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THE
HARAPPAN
CIVILIZATION
ABOUT HARAPPAN CIVILIZATION
 One of the most fascinating yet mysterious cultures of
the ancient world is the Harappan civilization. This
culture existed along the Indus River in present day
Pakistan. It was named after the city of Harappa which
it was centered around. Harappa and the city of
Mohenjo-Daro were the greatest achievements of the
Indus valley civilization. These cities are well known for
their impressive, organized and regular layout. Over one
hundred other towns and villages also existed in this
region. The Harappan people were literate and used the
Dravidian language.
2
PERIOD OF THE HARAPPAN
CIVILIZATION
 Indus Valley Civilization was an ancient civilization that
thrived in the Indus river valleys, now in Pakistan, along
with the northwestern parts of India, Afghanistan and
Turkmenistan. The civilization, which is also known as
Harappan Civilization, lasted from 3300 BC to 1700 BC.
The discovery of the Ancient Indus River Valley
Civilization was made, when the Harappan city, the first
city of Indus Valley, was excavated.
3
SIGNIFICANT FEATURES OF THE
HARAPPAN CIVILIZATION
TOWN PLANNING-The
excavations of the ruins
showed a remarkable skill in
town planning. The main
streets and roads were set in a
line, sometimes running
straight for a mile, and were
varying in width from 4 meters
to 10 meters. Most of these
roads and streets were paved
with fire brunt bricks. On the
either side of the street stood
houses of various sizes which
did not protrude into the
streets. The main streets
intersected at right angles,
dividing the city into squares or
rectangular blocks each of
which was divided length wise
and cross wise by lanes. Some
buildings had a lamp post and a
well.
4
THE DRAINAGE SYSTEM
 The Drainage System; The
Drainage System of the Indus
Valley Civilization was far
advanced. The drains were
covered with slabs. Water
flowed from houses into the
street drains. The street
drains had manholes at
regular intervals. All soak pits
and drains were occasionally
cleaned by workmen. In every
house there was a well-
constructed sink, and water
flowed from the sink into the
underground sewers in the
streets. This elaborate
drainage system shows that
the Indus Valley people were
fully conversant with the
principles of health and
sanitation.
5
ARCHITECTURE
Dwelling House:
Large blocks of houses were
built along the sides of the
streets. the houses, many of
them double storeyed, had flat
roofs. They were of different
sizes. Some were like palaces
while other were like small
rooms. They were made of
baked bricks of very good
quality. An average house had
a courtyard surrounded by
rooms, a bathroom, a kitchen
and a well. A narrow staircase
led to the rooms upstairs.The
houses were built on raised
platforms as a protection
against the danger of floods.
6
 Great Bath: One of the largest buildings was the
Great Bath measuring 180 feet by 108 feet. The
bathing pool, 39 feet long, 28 feet wide and 8 feet
deep was in the center of the quadrangle,
surrounded with verandahs, rooms and galleries. A
flight of steps led to the pool. The pool could be
filled and emptied by means of a vaulted culvert, 6
feet and 6 inches high. The walls of the pool were
made of burnt bricks laid on edge, which made the
pool watertight. The pool was filled with water from
a large well, situated in the same complex. Periodic
cleaning of the pool was done by draining off the
used water into a big drain. The Great Bath building
had six entrances. The Great Bath reflected the
engineering genius of those ancient days.
7
THE GREAT BATH
8
THE GREAT GRANARY
 Great Granary: Another
large building in the city
was the Great Granary
which was made about
45 meters long and 15
meters wide. It was
meant to store food
grains. It had lines of
circular brick platforms
for pounding grain. There
were barrack like
quarters for workmen.
The granary also had
smaller halls and
corridors.
9
THE ASSEMBLY HALL
 The Assembly Hall: An important
feature of Mohen-jo-daro was its 24
square meters pillared hall. It had five
rows of pillars, with four pillars in each
row. Kiln baked bricks were used to
construct these pillars. Probably, it was
the Assembly Hall or the ruler's court. It
is said that it also housed the municipal
office which had the charge of town
planning and sanitation.
10
11
SOCIAL LIFE OF THE PEOPLE
 Food: Specimens of
wheat and barley show
that they were cultivated
in that region. Rice was
also probably grown.
There is evidence to
show that date palms
were grown in the area.
Besides these, the diet of
the people consisted of
fruits, vegetables, fish,
milk and meat of animals
i.e. beef, mutton and
poultry.
12
DRESS
 Dress: From the sculptured
figures it can be seen that the
dress of men and women
consisted of two pieces of
cloth-one resembling a dhoti,
covering the lower part, and
the other worn over the left
shoulder and under the right
arm. Men had long hair
designed differently. Women
wore a fan shaped head dress
covering there hair. The
discovery of a large number of
spindles showed that they
knew weaving and spinning.
Similarly it was concluded, by
the discovery of needles and
buttons, that the people of
this age knew the art of
stitching.
13
ORNAMENTS
 Ornaments: Both men
and women wore
ornaments made of gold,
silver, copper and other
metals. Men wore
necklaces, finger rings and
armlets of various designs
and shapes. The women
wore a head dress, ear
rings, bangles, girdles,
bracelets and anklets. Rich
people wore expensive
ornaments made of gold
while the poor had
ornaments made of shell,
bone or copper.
14
SPORTS AND GAMES
 Sports and games - :
The Indus Valley people
liked more of indoor
games than outdoor
amusements. They were
fond of gambling and
playing dice. Dancing
and singing were
considered great arts.
Boys played with toys
made of terracotta, while
girls played with dolls.
15
MAIN OCCUPATIONS
 Agriculture: Agriculture
was the main occupation
of the Indus Valley people.
Crops such as wheat,
barley, peas and bananas
were raised. In the olden
days, there was enough
rain in that region and
occasional floods brought
a great deal of fertile soil
to the area. People used
to plough the land with
wooden ploughshares
drawn by men and oxen.
From the existence of
granaries it is concluded
that there were surplus
food-grains.
16
DOMESTICATION OF ANIMALS
 Domestication of Animals: The
people of Harappa domesticated
animals like oxen, buffaloes, pigs,
goats and sheep. Camels and
asses were used as means of
transport. Dogs and cats were kept
as pets. The humped bull was
considered a great asset in the
farming community. Crafts The
discovery of spindles at the sites of
Harappan culture shows that the
people used to spin and weave.
Goldsmiths made jewellery of gold,
silver and precious stones. People
were also engaged in brick-laying
and in the art of sculpture. The
making of seals was developed
during this period. Bronze-smiths
made various types of weapons
and tools such as knives, spears,
saws and axes which were used in
daily life.
17
TRADE AND COMMERCE
 Trade and commerce - Traders
carried on trade in the country
as well as with other countries
like Egypt, Babylon and
Afghanistan. Many seals of
Harappa found in
Mesopotamia show that trade
existed between the two
countries. The seals were
made of terracotta and were
used by merchants to stamp
their goods.
The people of the Indus Valley
used weights and measures in
their business transactions.
They used 16 and its
multiplies: 64, 160 and 320,
in measurement and weight.
18
ARTS AND CRAFTS
 The discovery of statues, figurines of men and women
in terracotta, stone and metal indicate that people of
the area were great artists and sculptors.
 Sculpture in Metal: The Harappan artists knew the
art of bronze casting. They used the special lost wax
process in which the wax figures were covered with a
coating of clay. Then the wax was melted by heating
and the hollow mould thus created was filled with
molten metal which took the original shape of the
object. A figure of a female naked dancer was found at
Mohen-jo-daro. Necklaces adorn her breast. One of
her arms is fully covered with bangles made of bone or
ivory. Her eyes are large, nose is flat and the lips are
pendulous. Her hair is braided and her head is slightly
thrown back. Her limbs suggest graceful lines. Besides
the figurine, bronze figures of a buffalo and a humped
bull are very artistically designed.
19
SCULPTURE IN STONE
 Sculpture in Stone: Among
the stone images found in
Harappa two male statues are
noteworthy. One of them is
artistically decorated while the
other is kept naked. The first
statue is that of a yogi,
draped in a shawl worn over
the left shoulder and under
the right arm. His beard is
well-kept and his eyes are
half-closed. The other figure is
a torso of a human male. It is
beautiful piece of sculpture
made of red stone. The head
and arms of the figure were
carved separately and
socketed into holes drilled on
the torso.
20
THE HARAPPAN CIVILIZATION -
MAP
21
THANK YOU FOR
WATCHING.
DONE BY SWAROOP
RAJ BS
22

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The Harappan Civilization

  • 2. ABOUT HARAPPAN CIVILIZATION  One of the most fascinating yet mysterious cultures of the ancient world is the Harappan civilization. This culture existed along the Indus River in present day Pakistan. It was named after the city of Harappa which it was centered around. Harappa and the city of Mohenjo-Daro were the greatest achievements of the Indus valley civilization. These cities are well known for their impressive, organized and regular layout. Over one hundred other towns and villages also existed in this region. The Harappan people were literate and used the Dravidian language. 2
  • 3. PERIOD OF THE HARAPPAN CIVILIZATION  Indus Valley Civilization was an ancient civilization that thrived in the Indus river valleys, now in Pakistan, along with the northwestern parts of India, Afghanistan and Turkmenistan. The civilization, which is also known as Harappan Civilization, lasted from 3300 BC to 1700 BC. The discovery of the Ancient Indus River Valley Civilization was made, when the Harappan city, the first city of Indus Valley, was excavated. 3
  • 4. SIGNIFICANT FEATURES OF THE HARAPPAN CIVILIZATION TOWN PLANNING-The excavations of the ruins showed a remarkable skill in town planning. The main streets and roads were set in a line, sometimes running straight for a mile, and were varying in width from 4 meters to 10 meters. Most of these roads and streets were paved with fire brunt bricks. On the either side of the street stood houses of various sizes which did not protrude into the streets. The main streets intersected at right angles, dividing the city into squares or rectangular blocks each of which was divided length wise and cross wise by lanes. Some buildings had a lamp post and a well. 4
  • 5. THE DRAINAGE SYSTEM  The Drainage System; The Drainage System of the Indus Valley Civilization was far advanced. The drains were covered with slabs. Water flowed from houses into the street drains. The street drains had manholes at regular intervals. All soak pits and drains were occasionally cleaned by workmen. In every house there was a well- constructed sink, and water flowed from the sink into the underground sewers in the streets. This elaborate drainage system shows that the Indus Valley people were fully conversant with the principles of health and sanitation. 5
  • 6. ARCHITECTURE Dwelling House: Large blocks of houses were built along the sides of the streets. the houses, many of them double storeyed, had flat roofs. They were of different sizes. Some were like palaces while other were like small rooms. They were made of baked bricks of very good quality. An average house had a courtyard surrounded by rooms, a bathroom, a kitchen and a well. A narrow staircase led to the rooms upstairs.The houses were built on raised platforms as a protection against the danger of floods. 6
  • 7.  Great Bath: One of the largest buildings was the Great Bath measuring 180 feet by 108 feet. The bathing pool, 39 feet long, 28 feet wide and 8 feet deep was in the center of the quadrangle, surrounded with verandahs, rooms and galleries. A flight of steps led to the pool. The pool could be filled and emptied by means of a vaulted culvert, 6 feet and 6 inches high. The walls of the pool were made of burnt bricks laid on edge, which made the pool watertight. The pool was filled with water from a large well, situated in the same complex. Periodic cleaning of the pool was done by draining off the used water into a big drain. The Great Bath building had six entrances. The Great Bath reflected the engineering genius of those ancient days. 7 THE GREAT BATH
  • 8. 8
  • 9. THE GREAT GRANARY  Great Granary: Another large building in the city was the Great Granary which was made about 45 meters long and 15 meters wide. It was meant to store food grains. It had lines of circular brick platforms for pounding grain. There were barrack like quarters for workmen. The granary also had smaller halls and corridors. 9
  • 10. THE ASSEMBLY HALL  The Assembly Hall: An important feature of Mohen-jo-daro was its 24 square meters pillared hall. It had five rows of pillars, with four pillars in each row. Kiln baked bricks were used to construct these pillars. Probably, it was the Assembly Hall or the ruler's court. It is said that it also housed the municipal office which had the charge of town planning and sanitation. 10
  • 11. 11
  • 12. SOCIAL LIFE OF THE PEOPLE  Food: Specimens of wheat and barley show that they were cultivated in that region. Rice was also probably grown. There is evidence to show that date palms were grown in the area. Besides these, the diet of the people consisted of fruits, vegetables, fish, milk and meat of animals i.e. beef, mutton and poultry. 12
  • 13. DRESS  Dress: From the sculptured figures it can be seen that the dress of men and women consisted of two pieces of cloth-one resembling a dhoti, covering the lower part, and the other worn over the left shoulder and under the right arm. Men had long hair designed differently. Women wore a fan shaped head dress covering there hair. The discovery of a large number of spindles showed that they knew weaving and spinning. Similarly it was concluded, by the discovery of needles and buttons, that the people of this age knew the art of stitching. 13
  • 14. ORNAMENTS  Ornaments: Both men and women wore ornaments made of gold, silver, copper and other metals. Men wore necklaces, finger rings and armlets of various designs and shapes. The women wore a head dress, ear rings, bangles, girdles, bracelets and anklets. Rich people wore expensive ornaments made of gold while the poor had ornaments made of shell, bone or copper. 14
  • 15. SPORTS AND GAMES  Sports and games - : The Indus Valley people liked more of indoor games than outdoor amusements. They were fond of gambling and playing dice. Dancing and singing were considered great arts. Boys played with toys made of terracotta, while girls played with dolls. 15
  • 16. MAIN OCCUPATIONS  Agriculture: Agriculture was the main occupation of the Indus Valley people. Crops such as wheat, barley, peas and bananas were raised. In the olden days, there was enough rain in that region and occasional floods brought a great deal of fertile soil to the area. People used to plough the land with wooden ploughshares drawn by men and oxen. From the existence of granaries it is concluded that there were surplus food-grains. 16
  • 17. DOMESTICATION OF ANIMALS  Domestication of Animals: The people of Harappa domesticated animals like oxen, buffaloes, pigs, goats and sheep. Camels and asses were used as means of transport. Dogs and cats were kept as pets. The humped bull was considered a great asset in the farming community. Crafts The discovery of spindles at the sites of Harappan culture shows that the people used to spin and weave. Goldsmiths made jewellery of gold, silver and precious stones. People were also engaged in brick-laying and in the art of sculpture. The making of seals was developed during this period. Bronze-smiths made various types of weapons and tools such as knives, spears, saws and axes which were used in daily life. 17
  • 18. TRADE AND COMMERCE  Trade and commerce - Traders carried on trade in the country as well as with other countries like Egypt, Babylon and Afghanistan. Many seals of Harappa found in Mesopotamia show that trade existed between the two countries. The seals were made of terracotta and were used by merchants to stamp their goods. The people of the Indus Valley used weights and measures in their business transactions. They used 16 and its multiplies: 64, 160 and 320, in measurement and weight. 18
  • 19. ARTS AND CRAFTS  The discovery of statues, figurines of men and women in terracotta, stone and metal indicate that people of the area were great artists and sculptors.  Sculpture in Metal: The Harappan artists knew the art of bronze casting. They used the special lost wax process in which the wax figures were covered with a coating of clay. Then the wax was melted by heating and the hollow mould thus created was filled with molten metal which took the original shape of the object. A figure of a female naked dancer was found at Mohen-jo-daro. Necklaces adorn her breast. One of her arms is fully covered with bangles made of bone or ivory. Her eyes are large, nose is flat and the lips are pendulous. Her hair is braided and her head is slightly thrown back. Her limbs suggest graceful lines. Besides the figurine, bronze figures of a buffalo and a humped bull are very artistically designed. 19
  • 20. SCULPTURE IN STONE  Sculpture in Stone: Among the stone images found in Harappa two male statues are noteworthy. One of them is artistically decorated while the other is kept naked. The first statue is that of a yogi, draped in a shawl worn over the left shoulder and under the right arm. His beard is well-kept and his eyes are half-closed. The other figure is a torso of a human male. It is beautiful piece of sculpture made of red stone. The head and arms of the figure were carved separately and socketed into holes drilled on the torso. 20
  • 22. THANK YOU FOR WATCHING. DONE BY SWAROOP RAJ BS 22