SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 12
Download to read offline
INDUS VALLEY
CIVILIZATION
SAJIDA. K
Indus Valley Civilization was an ancient civilization that
thrived in the Indus and Ghaggar-Hakra river valleys, now
in Pakistan, along with the northwestern parts of India,
Afghanistan and Turkmenistan. The civilization, which is
also known as Harappan Civilization, lasted from 3300 BC
to 1700 BC. The discovery of the Ancient Indus River
Valley Civilization was made, when the Harappan city, the
first city of Indus Valley, was excavated.
DISCOVERY
The first description of the ruins of Harappa is found in the
Narrative of Various Journeys in Balochistan, Afghanistan and
Punjab of Charles Masson. In the year 1912, J. Fleet discovered
Harappan seals. This incident led to an excavation campaign
under Sir John Hubert Marshall in 1921-1922. The result of the
excavation was discovery of Harappa by Sir John Marshall, Rai
Bahadur Daya Ram Sahni and Madho Sarup Vats and
Mohenjodaro by Rakhal Das Banerjee, E. J. H. MacKay, and Sir
John Marshall.
The three main phases of the Indus Valley Civilization are:
1.Early Harappan (Integration Era)
2.Mature Harappan (Localization Era)
3.Late Harappan (Regionalization Era)
PHASES
Cities
Approximately 1052 cities and settlements belonging to the
Indus Valley Civilization have been excavated till date Dockyards,
granaries, warehouses, brick platforms and protective walls have been
found in almost all the cities of the Indus Valley Civilization. The
evidence suggests that most city dwellers were traders or artisans,
who lived with others belonging to the same occupation in well-
defined neighborhoods. Social equality seems to be widely prevalent
in the cities of Indus Valley, though there are some houses that are
bigger than the others.
Science
The people of Indus Valley are believed to be amongst the first to
develop a system of uniform weights and measures. Their smallest
division was approximately 1.704 mm. Decimal division of
measurement was used for all practical purposes. The brick weights
were in a perfect ratio of 4:2:1. The numerous inventions of the
Indus River Valley Civilization include an instrument used for
measuring whole sections of the horizon and the tidal dock. The
people of Harappa evolved new techniques in metallurgy and
produced copper, bronze, lead and tin. They also had the
knowledge of proto-dentistry and the touchstone technique of
gold testing.
Arts and Culture
Various sculptures, seals, pottery, gold jewelry and figurines in
terracotta, bronze and steatite, etc., have been excavated from the
sites of the Ancient Indus Valley Civilization. Other crafts that have
been unearthed include shell works, ceramics, agate, glazed steatite
bead making, special kind of combs, etc. There is also evidence of
seals, toys, games and stringed musical instruments in the Indus
Valley.
Trade and Transportation
Trade seems to the major occupation of the people of the
Harappan Civilization. The main forms of transport include
bullock carts and boats. Archaeologists have also discovered an
enormous, dredged canal and docking facility at the coastal city
of Lothal. The pottery, seals, figurines, ornaments, etc, of the
civilization show great similarities with those of Central Asia
and the Iranian plateau, indicating trade with them. Then, there
are signs of maritime trade network between the Harappan and
Mesopotamian civilizations also.
Agriculture
The major cultivated cereal crop was naked six-row barley, a
crop derived from two-row barley. However, not much information
is available on the farmers and their agricultural methods.
Symbol System
As many as 400 distinct Indus symbols have been
found on seals, ceramic pots and other materials
excavated from the Indus Valley. Typical Indus
inscriptions are, at the most, four or five characters in
length and quite small. The longest inscription on any
object is 26 symbols long. Indus symbols have been
found on ritual objects also, many of which were mass-
produced.
Religion
The large number of figurines found in the Indus Valley
Civilization suggests that the Harappan people worshipped a
Mother Goddess, who symbolized fertility. Some of the seals
of that time also have the swastikas engraved on them. Then,
there are some others in which a figure is seated in a yoga-like
posture and is surrounded by animals. The figure is quite
similar to that of Lord Pashupati, the Lord of Creatures.
INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION

More Related Content

What's hot

Indus valley civilization
Indus valley civilizationIndus valley civilization
Indus valley civilizationSayan Munshi
 
Indus valley civilization
Indus valley civilizationIndus valley civilization
Indus valley civilizationSourav Prasad
 
Indus valley civilisation
Indus valley civilisationIndus valley civilisation
Indus valley civilisationAdesh Katariya
 
Indus Valley Civilization
Indus Valley CivilizationIndus Valley Civilization
Indus Valley Civilizationnandanrocker
 
Indus valley civilization
Indus valley civilizationIndus valley civilization
Indus valley civilizationDijo Mathews
 
Indus Valley Civilization
Indus Valley CivilizationIndus Valley Civilization
Indus Valley CivilizationSafiyaMJaved
 
Indus valley civilization slides
Indus valley civilization slidesIndus valley civilization slides
Indus valley civilization slidesAyesha Shoukat
 
Indus valley civilization
Indus valley civilizationIndus valley civilization
Indus valley civilizationbbvp
 
07 Indus valley civilization
07 Indus valley civilization07 Indus valley civilization
07 Indus valley civilizationEACT_COEP
 
Indus valley civilization tyba
Indus valley civilization  tybaIndus valley civilization  tyba
Indus valley civilization tybaNEHA VISHWAKARMA
 
Indus civilization ppt
Indus civilization pptIndus civilization ppt
Indus civilization pptPrativa
 
Indus Valley Civilization
Indus Valley Civilization Indus Valley Civilization
Indus Valley Civilization Md. Saiful Islam
 
Indus valley civilization
Indus valley civilizationIndus valley civilization
Indus valley civilizationapoorva jain
 
The Harappan Civilization
The Harappan CivilizationThe Harappan Civilization
The Harappan CivilizationSwaroop Raj
 
Indus valley civilization
Indus valley civilizationIndus valley civilization
Indus valley civilizationpriyankaa92
 
Indus River Civilizations
Indus River CivilizationsIndus River Civilizations
Indus River CivilizationsPaulVMcDowell
 
Presentation harappa
Presentation harappaPresentation harappa
Presentation harapparajir66
 
Indus valley civilization
Indus valley civilizationIndus valley civilization
Indus valley civilizationVishal Saini
 
Indus valley civilization
Indus valley civilization Indus valley civilization
Indus valley civilization W-Z Presenters
 

What's hot (20)

Indus valley civilization
Indus valley civilizationIndus valley civilization
Indus valley civilization
 
Indus valley civilization
Indus valley civilizationIndus valley civilization
Indus valley civilization
 
Indus valley civilisation
Indus valley civilisationIndus valley civilisation
Indus valley civilisation
 
Indus Valley Civilization
Indus Valley CivilizationIndus Valley Civilization
Indus Valley Civilization
 
Indus valley civilization
Indus valley civilizationIndus valley civilization
Indus valley civilization
 
Indus Valley Civilization
Indus Valley CivilizationIndus Valley Civilization
Indus Valley Civilization
 
Indus valley civilization slides
Indus valley civilization slidesIndus valley civilization slides
Indus valley civilization slides
 
Indus valley civilization
Indus valley civilizationIndus valley civilization
Indus valley civilization
 
07 Indus valley civilization
07 Indus valley civilization07 Indus valley civilization
07 Indus valley civilization
 
Indus valley civilization tyba
Indus valley civilization  tybaIndus valley civilization  tyba
Indus valley civilization tyba
 
Indus civilization ppt
Indus civilization pptIndus civilization ppt
Indus civilization ppt
 
Indus Valley Civilization
Indus Valley Civilization Indus Valley Civilization
Indus Valley Civilization
 
Indus valley civilization
Indus valley civilizationIndus valley civilization
Indus valley civilization
 
The Harappan Civilization
The Harappan CivilizationThe Harappan Civilization
The Harappan Civilization
 
Indus valley civilization
Indus valley civilizationIndus valley civilization
Indus valley civilization
 
Indus River Civilizations
Indus River CivilizationsIndus River Civilizations
Indus River Civilizations
 
Presentation harappa
Presentation harappaPresentation harappa
Presentation harappa
 
Indus valley civilization
Indus valley civilizationIndus valley civilization
Indus valley civilization
 
Indus Valley Civilization
Indus Valley CivilizationIndus Valley Civilization
Indus Valley Civilization
 
Indus valley civilization
Indus valley civilization Indus valley civilization
Indus valley civilization
 

Similar to INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION

Indus Valley Civilization history and influence.ppt
Indus Valley Civilization history and influence.pptIndus Valley Civilization history and influence.ppt
Indus Valley Civilization history and influence.pptinayatdurranidha451
 
Harappan civi
Harappan civiHarappan civi
Harappan civiDlgltsbm
 
Harappan civilization- lijitha
Harappan civilization- lijithaHarappan civilization- lijitha
Harappan civilization- lijithalijithasaji
 
Indus Valley Civilization.ppt
Indus Valley Civilization.pptIndus Valley Civilization.ppt
Indus Valley Civilization.pptNarendra Joshi
 
Indus Valley Civilization.ppt
Indus Valley Civilization.pptIndus Valley Civilization.ppt
Indus Valley Civilization.pptAmamaMoazzam1
 
Harappan Civilisation
Harappan CivilisationHarappan Civilisation
Harappan CivilisationSuhas Mandlik
 
Indus Valley Civilization.pptx
Indus Valley Civilization.pptxIndus Valley Civilization.pptx
Indus Valley Civilization.pptxabubakarnasir9
 
Indus valley civilization
Indus valley civilizationIndus valley civilization
Indus valley civilizationLijina Mohan
 
Mohenjo daro and harappa
Mohenjo daro and harappaMohenjo daro and harappa
Mohenjo daro and harappaMarriam Abass
 
presetation-170421140844.pdf
presetation-170421140844.pdfpresetation-170421140844.pdf
presetation-170421140844.pdfKirtigarg49
 
Indus valley
Indus valleyIndus valley
Indus valleybbvp
 
Harrapan and mesopotamian civilization by Fenil shah
Harrapan and mesopotamian civilization by Fenil shah Harrapan and mesopotamian civilization by Fenil shah
Harrapan and mesopotamian civilization by Fenil shah FenilShah69
 
Harappan civilization p pt
Harappan civilization p ptHarappan civilization p pt
Harappan civilization p ptsudhisoman
 
Indus valley civilisation iwac
Indus valley civilisation iwacIndus valley civilisation iwac
Indus valley civilisation iwacNeha Singh
 
INDUS VALLEY and its historic background.ppt
INDUS VALLEY and its historic background.pptINDUS VALLEY and its historic background.ppt
INDUS VALLEY and its historic background.pptAliAzharRajput
 
Harappan civilization p pt
Harappan civilization p ptHarappan civilization p pt
Harappan civilization p ptsudhisoman
 
Harappan civilization p pt
Harappan civilization p ptHarappan civilization p pt
Harappan civilization p ptsudhisoman
 

Similar to INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION (20)

Indus Valley Civilization history and influence.ppt
Indus Valley Civilization history and influence.pptIndus Valley Civilization history and influence.ppt
Indus Valley Civilization history and influence.ppt
 
Harappan civi
Harappan civiHarappan civi
Harappan civi
 
Harappan civilization- lijitha
Harappan civilization- lijithaHarappan civilization- lijitha
Harappan civilization- lijitha
 
Indus Valley Civilization.ppt
Indus Valley Civilization.pptIndus Valley Civilization.ppt
Indus Valley Civilization.ppt
 
harappa
harappaharappa
harappa
 
Indus Valley Civilization.ppt
Indus Valley Civilization.pptIndus Valley Civilization.ppt
Indus Valley Civilization.ppt
 
Indus Valley Civilization.ppt
Indus Valley Civilization.pptIndus Valley Civilization.ppt
Indus Valley Civilization.ppt
 
Harappan Civilisation
Harappan CivilisationHarappan Civilisation
Harappan Civilisation
 
Indus Valley Civilization.pptx
Indus Valley Civilization.pptxIndus Valley Civilization.pptx
Indus Valley Civilization.pptx
 
Indus valley civilization
Indus valley civilizationIndus valley civilization
Indus valley civilization
 
Mohenjo daro and harappa
Mohenjo daro and harappaMohenjo daro and harappa
Mohenjo daro and harappa
 
presetation-170421140844.pdf
presetation-170421140844.pdfpresetation-170421140844.pdf
presetation-170421140844.pdf
 
Indus valley
Indus valleyIndus valley
Indus valley
 
Harrapan and mesopotamian civilization by Fenil shah
Harrapan and mesopotamian civilization by Fenil shah Harrapan and mesopotamian civilization by Fenil shah
Harrapan and mesopotamian civilization by Fenil shah
 
Indus valley
Indus valleyIndus valley
Indus valley
 
Harappan civilization p pt
Harappan civilization p ptHarappan civilization p pt
Harappan civilization p pt
 
Indus valley civilisation iwac
Indus valley civilisation iwacIndus valley civilisation iwac
Indus valley civilisation iwac
 
INDUS VALLEY and its historic background.ppt
INDUS VALLEY and its historic background.pptINDUS VALLEY and its historic background.ppt
INDUS VALLEY and its historic background.ppt
 
Harappan civilization p pt
Harappan civilization p ptHarappan civilization p pt
Harappan civilization p pt
 
Harappan civilization p pt
Harappan civilization p ptHarappan civilization p pt
Harappan civilization p pt
 

More from Saji Anasaji

HISTORY OF MEDIEVAL PERIOD
HISTORY OF MEDIEVAL PERIODHISTORY OF MEDIEVAL PERIOD
HISTORY OF MEDIEVAL PERIODSaji Anasaji
 
Indian freedom fighters
Indian freedom fightersIndian freedom fighters
Indian freedom fightersSaji Anasaji
 
ACTIVITIES FOR DEVELOPING FITNESS
ACTIVITIES FOR DEVELOPING FITNESSACTIVITIES FOR DEVELOPING FITNESS
ACTIVITIES FOR DEVELOPING FITNESSSaji Anasaji
 
CONSTITUTIONAL PROVISIONS
CONSTITUTIONAL PROVISIONSCONSTITUTIONAL PROVISIONS
CONSTITUTIONAL PROVISIONSSaji Anasaji
 

More from Saji Anasaji (8)

HISTORY OF MEDIEVAL PERIOD
HISTORY OF MEDIEVAL PERIODHISTORY OF MEDIEVAL PERIOD
HISTORY OF MEDIEVAL PERIOD
 
Indian freedom fighters
Indian freedom fightersIndian freedom fighters
Indian freedom fighters
 
ACTIVITIES FOR DEVELOPING FITNESS
ACTIVITIES FOR DEVELOPING FITNESSACTIVITIES FOR DEVELOPING FITNESS
ACTIVITIES FOR DEVELOPING FITNESS
 
Mughal empire
Mughal empireMughal empire
Mughal empire
 
HYGIENIC HABITS
HYGIENIC HABITSHYGIENIC HABITS
HYGIENIC HABITS
 
CONSTITUTIONAL PROVISIONS
CONSTITUTIONAL PROVISIONSCONSTITUTIONAL PROVISIONS
CONSTITUTIONAL PROVISIONS
 
SEXUAL HARASSMENT
SEXUAL HARASSMENTSEXUAL HARASSMENT
SEXUAL HARASSMENT
 
WORLD CUP 2014
WORLD CUP 2014WORLD CUP 2014
WORLD CUP 2014
 

Recently uploaded

Narcotic and Non Narcotic Analgesic..pdf
Narcotic and Non Narcotic Analgesic..pdfNarcotic and Non Narcotic Analgesic..pdf
Narcotic and Non Narcotic Analgesic..pdfPrerana Jadhav
 
6 ways Samsung’s Interactive Display powered by Android changes the classroom
6 ways Samsung’s Interactive Display powered by Android changes the classroom6 ways Samsung’s Interactive Display powered by Android changes the classroom
6 ways Samsung’s Interactive Display powered by Android changes the classroomSamsung Business USA
 
Oppenheimer Film Discussion for Philosophy and Film
Oppenheimer Film Discussion for Philosophy and FilmOppenheimer Film Discussion for Philosophy and Film
Oppenheimer Film Discussion for Philosophy and FilmStan Meyer
 
Employablity presentation and Future Career Plan.pptx
Employablity presentation and Future Career Plan.pptxEmployablity presentation and Future Career Plan.pptx
Employablity presentation and Future Career Plan.pptxryandux83rd
 
ClimART Action | eTwinning Project
ClimART Action    |    eTwinning ProjectClimART Action    |    eTwinning Project
ClimART Action | eTwinning Projectjordimapav
 
Comparative Literature in India by Amiya dev.pptx
Comparative Literature in India by Amiya dev.pptxComparative Literature in India by Amiya dev.pptx
Comparative Literature in India by Amiya dev.pptxAvaniJani1
 
Tree View Decoration Attribute in the Odoo 17
Tree View Decoration Attribute in the Odoo 17Tree View Decoration Attribute in the Odoo 17
Tree View Decoration Attribute in the Odoo 17Celine George
 
4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptx
4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptx4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptx
4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptxmary850239
 
Congestive Cardiac Failure..presentation
Congestive Cardiac Failure..presentationCongestive Cardiac Failure..presentation
Congestive Cardiac Failure..presentationdeepaannamalai16
 
Healthy Minds, Flourishing Lives: A Philosophical Approach to Mental Health a...
Healthy Minds, Flourishing Lives: A Philosophical Approach to Mental Health a...Healthy Minds, Flourishing Lives: A Philosophical Approach to Mental Health a...
Healthy Minds, Flourishing Lives: A Philosophical Approach to Mental Health a...Osopher
 
How to Uninstall a Module in Odoo 17 Using Command Line
How to Uninstall a Module in Odoo 17 Using Command LineHow to Uninstall a Module in Odoo 17 Using Command Line
How to Uninstall a Module in Odoo 17 Using Command LineCeline George
 
ESP 4-EDITED.pdfmmcncncncmcmmnmnmncnmncmnnjvnnv
ESP 4-EDITED.pdfmmcncncncmcmmnmnmncnmncmnnjvnnvESP 4-EDITED.pdfmmcncncncmcmmnmnmncnmncmnnjvnnv
ESP 4-EDITED.pdfmmcncncncmcmmnmnmncnmncmnnjvnnvRicaMaeCastro1
 
MS4 level being good citizen -imperative- (1) (1).pdf
MS4 level   being good citizen -imperative- (1) (1).pdfMS4 level   being good citizen -imperative- (1) (1).pdf
MS4 level being good citizen -imperative- (1) (1).pdfMr Bounab Samir
 
Decoding the Tweet _ Practical Criticism in the Age of Hashtag.pptx
Decoding the Tweet _ Practical Criticism in the Age of Hashtag.pptxDecoding the Tweet _ Practical Criticism in the Age of Hashtag.pptx
Decoding the Tweet _ Practical Criticism in the Age of Hashtag.pptxDhatriParmar
 
4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx
4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx
4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptxmary850239
 
Q-Factor General Quiz-7th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Q-Factor General Quiz-7th April 2024, Quiz Club NITWQ-Factor General Quiz-7th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Q-Factor General Quiz-7th April 2024, Quiz Club NITWQuiz Club NITW
 
ICS 2208 Lecture Slide Notes for Topic 6
ICS 2208 Lecture Slide Notes for Topic 6ICS 2208 Lecture Slide Notes for Topic 6
ICS 2208 Lecture Slide Notes for Topic 6Vanessa Camilleri
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Narcotic and Non Narcotic Analgesic..pdf
Narcotic and Non Narcotic Analgesic..pdfNarcotic and Non Narcotic Analgesic..pdf
Narcotic and Non Narcotic Analgesic..pdf
 
6 ways Samsung’s Interactive Display powered by Android changes the classroom
6 ways Samsung’s Interactive Display powered by Android changes the classroom6 ways Samsung’s Interactive Display powered by Android changes the classroom
6 ways Samsung’s Interactive Display powered by Android changes the classroom
 
Spearman's correlation,Formula,Advantages,
Spearman's correlation,Formula,Advantages,Spearman's correlation,Formula,Advantages,
Spearman's correlation,Formula,Advantages,
 
Oppenheimer Film Discussion for Philosophy and Film
Oppenheimer Film Discussion for Philosophy and FilmOppenheimer Film Discussion for Philosophy and Film
Oppenheimer Film Discussion for Philosophy and Film
 
Employablity presentation and Future Career Plan.pptx
Employablity presentation and Future Career Plan.pptxEmployablity presentation and Future Career Plan.pptx
Employablity presentation and Future Career Plan.pptx
 
ClimART Action | eTwinning Project
ClimART Action    |    eTwinning ProjectClimART Action    |    eTwinning Project
ClimART Action | eTwinning Project
 
Comparative Literature in India by Amiya dev.pptx
Comparative Literature in India by Amiya dev.pptxComparative Literature in India by Amiya dev.pptx
Comparative Literature in India by Amiya dev.pptx
 
Tree View Decoration Attribute in the Odoo 17
Tree View Decoration Attribute in the Odoo 17Tree View Decoration Attribute in the Odoo 17
Tree View Decoration Attribute in the Odoo 17
 
4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptx
4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptx4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptx
4.9.24 Social Capital and Social Exclusion.pptx
 
Congestive Cardiac Failure..presentation
Congestive Cardiac Failure..presentationCongestive Cardiac Failure..presentation
Congestive Cardiac Failure..presentation
 
Healthy Minds, Flourishing Lives: A Philosophical Approach to Mental Health a...
Healthy Minds, Flourishing Lives: A Philosophical Approach to Mental Health a...Healthy Minds, Flourishing Lives: A Philosophical Approach to Mental Health a...
Healthy Minds, Flourishing Lives: A Philosophical Approach to Mental Health a...
 
Introduction to Research ,Need for research, Need for design of Experiments, ...
Introduction to Research ,Need for research, Need for design of Experiments, ...Introduction to Research ,Need for research, Need for design of Experiments, ...
Introduction to Research ,Need for research, Need for design of Experiments, ...
 
How to Uninstall a Module in Odoo 17 Using Command Line
How to Uninstall a Module in Odoo 17 Using Command LineHow to Uninstall a Module in Odoo 17 Using Command Line
How to Uninstall a Module in Odoo 17 Using Command Line
 
INCLUSIVE EDUCATION PRACTICES FOR TEACHERS AND TRAINERS.pptx
INCLUSIVE EDUCATION PRACTICES FOR TEACHERS AND TRAINERS.pptxINCLUSIVE EDUCATION PRACTICES FOR TEACHERS AND TRAINERS.pptx
INCLUSIVE EDUCATION PRACTICES FOR TEACHERS AND TRAINERS.pptx
 
ESP 4-EDITED.pdfmmcncncncmcmmnmnmncnmncmnnjvnnv
ESP 4-EDITED.pdfmmcncncncmcmmnmnmncnmncmnnjvnnvESP 4-EDITED.pdfmmcncncncmcmmnmnmncnmncmnnjvnnv
ESP 4-EDITED.pdfmmcncncncmcmmnmnmncnmncmnnjvnnv
 
MS4 level being good citizen -imperative- (1) (1).pdf
MS4 level   being good citizen -imperative- (1) (1).pdfMS4 level   being good citizen -imperative- (1) (1).pdf
MS4 level being good citizen -imperative- (1) (1).pdf
 
Decoding the Tweet _ Practical Criticism in the Age of Hashtag.pptx
Decoding the Tweet _ Practical Criticism in the Age of Hashtag.pptxDecoding the Tweet _ Practical Criticism in the Age of Hashtag.pptx
Decoding the Tweet _ Practical Criticism in the Age of Hashtag.pptx
 
4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx
4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx
4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx
 
Q-Factor General Quiz-7th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Q-Factor General Quiz-7th April 2024, Quiz Club NITWQ-Factor General Quiz-7th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
Q-Factor General Quiz-7th April 2024, Quiz Club NITW
 
ICS 2208 Lecture Slide Notes for Topic 6
ICS 2208 Lecture Slide Notes for Topic 6ICS 2208 Lecture Slide Notes for Topic 6
ICS 2208 Lecture Slide Notes for Topic 6
 

INDUS VALLEY CIVILIZATION

  • 2. Indus Valley Civilization was an ancient civilization that thrived in the Indus and Ghaggar-Hakra river valleys, now in Pakistan, along with the northwestern parts of India, Afghanistan and Turkmenistan. The civilization, which is also known as Harappan Civilization, lasted from 3300 BC to 1700 BC. The discovery of the Ancient Indus River Valley Civilization was made, when the Harappan city, the first city of Indus Valley, was excavated.
  • 3. DISCOVERY The first description of the ruins of Harappa is found in the Narrative of Various Journeys in Balochistan, Afghanistan and Punjab of Charles Masson. In the year 1912, J. Fleet discovered Harappan seals. This incident led to an excavation campaign under Sir John Hubert Marshall in 1921-1922. The result of the excavation was discovery of Harappa by Sir John Marshall, Rai Bahadur Daya Ram Sahni and Madho Sarup Vats and Mohenjodaro by Rakhal Das Banerjee, E. J. H. MacKay, and Sir John Marshall.
  • 4. The three main phases of the Indus Valley Civilization are: 1.Early Harappan (Integration Era) 2.Mature Harappan (Localization Era) 3.Late Harappan (Regionalization Era) PHASES
  • 5. Cities Approximately 1052 cities and settlements belonging to the Indus Valley Civilization have been excavated till date Dockyards, granaries, warehouses, brick platforms and protective walls have been found in almost all the cities of the Indus Valley Civilization. The evidence suggests that most city dwellers were traders or artisans, who lived with others belonging to the same occupation in well- defined neighborhoods. Social equality seems to be widely prevalent in the cities of Indus Valley, though there are some houses that are bigger than the others.
  • 6. Science The people of Indus Valley are believed to be amongst the first to develop a system of uniform weights and measures. Their smallest division was approximately 1.704 mm. Decimal division of measurement was used for all practical purposes. The brick weights were in a perfect ratio of 4:2:1. The numerous inventions of the Indus River Valley Civilization include an instrument used for measuring whole sections of the horizon and the tidal dock. The people of Harappa evolved new techniques in metallurgy and produced copper, bronze, lead and tin. They also had the knowledge of proto-dentistry and the touchstone technique of gold testing.
  • 7. Arts and Culture Various sculptures, seals, pottery, gold jewelry and figurines in terracotta, bronze and steatite, etc., have been excavated from the sites of the Ancient Indus Valley Civilization. Other crafts that have been unearthed include shell works, ceramics, agate, glazed steatite bead making, special kind of combs, etc. There is also evidence of seals, toys, games and stringed musical instruments in the Indus Valley.
  • 8. Trade and Transportation Trade seems to the major occupation of the people of the Harappan Civilization. The main forms of transport include bullock carts and boats. Archaeologists have also discovered an enormous, dredged canal and docking facility at the coastal city of Lothal. The pottery, seals, figurines, ornaments, etc, of the civilization show great similarities with those of Central Asia and the Iranian plateau, indicating trade with them. Then, there are signs of maritime trade network between the Harappan and Mesopotamian civilizations also.
  • 9. Agriculture The major cultivated cereal crop was naked six-row barley, a crop derived from two-row barley. However, not much information is available on the farmers and their agricultural methods.
  • 10. Symbol System As many as 400 distinct Indus symbols have been found on seals, ceramic pots and other materials excavated from the Indus Valley. Typical Indus inscriptions are, at the most, four or five characters in length and quite small. The longest inscription on any object is 26 symbols long. Indus symbols have been found on ritual objects also, many of which were mass- produced.
  • 11. Religion The large number of figurines found in the Indus Valley Civilization suggests that the Harappan people worshipped a Mother Goddess, who symbolized fertility. Some of the seals of that time also have the swastikas engraved on them. Then, there are some others in which a figure is seated in a yoga-like posture and is surrounded by animals. The figure is quite similar to that of Lord Pashupati, the Lord of Creatures.