V,
VIII and X suggest that the learn-
ing levels of signiﬁcant amount pro-
portion of students do not measure
up to the expected learning levels.
• Poor quality of education at pri-
mary and secondary level leads to
poor learning outcomes in higher ed-
• National Assessment and Accredi-
tation Council (NAAC) - 68% of
universities and 91% of the colleges
rated average or below average in
terms of quality parameters.
Reasons for poor school education
• schools non compliant to prescribed
• student and teacher absenteeism.
• serious gaps in teacher motivation
and training resulting in deﬁciencies
related to teacher training and qual-
• slow progress of ICT.
• sub optimal personnel management.
• inadequate attention to monitoring
and supervision pf performance etc.
3. Skills and Employability
• India one of the youngest nation.
54% of its total population below 25
years of age.
• Need to be equipped with skills
and knowledge with education and
• Inadequate institutional arrange-
ments to support technical and vo-
cational educational programmes.
• Horizontal and Vertical mobility of
students attempted only recently.
• Fostering dignity and social accept-
ability to high quality vocational
• Large portion of population lacks
• Utility of higher education in assur-
ing employment remains question-
4. Curriculum and Assessment
• Disconnect between the existing
school system and higher education
• Assessment practices at the school
and college/university level remains
• Focus on rote learning and repro-
duce content knowledge.
5. Information and Communication
• Potential of ICT in education sector
not fully realized.
6. Teacher Development and Manage-
• Training programs inappropriate in
terms of equipping teachers to meet
the demands of present and future.
• Inadequate institutional capacity to
train teachers leading to shortage of
• Lack of research, experimentation
and innovation in teacher training.
• Issues related to capacity, motiva-
tion and accountability need to be
7. Equity Issues
• Children from disadvantaged groups
still lack access to pre-school educa-
• Regional disparities in spread of sec-
• Proportion of Out of School chil-
dren (OOSC) higher than the na-
tional average for SC, ST and mus-
• National Learning Achievement
Survey - urban students performing
signiﬁcantly better than rural
students; private unaided schools
performing marginally better than
• Historically disadvantaged and eco-
nomically weaker sections of the so-
ciety and ﬁrst generation learners
exhibit signiﬁcantly lower outcomes.
• Lack of facilities of children with dis-
• High dropout rates for girls.
8. System Eﬃciency
• Retention rate at primary level and
elementary level 83.7% and 67.4%
• Ensuring completion of elemen-
tary, secondary and higher sec-
ondary education by enrolled stu-
dents emerges to be high priority
9. Governance and Management
• Teacher absenteeism.
• Delayed fund ﬂows to schools/ col-
• Sub optimal planning and imple-
• Complex governance and manage-
ment system at tertiary educa-
tion level due to multiplicity of
providers, programmes, modes of ﬁ-
nancing and regulators.
• Commercialization is rampant re-
ﬂected in fees levied.
• Mushrooming of sub standard ed-
ucational institutions undermining
the credibility of education system.
• Weak initiatives at university levels.
• Limited initiatives for upgrading
skills of existing faculty.
• Weak industry-academia collabora-
11. Budgetary constraints
• Earlier education policies endorsed
a norm of 6% of GDP as the
minimum expenditure on education.
12. Global Commitments
• SDG goal 4: Ensure inclusive and
equitable quality education and pro-
mote lifelong learning and opportu-
nities for all.
• Education for All (EFA) agenda ini-
tiated in 2000 remains unﬁnished.
• NEP to pursue both EFA agenda
and targets associated with SDG4.
3 NEP 2016
• credible and high-performing educa-
tion system capable of ensuring in-
clusive quality education and life-
long learning opportunities for all.
• producing students/graduates
equipped with the knowledge,
skills, attitudes and values that are
required to lead a productive life,
participate in the country’s devel-
opment process, respond to the
requirements of the fastchanging,
economy and society.
• Expanding early childhood educa-
tion services for 4-5 years old to en-
sure smooth transition to primary
• Universal elementary and secondary
• Equitable access to higher educa-
• All education programs are made
accessible, inclusive and responsive.
• Social, regional and gender gaps are
• Promoting skill development and
• Young people (15-24 years) and
adults (15 years and above) out
of formal school education are pro-
vided with opportunities to attain
skills for employability.
• Reform in higher education system
in order to ensure equitable access
to tertiary education.
• Integration of ICTs in education.
• Teacher development and manage-
• Ensure all youth and atleast 90% of
adults achieve literacy and numer-
acy skills prescribed by adult edu-
• Well targeted ﬁnancing.
4 Clash with RTE
• NEP insists on consolidation. Merg-
ing small, non-viable schools. Sub-
verts RTE act on neighborhood
schools be located in a walking dis-
tance of 1 km.
• Insists on “school mapping” instead
of “child mapping”. But stresses on
transport to be provided.
• Proposal to extend 25% quota for
EWS in private schools to be ex-
tended to minority institutions.
• No detention policy to be limited to
class V instead of class VIII.