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Draft National Education Policy
Amit Kumar Anand
October 29, 2016
1 Introduction
• The ultimate aim of ...
• The new technologies have brought about
easy access to new pools of information
and learning resources and new learning
• Horizontal and Vertical mobility of
students attempted only recently.
• Fostering dignity and social accept-
ability to ...
• Weak initiatives at university levels.
• Limited initiatives for upgrading
skills of existing faculty.
• Weak industry-a...
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Draft National Education Policy, 2016

Draft National Education Policy, 2016 India

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Draft National Education Policy, 2016

  1. 1. Draft National Education Policy Amit Kumar Anand October 29, 2016 1 Introduction • The ultimate aim of education in ancient India was not knowledge, as preparation for life in this world or for life beyond, but for complete realization of the self. • The world’s first university was estab- lished in Takshila in 700 BC. • Nalanda University was established in 4th century BC. • In its heyday, in the 7th century AD, Nalanda University had some 10,000 stu- dents and 2,000 teachers. • Nalanda University attracted pupils and scholars from China, Indonesia, Korea, Japan, Persia, Turkey and other parts of the world. • During the freedom struggle, several leaders like Gokhale, Ram Mohan Roy, Pt. Madan Mohan Malaviya and Gand- hiji worked for better education for the people of India. • India from time to time to formulate poli- cies and programmes required to enhance access to and participation in education and improve quality of education. • University Education Commission (1948- 49), the Secondary Education Commis- sion (1952-53), the Education Commis- sion (1964-66), and the National Com- mission on Teachers - I & II (1983-85). • National Policy on Education 1986 (re- vised in 1992) envisaged a National sys- tem of education which implies that “up to a given level, all students, irrespective of caste, creed, location or sex, have ac- cess to education of a comparative qual- ity”. • 42nd Amendment - Education trans- ferred from State list to Concurrent list. • Any policy on education will have in- ter sectoral and inter ministerial nature. Need to recognize the role of National Policy on Early Childhood Care and Edu- cation (ECCE) adopted in 2013, National Youth Policy (NYP), 2014 and the Na- tional Policy for Skill Development and Entrepreneurship, 2015. • India’s political, social and economic de- velopment is passing through a phase which necessitates a robust and forward looking education system. • 86th Constitutional Amendment - Article 21A • The Right of Children to Free and Com- pulsory Education (RTE) Act, 2009. • The educational activities and learning process are no longer confined to the classroom and, therefore, the domain of education is no longer limited to formal schooling or higher education. • Learners today have access to more cur- rent knowledge through non- institution- alized means.- Media both print and elec- tronic, ICTs etc. • promote the acquisition by learners of knowledge and skills on a life-long ba- sis to enhance their capacity to adapt to changing skill requirements. 1
  2. 2. • The new technologies have brought about easy access to new pools of information and learning resources and new learning opportunities for learners. • The National Education Policy, 2016 en- visions a credible education system capa- ble of ensuring inclusive quality educa- tion and lifelong learning opportunities. • developing responsible citizens who re- spect the Indian tradition of acceptance of diversity of India’s heritage, culture and history and promote social cohesion and religious amity. • role of education in inculcating values, providing skills and competencies to citi- zens, and enabling them to contribute to the nation’s wellbeing. • Long term economic growth and develop- ment of the nation crtically depends upon the quality of the products of the educa- tion system. 2 Key Challenges in Educa- tion Sector 1. Access and Participation • Percentage of out of school children have dramatically declined since 2000. However, absolute number re- mains high. • Lower enrollment rate in upper pri- mary and secondary education com- pared to primary education. • Upward transition/mobility of stu- dents from elementary - secondary - higher secondary - tertiary educa- tion remains a challenge. • India has the 2nd largest education system in the world. • Gross Enrollment Ratio education remains low at 23.6% (2014-15). • Slow progress in reducing num- ber of illiterates remains a concern. Largest non-literate population in the world. 283 million (2011). 2. Quality Issues • Poor quality of education resulting in poor outcome. • inappropriate curriculum. • lack trained educator and ineffective pedagogy. • As per National Achievement Sur- vey (NAS) covering Grades III, V, VIII and X suggest that the learn- ing levels of significant amount pro- portion of students do not measure up to the expected learning levels. • Poor quality of education at pri- mary and secondary level leads to poor learning outcomes in higher ed- ucation sector. • National Assessment and Accredi- tation Council (NAAC) - 68% of universities and 91% of the colleges rated average or below average in terms of quality parameters. Reasons for poor school education • schools non compliant to prescribed norms. • student and teacher absenteeism. • serious gaps in teacher motivation and training resulting in deficiencies related to teacher training and qual- ity. • slow progress of ICT. • sub optimal personnel management. • inadequate attention to monitoring and supervision pf performance etc. 3. Skills and Employability • India one of the youngest nation. 54% of its total population below 25 years of age. • Need to be equipped with skills and knowledge with education and training. • Inadequate institutional arrange- ments to support technical and vo- cational educational programmes. 2
  3. 3. • Horizontal and Vertical mobility of students attempted only recently. • Fostering dignity and social accept- ability to high quality vocational training. • Large portion of population lacks employable skills. • Utility of higher education in assur- ing employment remains question- able. 4. Curriculum and Assessment • Disconnect between the existing school system and higher education curricula. • Assessment practices at the school and college/university level remains unsatisfactory. • Focus on rote learning and repro- duce content knowledge. 5. Information and Communication Technology (ICT) • Potential of ICT in education sector not fully realized. 6. Teacher Development and Manage- ment • Training programs inappropriate in terms of equipping teachers to meet the demands of present and future. • Inadequate institutional capacity to train teachers leading to shortage of teachers. • Lack of research, experimentation and innovation in teacher training. • Issues related to capacity, motiva- tion and accountability need to be resolved soon. 7. Equity Issues • Children from disadvantaged groups still lack access to pre-school educa- tion. • Regional disparities in spread of sec- ondary schools. • Proportion of Out of School chil- dren (OOSC) higher than the na- tional average for SC, ST and mus- lim children. • National Learning Achievement Survey - urban students performing significantly better than rural students; private unaided schools performing marginally better than government schools. • Historically disadvantaged and eco- nomically weaker sections of the so- ciety and first generation learners exhibit significantly lower outcomes. • Lack of facilities of children with dis- abilities. • High dropout rates for girls. 8. System Efficiency • Retention rate at primary level and elementary level 83.7% and 67.4% respectively. • Ensuring completion of elemen- tary, secondary and higher sec- ondary education by enrolled stu- dents emerges to be high priority task. 9. Governance and Management • Teacher absenteeism. • Delayed fund flows to schools/ col- leges/ universities. • Sub optimal planning and imple- mentation. • Complex governance and manage- ment system at tertiary educa- tion level due to multiplicity of providers, programmes, modes of fi- nancing and regulators. • Commercialization is rampant re- flected in fees levied. • Mushrooming of sub standard ed- ucational institutions undermining the credibility of education system. 10. R&D 3
  4. 4. • Weak initiatives at university levels. • Limited initiatives for upgrading skills of existing faculty. • Weak industry-academia collabora- tion. 11. Budgetary constraints • Earlier education policies endorsed a norm of 6% of GDP as the minimum expenditure on education. Never met. 12. Global Commitments • SDG goal 4: Ensure inclusive and equitable quality education and pro- mote lifelong learning and opportu- nities for all. • Education for All (EFA) agenda ini- tiated in 2000 remains unfinished. • NEP to pursue both EFA agenda and targets associated with SDG4. 3 NEP 2016 3.1 Vision • credible and high-performing educa- tion system capable of ensuring in- clusive quality education and life- long learning opportunities for all. • producing students/graduates equipped with the knowledge, skills, attitudes and values that are required to lead a productive life, participate in the country’s devel- opment process, respond to the requirements of the fastchanging, everglobalising, knowledgebased economy and society. 3.2 Objectives • Expanding early childhood educa- tion services for 4-5 years old to en- sure smooth transition to primary education. • Universal elementary and secondary education. • Equitable access to higher educa- tion. • All education programs are made accessible, inclusive and responsive. • Social, regional and gender gaps are eliminated. • Promoting skill development and vocational skills. • Young people (15-24 years) and adults (15 years and above) out of formal school education are pro- vided with opportunities to attain skills for employability. • Reform in higher education system in order to ensure equitable access to tertiary education. • Integration of ICTs in education. • Teacher development and manage- ment. • Ensure all youth and atleast 90% of adults achieve literacy and numer- acy skills prescribed by adult edu- cation programmes. • Well targeted financing. 4 Clash with RTE • NEP insists on consolidation. Merg- ing small, non-viable schools. Sub- verts RTE act on neighborhood schools be located in a walking dis- tance of 1 km. • Insists on “school mapping” instead of “child mapping”. But stresses on transport to be provided. • Proposal to extend 25% quota for EWS in private schools to be ex- tended to minority institutions. • No detention policy to be limited to class V instead of class VIII. 4