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DEPTH STUDY
NAZI GERMANY
HITLER DOMINATING
GERMANY BY 1934
CONSOLIDATING
POWER 1933-1934
05
CAMBRIDGE IGCSE – DEPTH STUDY: GERMANY
CAMBRIDGE IGCSE – DEPTH STUDY: GERMANY
BEINGTHECHANCELLOR
• WhenHitlerbecameChancellorofGermanyon30January1933,hisinfluencewas
limitedonaccountoftheagreementbetweenHindenburgandvonPapen.
• HewasjustanotherHeadofyetanotherWeimarcoalitiongovernment.
• IttookHitler18monthstoconverthispositionintooneofabsolutepower.
• Thefirststageintheprocesswasto callforageneralelectiontobeheldon5th of
March.
• Theelectionssupposedtobefreeandpeaceful,butpoliceandSAwereextremely
violentagainstCommunists.
• HitlerpersuadedHindenburg toissueanemergencydecreewhich suspended
personalfreedomsandincreasedpolicepowers
CAMBRIDGE IGCSE – DEPTH STUDY: GERMANY
CAMBRIDGE IGCSE – DEPTH STUDY: GERMANY
THEREICHSTAGFIRE
• Ontheeveningof27 February,theReichstagbuildingburnt
down.
• ADutchCommunist,MarinusvanderLubbe,wasarrestedin
theReichstaggroundsandchargedwithstartingthefire.
• Hitlerimmediatelyclaimedthatthisisaproofof a
Communistplotagainstthestate,andpersuaded
Hindenburgtoissueanemergencydecreewhich suspended
personalfreedomandincreasedpolicepowers.
• Heusedtheopportunitytostartapublicscareaboutthe
allegedCommunistthreat.
CAMBRIDGE IGCSE – DEPTH STUDY: GERMANY
CAMBRIDGE IGCSE – DEPTH STUDY: GERMANY
THEREICHSTAGFIREATHERMATH
• Hitlerwasdelightedbywhathappened,becausethiswastheevidenceofwhathe
hadbeensayingforyears.
• Thecommunistsweretryingtoseizepowerbyviolentrevolution.
• Theyhad tobestopped.
• Hehad4000leadingcommunists arrestedandpersuadedHindenburgtosign “A
DecreefortheProtectionofthePeopleandtheState”.
• HitlerusedthiseventtopreventNazisopponentsfromholdingpublicmeetingsand
toarrestmorecommunists.
• ThefirewasveryconvenientfortheNazis.Somehistorianshavesuggestedthat
theyhadthefirestartedthemselves.
CAMBRIDGE IGCSE – DEPTH STUDY: GERMANY
UNCONFIRMEDTHEORIES
• Thereisnoobjectiveevidencetosuggestthattheydidit, butitremainsextremely
doubtfulthatvanderLubbewasapartofacommunistconspiracy.
• Healwaysdeniedthat.
CAMBRIDGE IGCSE – DEPTH STUDY: GERMANY
CAMBRIDGE IGCSE – DEPTH STUDY: GERMANY
ACTIVITY1
• HowusefulisthesourceasevidenceofNazi
involvementintheReichstagFire?
CAMBRIDGE IGCSE – DEPTH STUDY: GERMANY
ACTIVITY2
SUMMARIZEIN
ONEPARAGRAPH
•WhywasHitlersopleasedbythe
Reichstagfire?
CAMBRIDGE IGCSE – DEPTH STUDY: GERMANY
ACTIVITY3
HOWDOESBRITISH
SOURCEDIFFERFROM
THESTATEMENT?
HOWRELIABLEARE
THESESOURCES?
Marinus Van
der Lubbe’s
statement to
the police
about the
Reichstag Fire,
March 1933.
A British newspaper reporter’s view of the Reichstag Fire.
CAMBRIDGE IGCSE – DEPTH STUDY: GERMANY
THEGENERALELECTIONOF5MARCH1933
• Naziscontrolledthepoliceandthemedia (newspapersandradiostations)soHitler
washopingtoachieveatleasthalfofthevotesintheincoming elections.
• Thatwouldenablehimtoleadwithoutanyothercoalitionpartners(weak
government).
• Nazisreceived43.9% ofthevotesandthatwasnotenough.
• HitlerneededthesupportoftheNationalists.
CAMBRIDGE IGCSE – DEPTH STUDY: GERMANY
THEENABLINGACT –23MARCH1933
• InordertoincreasehispowersandbeabletogovernwithouttheReichstag
(parliament),HitlerintroducedaverycontroversialActwhichwouldestablish
thedictatorship.
• Itachievedthenecessary66% intheParliamentbythreatsandpromises.
• SAandSStroopswereinsideandoutsidetheKrollOperaHousebuilding,
showingtheirweaponsandchantingslogans,toputpressureonthevoters.
• OnlytheSocialDemocratsopposed,andthe EnablingActpassedby441 votesto
94.
CAMBRIDGE IGCSE – DEPTH STUDY: GERMANY
CAMBRIDGE IGCSE – DEPTH STUDY: GERMANY
ALEGALDICTATORSHIP,WITHCHALLENGES
• Hitlerwasnowalegaldictator.
• Buthealsohadnumerouspeopletoopposehim, suchas:
- Theunions,withthepowertoorganisestrikes(remembertheirroleintheKapp
Putschin1920)
- Theoppositionpartieswhocan regroupandchallengethelegalityoftheAct
- TheCivilServicewhocouldhavechallengethelegalityofHitler’sactions,
includingtheintroductionsof newlaws
- Thestategovernmentscouldapprovesomenewanti-Nazipolicies
- TheArmycouldhaveorganisedacoupunderHindenburg’s command
CAMBRIDGE IGCSE – DEPTH STUDY: GERMANY
THECONSOLIDATIONOFPOWER:TRADEUNIONSANDPARTIES
TRADEUNIONS
InMay1933, thetradeunionswereabolished,theirleadersarrested,theirpremises
andequipmentseizedandtheirfundsconfiscated.
ANazi-ledGermanLabourFrontwassetupinitsplacetowhich allworkershadto
belong.Strikeactionbecomeillegal.
POLITICALPARTIES
ByJuly1933, allpoliticalpartiesapartfromtheNazishadbeenbanned andGermany
becameaone-partystate.
CAMBRIDGE IGCSE – DEPTH STUDY: GERMANY
THECONSOLIDATIONOFPOWER:CIVILSERVICEANDGOVERNMENTS
CIVILSERVICE
TheCivilServicewaspurgedofallJewsand“enemiesofthestate”,tomakethem
loyalandreliable.
GOVERNMENTS
InApril1933,Nazistategovernorswereappointedwithpowerstomakestatelaws.
Stateparliamentswereabolishedinearly1934.
CAMBRIDGE IGCSE – DEPTH STUDY: GERMANY
THEONLYREMAININGPROBLEM:THEARMY
Hitler’sonlyremainingproblemwasthearmy.
HewasworriedbyErnstRohm, theleaderoftheSA,andhisgrowing independence.
Hitlerwantedtosendaclearsignaltothearmyleadersthattheyweretoremainin
chargeof aspecial,highlytrainedandprofessionalbody.
Hewantedtopreventacoup.
CAMBRIDGE IGCSE – DEPTH STUDY: GERMANY
ARMYVSSTURMABTEILUNGACTIVITY
TheadvantagesanddisadvantagesforHitlerinsupportingtheSA orthearmyaresetoutinthediagrambellow.
DecidewhichHitlershouldchoose.
SUPPORTINGTHESA
Reasonsfor:
1. RohmwasanoldfriendofHitler
2. TheSAhadfoughtforHitlerinthe1923MunichPutschandinlaterfightagainstCommunism
3. TheywerecommittedNazis
4. TheSAhadgrowntoover2.5millionmenanditwasmuchlargerthanthearmy
Reasonsagainst:
1. TheSAwasbeginningtogetoutofhand.Itwasinterferingintherunningof thecountryandthelawcourts.
2. ItdisapprovedofsomeoftheNazileaders.
3. IfHitlerusedtheSAtocontrolthearmy,thenhewouldhavetogoalongwiththeirotherdemands.
4. HitlerdidnotagreewiththeSA’santi-capitalistpoliciesandworking-classaims.
CAMBRIDGE IGCSE – DEPTH STUDY: GERMANY
ARMYVSSTURMABTEILUNGACTIVITY
TheadvantagesanddisadvantagesforHitlerinsupportingtheSAorthearmyaresetoutinthediagrambellow.
DecidewhichHitlershouldchoose.
SUPPORTINGTHEARMY
Reasonsfor:
1. Thearmywaswelltrained,organisedanddisciplined.
2. ItwastheonlyorganisationwhichhadthepowertoremoveHitler.
3. Ithadthesupportofbigbusinessesandconservatives.
4. AnefficientarmywasneededforHitlertoretakethelandlostintheTreatyofVersailles.
Reasonsagainst:
1. Thearmywassmall.Ithadonly100,000 men.
2. HowloyalthearmywouldbetoHitlerwasunknown.
3. SomeofthegeneralsdislikedHitlerandtheNazis.
CAMBRIDGE IGCSE – DEPTH STUDY: GERMANY
THENIGHTOFTHELONGKNIVES
On29 June1934 Hitleracted.
HecalledameetingofSAleadersforthefollowingdayatWiesseeinBavaria.
Onthenightof30th ofJune1934, RohmandotherSAleaderswerearrestedandshot.
Duringthenext2weeks,severalhundredseniorsSAmenandotherrivalsand
potentialenemies,includingvonSchleicher,werealsomurderedbytheSS.
On13 July1934HitlertoldtheReichstagthat Rohmhadbeenarrestedandexecuted
becausehewasplottingtoseizepower.
CAMBRIDGE IGCSE – DEPTH STUDY: GERMANY
THENIGHTOFTHELONGKNIVES DergroßeSS-Schutz-Staffel-Appellder
GruppeOstderSS.inBerlin!
[Ernst]Röhm, [Heinrich] Himmler, [Kurt]
Daluege.August1933.
CAMBRIDGE IGCSE – DEPTH STUDY: GERMANY
THENIGHTOFTHELONGKNIVESCONT.
TheprimaryinstrumentsofHitler'saction,which carriedoutmostofthekillings,
weretheSchutzstaffel(SS)paramilitaryforceunderHimmleranditsSecurity
Service(SD),andGestapo(secretpolice)underReinhardHeydrich.
Göring's personalpolicebattalionalsotookpartinthekillings.
ManyofthosekilledinthepurgewereleadersoftheSA,thebest-known beingRöhm
himself,theSA'schiefofstaffandoneof Hitler'slongtimesupportersandallies.
CAMBRIDGE IGCSE – DEPTH STUDY: GERMANY
THENIGHTOFTHELONGKNIVESCONT.
Leadingmembersoftheleftist-leaningStrasseristfactionoftheNaziParty,including
itsleaderGregorStrasser,werealsokilled,aswereestablishmentconservativesand
anti-Nazis,suchasformerChancellorKurtvonSchleicherandBavarianpolitician
GustavRittervonKahr,whohadhelpedsuppressHitler'sMunichBeerHallPutschin
1923.
ThemurdersofSAleaderswerealsointended toimprovetheimageoftheHitler
governmentwithaGermanpublic thatwasincreasinglycriticalofthuggishSA
tactics.

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Hitler's Night of the Long Knives Secures Power

  • 1. DEPTH STUDY NAZI GERMANY HITLER DOMINATING GERMANY BY 1934 CONSOLIDATING POWER 1933-1934 05
  • 2. CAMBRIDGE IGCSE – DEPTH STUDY: GERMANY
  • 3. CAMBRIDGE IGCSE – DEPTH STUDY: GERMANY BEINGTHECHANCELLOR • WhenHitlerbecameChancellorofGermanyon30January1933,hisinfluencewas limitedonaccountoftheagreementbetweenHindenburgandvonPapen. • HewasjustanotherHeadofyetanotherWeimarcoalitiongovernment. • IttookHitler18monthstoconverthispositionintooneofabsolutepower. • Thefirststageintheprocesswasto callforageneralelectiontobeheldon5th of March. • Theelectionssupposedtobefreeandpeaceful,butpoliceandSAwereextremely violentagainstCommunists. • HitlerpersuadedHindenburg toissueanemergencydecreewhich suspended personalfreedomsandincreasedpolicepowers
  • 4. CAMBRIDGE IGCSE – DEPTH STUDY: GERMANY
  • 5. CAMBRIDGE IGCSE – DEPTH STUDY: GERMANY THEREICHSTAGFIRE • Ontheeveningof27 February,theReichstagbuildingburnt down. • ADutchCommunist,MarinusvanderLubbe,wasarrestedin theReichstaggroundsandchargedwithstartingthefire. • Hitlerimmediatelyclaimedthatthisisaproofof a Communistplotagainstthestate,andpersuaded Hindenburgtoissueanemergencydecreewhich suspended personalfreedomandincreasedpolicepowers. • Heusedtheopportunitytostartapublicscareaboutthe allegedCommunistthreat.
  • 6. CAMBRIDGE IGCSE – DEPTH STUDY: GERMANY
  • 7. CAMBRIDGE IGCSE – DEPTH STUDY: GERMANY THEREICHSTAGFIREATHERMATH • Hitlerwasdelightedbywhathappened,becausethiswastheevidenceofwhathe hadbeensayingforyears. • Thecommunistsweretryingtoseizepowerbyviolentrevolution. • Theyhad tobestopped. • Hehad4000leadingcommunists arrestedandpersuadedHindenburgtosign “A DecreefortheProtectionofthePeopleandtheState”. • HitlerusedthiseventtopreventNazisopponentsfromholdingpublicmeetingsand toarrestmorecommunists. • ThefirewasveryconvenientfortheNazis.Somehistorianshavesuggestedthat theyhadthefirestartedthemselves.
  • 8. CAMBRIDGE IGCSE – DEPTH STUDY: GERMANY UNCONFIRMEDTHEORIES • Thereisnoobjectiveevidencetosuggestthattheydidit, butitremainsextremely doubtfulthatvanderLubbewasapartofacommunistconspiracy. • Healwaysdeniedthat.
  • 9. CAMBRIDGE IGCSE – DEPTH STUDY: GERMANY
  • 10. CAMBRIDGE IGCSE – DEPTH STUDY: GERMANY ACTIVITY1 • HowusefulisthesourceasevidenceofNazi involvementintheReichstagFire?
  • 11. CAMBRIDGE IGCSE – DEPTH STUDY: GERMANY ACTIVITY2 SUMMARIZEIN ONEPARAGRAPH •WhywasHitlersopleasedbythe Reichstagfire?
  • 12. CAMBRIDGE IGCSE – DEPTH STUDY: GERMANY ACTIVITY3 HOWDOESBRITISH SOURCEDIFFERFROM THESTATEMENT? HOWRELIABLEARE THESESOURCES? Marinus Van der Lubbe’s statement to the police about the Reichstag Fire, March 1933. A British newspaper reporter’s view of the Reichstag Fire.
  • 13. CAMBRIDGE IGCSE – DEPTH STUDY: GERMANY THEGENERALELECTIONOF5MARCH1933 • Naziscontrolledthepoliceandthemedia (newspapersandradiostations)soHitler washopingtoachieveatleasthalfofthevotesintheincoming elections. • Thatwouldenablehimtoleadwithoutanyothercoalitionpartners(weak government). • Nazisreceived43.9% ofthevotesandthatwasnotenough. • HitlerneededthesupportoftheNationalists.
  • 14. CAMBRIDGE IGCSE – DEPTH STUDY: GERMANY THEENABLINGACT –23MARCH1933 • InordertoincreasehispowersandbeabletogovernwithouttheReichstag (parliament),HitlerintroducedaverycontroversialActwhichwouldestablish thedictatorship. • Itachievedthenecessary66% intheParliamentbythreatsandpromises. • SAandSStroopswereinsideandoutsidetheKrollOperaHousebuilding, showingtheirweaponsandchantingslogans,toputpressureonthevoters. • OnlytheSocialDemocratsopposed,andthe EnablingActpassedby441 votesto 94.
  • 15. CAMBRIDGE IGCSE – DEPTH STUDY: GERMANY
  • 16. CAMBRIDGE IGCSE – DEPTH STUDY: GERMANY ALEGALDICTATORSHIP,WITHCHALLENGES • Hitlerwasnowalegaldictator. • Buthealsohadnumerouspeopletoopposehim, suchas: - Theunions,withthepowertoorganisestrikes(remembertheirroleintheKapp Putschin1920) - Theoppositionpartieswhocan regroupandchallengethelegalityoftheAct - TheCivilServicewhocouldhavechallengethelegalityofHitler’sactions, includingtheintroductionsof newlaws - Thestategovernmentscouldapprovesomenewanti-Nazipolicies - TheArmycouldhaveorganisedacoupunderHindenburg’s command
  • 17. CAMBRIDGE IGCSE – DEPTH STUDY: GERMANY THECONSOLIDATIONOFPOWER:TRADEUNIONSANDPARTIES TRADEUNIONS InMay1933, thetradeunionswereabolished,theirleadersarrested,theirpremises andequipmentseizedandtheirfundsconfiscated. ANazi-ledGermanLabourFrontwassetupinitsplacetowhich allworkershadto belong.Strikeactionbecomeillegal. POLITICALPARTIES ByJuly1933, allpoliticalpartiesapartfromtheNazishadbeenbanned andGermany becameaone-partystate.
  • 18. CAMBRIDGE IGCSE – DEPTH STUDY: GERMANY THECONSOLIDATIONOFPOWER:CIVILSERVICEANDGOVERNMENTS CIVILSERVICE TheCivilServicewaspurgedofallJewsand“enemiesofthestate”,tomakethem loyalandreliable. GOVERNMENTS InApril1933,Nazistategovernorswereappointedwithpowerstomakestatelaws. Stateparliamentswereabolishedinearly1934.
  • 19. CAMBRIDGE IGCSE – DEPTH STUDY: GERMANY THEONLYREMAININGPROBLEM:THEARMY Hitler’sonlyremainingproblemwasthearmy. HewasworriedbyErnstRohm, theleaderoftheSA,andhisgrowing independence. Hitlerwantedtosendaclearsignaltothearmyleadersthattheyweretoremainin chargeof aspecial,highlytrainedandprofessionalbody. Hewantedtopreventacoup.
  • 20. CAMBRIDGE IGCSE – DEPTH STUDY: GERMANY ARMYVSSTURMABTEILUNGACTIVITY TheadvantagesanddisadvantagesforHitlerinsupportingtheSA orthearmyaresetoutinthediagrambellow. DecidewhichHitlershouldchoose. SUPPORTINGTHESA Reasonsfor: 1. RohmwasanoldfriendofHitler 2. TheSAhadfoughtforHitlerinthe1923MunichPutschandinlaterfightagainstCommunism 3. TheywerecommittedNazis 4. TheSAhadgrowntoover2.5millionmenanditwasmuchlargerthanthearmy Reasonsagainst: 1. TheSAwasbeginningtogetoutofhand.Itwasinterferingintherunningof thecountryandthelawcourts. 2. ItdisapprovedofsomeoftheNazileaders. 3. IfHitlerusedtheSAtocontrolthearmy,thenhewouldhavetogoalongwiththeirotherdemands. 4. HitlerdidnotagreewiththeSA’santi-capitalistpoliciesandworking-classaims.
  • 21. CAMBRIDGE IGCSE – DEPTH STUDY: GERMANY ARMYVSSTURMABTEILUNGACTIVITY TheadvantagesanddisadvantagesforHitlerinsupportingtheSAorthearmyaresetoutinthediagrambellow. DecidewhichHitlershouldchoose. SUPPORTINGTHEARMY Reasonsfor: 1. Thearmywaswelltrained,organisedanddisciplined. 2. ItwastheonlyorganisationwhichhadthepowertoremoveHitler. 3. Ithadthesupportofbigbusinessesandconservatives. 4. AnefficientarmywasneededforHitlertoretakethelandlostintheTreatyofVersailles. Reasonsagainst: 1. Thearmywassmall.Ithadonly100,000 men. 2. HowloyalthearmywouldbetoHitlerwasunknown. 3. SomeofthegeneralsdislikedHitlerandtheNazis.
  • 22. CAMBRIDGE IGCSE – DEPTH STUDY: GERMANY THENIGHTOFTHELONGKNIVES On29 June1934 Hitleracted. HecalledameetingofSAleadersforthefollowingdayatWiesseeinBavaria. Onthenightof30th ofJune1934, RohmandotherSAleaderswerearrestedandshot. Duringthenext2weeks,severalhundredseniorsSAmenandotherrivalsand potentialenemies,includingvonSchleicher,werealsomurderedbytheSS. On13 July1934HitlertoldtheReichstagthat Rohmhadbeenarrestedandexecuted becausehewasplottingtoseizepower.
  • 23. CAMBRIDGE IGCSE – DEPTH STUDY: GERMANY THENIGHTOFTHELONGKNIVES DergroßeSS-Schutz-Staffel-Appellder GruppeOstderSS.inBerlin! [Ernst]Röhm, [Heinrich] Himmler, [Kurt] Daluege.August1933.
  • 24. CAMBRIDGE IGCSE – DEPTH STUDY: GERMANY THENIGHTOFTHELONGKNIVESCONT. TheprimaryinstrumentsofHitler'saction,which carriedoutmostofthekillings, weretheSchutzstaffel(SS)paramilitaryforceunderHimmleranditsSecurity Service(SD),andGestapo(secretpolice)underReinhardHeydrich. Göring's personalpolicebattalionalsotookpartinthekillings. ManyofthosekilledinthepurgewereleadersoftheSA,thebest-known beingRöhm himself,theSA'schiefofstaffandoneof Hitler'slongtimesupportersandallies.
  • 25. CAMBRIDGE IGCSE – DEPTH STUDY: GERMANY THENIGHTOFTHELONGKNIVESCONT. Leadingmembersoftheleftist-leaningStrasseristfactionoftheNaziParty,including itsleaderGregorStrasser,werealsokilled,aswereestablishmentconservativesand anti-Nazis,suchasformerChancellorKurtvonSchleicherandBavarianpolitician GustavRittervonKahr,whohadhelpedsuppressHitler'sMunichBeerHallPutschin 1923. ThemurdersofSAleaderswerealsointended toimprovetheimageoftheHitler governmentwithaGermanpublic thatwasincreasinglycriticalofthuggishSA tactics.

Editor's Notes

  1. Hitler stepping to dictatorship