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Enabling your limitless growthEnabling your LIMITLESS growth
CASE STUDY: HOW BUSINESS PROCESS
MAPPING SAVED A SOFTWARE PRO...
Enabling your limitless growthEnabling your LIMITLESS growth
Case Study Summary
• Explore how combining business process
m...
Enabling your limitless growthEnabling your LIMITLESS growth
Case Study Key Issues
• Explaining what a workflow is to busi...
Enabling your limitless growthEnabling your LIMITLESS growth
Project Background
• The Publicity System was to
manage the f...
Enabling your limitless growthEnabling your LIMITLESS growth
Project Background – Scope
• Primary stakeholders were interv...
Enabling your limitless growthEnabling your LIMITLESS growth
Project Background – Delivery
Methodology
• Scope and feature...
Enabling your limitless growthEnabling your LIMITLESS growth
Project Background – Primary Deliverables
© 2013 Blacktower, ...
Enabling your limitless growthEnabling your LIMITLESS growth
Missed Requirements
• After several months of analysis and de...
Enabling your limitless growthEnabling your LIMITLESS growth
Short Term Corrective Steps
• Focused on modeling the end-to-...
Enabling your limitless growthEnabling your LIMITLESS growth
Process Mapping Success
• Able to describe the exact steps ou...
Enabling your limitless growthEnabling your LIMITLESS growth
Tips for Ensuring Success
• Get them all in the same room / o...
Enabling your limitless growthEnabling your LIMITLESS growth
Long Term Corrective Steps
• Create guidelines on how to link...
Enabling your limitless growthEnabling your LIMITLESS growth
Creating a set of Guidelines
• Projects were using numerous t...
Enabling your limitless growthEnabling your LIMITLESS growth
Diagramming Candidates
• The Business Process Modeling Notati...
Enabling your limitless growthEnabling your LIMITLESS growth
A Best-of-Breed Solution
• BPMN offered the best combination ...
Enabling your limitless growthEnabling your LIMITLESS growth
A Best-of-Breed Solution
• Use cases would be derived from sp...
Enabling your limitless growthEnabling your LIMITLESS growth
BPMN from the Start
• Project analysis would begin with a Lev...
Enabling your limitless growthEnabling your LIMITLESS growth
Business Modeling as a Discipline
• Using BPMN we started at ...
Enabling your limitless growthEnabling your LIMITLESS growth
Level 1 – Handoffs
• Map enough of the processes to understan...
Enabling your limitless growthEnabling your LIMITLESS growth
Level 2 – Milestones
• Next we selected a process step & focu...
Enabling your limitless growthEnabling your LIMITLESS growth
Level 3 – Logic / Tasks
• Depending on complexity we would fu...
Enabling your limitless growthEnabling your LIMITLESS growth
Process Step Naming Conventions
• Avoid using ambiguous terms...
Enabling your limitless growthEnabling your LIMITLESS growth
Connecting to System Requirements
• Our process diagrams beca...
Enabling your limitless growthEnabling your LIMITLESS growth
A Style Guide to Bind Them All
• To be truly successful this ...
Enabling your limitless growthEnabling your LIMITLESS growth
Process Foo
Actor2Actor1
Start
Step 1
Deliverable
Step 2
Inpu...
Enabling your limitless growthEnabling your LIMITLESS growth
Explaining Our Approach to the Customer
• Never used technica...
Enabling your limitless growthEnabling your LIMITLESS growth
10/22 11/2611/1911/1211/510/2910/1510/810/1 10/22 11/2611/191...
Enabling your limitless growthEnabling your LIMITLESS growth
When to Make Decision Unilaterally
• A leader sometimes needs...
Enabling your limitless growthEnabling your LIMITLESS growth
Organize and Baseline the Models
• We used the APQC Process
C...
Enabling your limitless growthEnabling your LIMITLESS growth
After Applying the APQC PCF
• 4.0 Deliver Products and Servic...
Enabling your limitless growthEnabling your LIMITLESS growth
Benefits of a Classification System
• Standardizing process n...
Enabling your limitless growthEnabling your LIMITLESS growth
The Live System
© 2013 Blacktower, Inc. All Rights Reserved. ...
Enabling your limitless growthEnabling your LIMITLESS growth
References
• Sharp, A. & McDermott, P. Workflow Modeling: Too...
Enabling your limitless growthEnabling your LIMITLESS growth
About Blacktower, Inc.
• We provide management and technology...
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How business process mapping saved an IT project. Slide 1 How business process mapping saved an IT project. Slide 2 How business process mapping saved an IT project. Slide 3 How business process mapping saved an IT project. Slide 4 How business process mapping saved an IT project. Slide 5 How business process mapping saved an IT project. Slide 6 How business process mapping saved an IT project. Slide 7 How business process mapping saved an IT project. Slide 8 How business process mapping saved an IT project. Slide 9 How business process mapping saved an IT project. Slide 10 How business process mapping saved an IT project. Slide 11 How business process mapping saved an IT project. Slide 12 How business process mapping saved an IT project. Slide 13 How business process mapping saved an IT project. Slide 14 How business process mapping saved an IT project. Slide 15 How business process mapping saved an IT project. Slide 16 How business process mapping saved an IT project. Slide 17 How business process mapping saved an IT project. Slide 18 How business process mapping saved an IT project. Slide 19 How business process mapping saved an IT project. Slide 20 How business process mapping saved an IT project. Slide 21 How business process mapping saved an IT project. Slide 22 How business process mapping saved an IT project. Slide 23 How business process mapping saved an IT project. Slide 24 How business process mapping saved an IT project. Slide 25 How business process mapping saved an IT project. Slide 26 How business process mapping saved an IT project. Slide 27 How business process mapping saved an IT project. Slide 28 How business process mapping saved an IT project. Slide 29 How business process mapping saved an IT project. Slide 30 How business process mapping saved an IT project. Slide 31 How business process mapping saved an IT project. Slide 32 How business process mapping saved an IT project. Slide 33 How business process mapping saved an IT project. Slide 34
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How business process mapping saved an IT project.

How do we help a project in jeopardy of delivering a solution that does not meet customer needs? During this session we will describe how we answered that question by applying business process mapping techniques. The project goal was to automate multiple manual processes that had been developed over time to fulfill marketing orders. The customer had successfully implemented these processes using a collection of desktop spreadsheet and email applications and were asking for help to modernize. We will analyze the initial approach used to gather requirements and how changing to a process centric approach to allowed us to better understand which requirements were missed. We will also review how we incorporated elements of the Business Process Model Notation specification into our overall approach. By using this approach we brought IT and the business together, speaking the same language, and provided a solution that met their needs.

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How business process mapping saved an IT project.

  1. 1. Enabling your limitless growthEnabling your LIMITLESS growth CASE STUDY: HOW BUSINESS PROCESS MAPPING SAVED A SOFTWARE PROJECT Garrett Hunter garrett.hunter@blacktower.com © 2013 Blacktower, Inc. All Rights Reserved.
  2. 2. Enabling your limitless growthEnabling your LIMITLESS growth Case Study Summary • Explore how combining business process mapping techniques with use case development helped to successfully deliver an IT project • Review how industry bodies of knowledge such as the Business Process Model Notation specification and the APQC Process Framework were leveraged to provide a common business process vocabulary for both the IT team and the business customers © 2013 Blacktower, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 2
  3. 3. Enabling your limitless growthEnabling your LIMITLESS growth Case Study Key Issues • Explaining what a workflow is to business • Translating workflows into system requirements • Helping our business customers agree on the process • When to make decisions vs. asking questions © 2013 Blacktower, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 3
  4. 4. Enabling your limitless growthEnabling your LIMITLESS growth Project Background • The Publicity System was to manage the fulfillment of marketing materials for all international offices & agents • Marketing materials – T-Shirts – Keychains – Posters – And anything else a marketer can imagine © 2013 Blacktower, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 4
  5. 5. Enabling your limitless growthEnabling your LIMITLESS growth Project Background – Scope • Primary stakeholders were interviewed to determine system features – Online shopping Cart – Product Master – Receiving – Inventory Management • Additional interviews were conducted with users to generate use cases for system configuration and customization • The new system would be replacing processes executed with spreadsheets, email, and paper – Manually intensive processes © 2013 Blacktower, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 5
  6. 6. Enabling your limitless growthEnabling your LIMITLESS growth Project Background – Delivery Methodology • Scope and features were defined in an unstructured narrative style – High level business modeling included via flowcharts • Use cases were used to define development requirements – A use case documents the step by step actions a user performs to complete a specific activity • Majority of rigor placed upon developers to produce class diagrams and data models © 2013 Blacktower, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 6
  7. 7. Enabling your limitless growthEnabling your LIMITLESS growth Project Background – Primary Deliverables © 2013 Blacktower, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 7 Use Cases DiagramsNarrative International AdPub “T0-BE” Level 1 Process Enter new items in support of Theatrical release Marketing System E-mail to territories Requesting Order E-mail to territories Requesting Order Marketing Manual Territories order Through shopping cart P.O. is placed With vendor Marketing Finance System Sales order generated WPF System Vendor produces And inventories product Vendor produces And inventories product Vendor System Vendor generates shipment Vendor generates shipment Vendor System Direct Shipment?Yes Vendor Ships to Territory Vendor System Vendor ships to WPF facility Vendor ships to WPF facility Vendor System No WPF receives WPF System Direct Shipment? Sales order Place at Vendor Facility Sales order Place at Vendor Facility Yes Territories System Sales order Placed at WPF facility Sales order Placed at WPF facility No WPF System WPF Ships to territories WPF System Territories Receive product Territories Manual Possible Interfaces · GPMS · Picasso · Spend & Committed · Carrier API GAPS to date · Shopping cart (optional) · Vendor PickPack, Ship (optional) · Transfer order (optional) · In-transit (optional) · Location management · ApparelFootwear ordering template (e.g. Style, Color, Size) · Standing order functionality · Shipment status in application, not a link · Ability to change ship from(s) and quantities (optional) · E-mail alerts · Add other fields (e.g. Title) Questions · Are items designated as direct of non- directs? · Does Bluebird ship direct and non- directs? International Lines of Business (LOB’s) Theatrical AdPub TV spots Home Entertainment Print Services Outside of Inwood Flow Charts
  8. 8. Enabling your limitless growthEnabling your LIMITLESS growth Missed Requirements • After several months of analysis and development, the first release date was missed because the customer would not sign off on the system stating “IT does not understand our business” • Further analysis revealed multiple requirements that were missed because business rules were not explored in depth – Process for assigning order fulfillment was more complicated than initially thought – The number & complexity of business rules was underestimated © 2013 Blacktower, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 8
  9. 9. Enabling your limitless growthEnabling your LIMITLESS growth Short Term Corrective Steps • Focused on modeling the end-to-end business processes to better understand what we were missing • Conducted Bi-weekly meetings with customer to map their processes – Helped to both rebuild credibility & capture an accurate understanding of all business rules – Required the project to determine how much was “enough” detail to capture • Started the process for defining a long term solution to ensure we would do better at understanding the business problem © 2013 Blacktower, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 9
  10. 10. Enabling your limitless growthEnabling your LIMITLESS growth Process Mapping Success • Able to describe the exact steps our customer performed as part of their work – This allowed us to better empathize with their current challenges and demonstrate our intent to deliver a usable system • Able to call out specific areas within the application that needed customization and which steps would be automated • Customer VP personally expressed his gratitude that “IT finally understands what we have to go through” © 2013 Blacktower, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 10
  11. 11. Enabling your limitless growthEnabling your LIMITLESS growth Tips for Ensuring Success • Get them all in the same room / on the same call • Focus on the person actually performing the work – Not their supervisor / boss • Get agreement on the start and end points of the process – Helps to set the scope of the process mapping • Get agreement on the inputs & outputs – Critical to finding all handoff points and involved parties • Be transparent, show them your models © 2013 Blacktower, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 11
  12. 12. Enabling your limitless growthEnabling your LIMITLESS growth Long Term Corrective Steps • Create guidelines on how to link business processes to system requirements – Traceability is a powerful control to ensure the team is delivering what the customer expects • Develop business modeling as a discipline and not a byproduct – Traditionally, we emphasized delivering coding requirements & not process requirements • Expand Our business modeling to include the entire business process, end-to-end, and not just discrete steps along the way – Focus on automation objectives rather than coding requirements © 2013 Blacktower, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 12
  13. 13. Enabling your limitless growthEnabling your LIMITLESS growth Creating a set of Guidelines • Projects were using numerous tools and diagramming techniques to document business process models – Quality of deliverables too dependent on the whims of the analyst • Needed an approach that would appeal to the widest audience • Needed something that was widely understood outside of The Company • It needed to be compatible with our current development methodology based on use cases © 2013 Blacktower, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 13
  14. 14. Enabling your limitless growthEnabling your LIMITLESS growth Diagramming Candidates • The Business Process Modeling Notation (BPMN) specification – Sponsored by the Object Management Group, it offered a way to standardize our diagrams – Notation similar to our existing use of swim lane / workflow diagrams • Unified Modeling Language (UML) – The standard in object oriented development it offered a number of related models for developing requirements – Activity diagrams closest to what we would need © 2013 Blacktower, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 14
  15. 15. Enabling your limitless growthEnabling your LIMITLESS growth A Best-of-Breed Solution • BPMN offered the best combination of flexibility and standardization to link process models to software design – Standardized diagram symbols – Required the “who” in each diagram – Easily understood by non-techies (for the most part) – Already had BPM systems in house using the notation • UML proved to be too focused on software development and required more training to educate the end consumer • We would add additional notations such as inputs & outputs – Borrowed from IDEF0 © 2013 Blacktower, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 15
  16. 16. Enabling your limitless growthEnabling your LIMITLESS growth A Best-of-Breed Solution • Use cases would be derived from specific process steps and continue to form the basis for system requirements • Data models would be driven by inputs & outputs from the process diagrams • We would create a process modeling style guide that would connect all the pieces together © 2013 Blacktower, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 16
  17. 17. Enabling your limitless growthEnabling your LIMITLESS growth BPMN from the Start • Project analysis would begin with a Level 1 process diagram using the BPMN 1.x specification – Short list of core graphical elements meant a short learning curve – Just the core set of elements for our initial release were used © 2013 Blacktower, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 17
  18. 18. Enabling your limitless growthEnabling your LIMITLESS growth Business Modeling as a Discipline • Using BPMN we started at a macro level and methodically decomposed any step in the process that was unclear • Divided into three levels, increasing in detail – Level 1 = Handoff Level – Level 2 = Milestone Level – Level 3 = Logic / Task Level • We took our guidance from the book Workflow Modeling: Tools for Process Improvement and Application Development (A. Sharp, P. McDermott, Artech House, Inc. 2001) • This rigor enabled the team to document the processes without becoming lost in unnecessary details © 2013 Blacktower, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 18
  19. 19. Enabling your limitless growthEnabling your LIMITLESS growth Level 1 – Handoffs • Map enough of the processes to understand what we missed – Keeps us focused on what happens • Start at a level where you can focus strictly on the handoffs between people participating in the process © 2013 Blacktower, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 19 Publicity Global Promotions Ad/Pub Packer Ad/Pub Picker International Logistics Ad/Pub Distribution CSS Management Customer Sales & Service Rep International Marketing Aprimo Order Report «printed» Distribution List «standing order» Shipping Notice Distribution List w/o Hold & Domestic Work Order «printed» Distribution List «printed» Distribution List «email» Shipment Priorities CSV Summary List «printed»DistributionList Picked Order «printed»WorkOrder «global promotion» Shipping Notice P 4.4.3.1.1 Create Distribution List 4.4.3.1.7 Create Shipping Order 4.4.3.1.5 Pick Order 4.4.3.1.6 Pack Order F G 1 Organize daily service order fulfillment schedule Explored in Level 2
  20. 20. Enabling your limitless growthEnabling your LIMITLESS growth Level 2 – Milestones • Next we selected a process step & focused on documenting milestones within that step – Illustrates decisions that affect the flow in a significant way • The process shown here is derived from a single step © 2013 Blacktower, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 20 Outside Vendor Ad/Pub Picker Customer Sales & Service Rep International Marketing Global Promotions International Logistics Publicity Ad/Pub Receiver No Yes Yes No ReceivingReport Aprimo Order Report «standing order» Shipping Notice «global promotion» Shipping Notice 4.4.3.1.1.4 Validate quanity-on-hand satisfies quantity ordered 4.4.3.1 Group & S orde 4.4.3.1.1.6 Update item quantities on each order 4.4.3.1.1.7 Assign HOLD to w ork orders that cannot be shipped enough on hand? 4.4.3.1.1.5 Split Work Order partial shipment? Publicity Fulf illment Clerk Gobal Promotions 4.4.3.1.1.3 Create Shipping List from Standing Order Template 4.4.3.1.1.2 Create Shipping List from Global Promotions Template 4.4.3.1.1.1 Create Shipping List from Premium Orders 1.1 Create Distribution List Explored in Level 3
  21. 21. Enabling your limitless growthEnabling your LIMITLESS growth Level 3 – Logic / Tasks • Depending on complexity we would further break down each step to get to the how – This is the first time we get to the procedural level • This level of modeling maps closely to the steps within a use case • Naming convention tells the reader this was derived from a higher level model © 2013 Blacktower, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 21 Customer Sales & Service Rep Publicity Aprimo Order Report Publicity 4.4.3.1.1.4 Validate quanity-on-hand satisfies quantity Create Ship Master from Premium Items XLS tempalte Apply Country shipping rules Add Country and Code to Shipping List Add item orders to Shipping List 1.1.1 Create Shipping List from Premium Orders
  22. 22. Enabling your limitless growthEnabling your LIMITLESS growth Process Step Naming Conventions • Avoid using ambiguous terms such as process or manage – The diagram being created is the process • Always use a verb – noun combination – Create distribution list – Pick order – Pack order • Use only one verb at a time – Using multiple verbs can hide your meaning an complicate the diagram © 2013 Blacktower, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 22
  23. 23. Enabling your limitless growthEnabling your LIMITLESS growth Connecting to System Requirements • Our process diagrams became the agreement (aka requirements) between project and our customer – Each step in the process diagram had the potential to be a use case • Use cases continued to be the requirements between business analyst & developer • Use case packages (in keeping with UML) were driven by how we organized our process models © 2013 Blacktower, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 23
  24. 24. Enabling your limitless growthEnabling your LIMITLESS growth A Style Guide to Bind Them All • To be truly successful this needed to be a sustainable process • Tool agnostic process modeling style guide developed to reduce complexity by limiting which elements from the BPMN spec would be used – Our team lacked experience modeling processes and needed guidance before descending into analysis paralysis • Topics covered include – Acceptable graphical elements – Diagram naming conventions – Process step naming conventions © 2013 Blacktower, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 24
  25. 25. Enabling your limitless growthEnabling your LIMITLESS growth Process Foo Actor2Actor1 Start Step 1 Deliverable Step 2 Input Step 3 EndOutput Traceability © 2013 Blacktower, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 25 USE CASE Basic Flow 1. Do this 2. Do that 3. Stop here Process Foo.Step 1 Actor1 Input Start EndStep 1.1 Step 1.2 Deliverable Data Models Process Models
  26. 26. Enabling your limitless growthEnabling your LIMITLESS growth Explaining Our Approach to the Customer • Never used technical terms such as BPMN, use case, or activity diagram • Interchangeably called our BPMN diagrams “process maps”, “workflow diagrams”, and “process models” • Explained the diagrams as step-by-step pictures of who in their organization does what • Kept the diagrams as uncluttered as possible to keep the discussions focused on the work being performed © 2013 Blacktower, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 26
  27. 27. Enabling your limitless growthEnabling your LIMITLESS growth 10/22 11/2611/1911/1211/510/2910/1510/810/1 10/22 11/2611/1911/1211/510/2910/1510/810/1 Release 1.4.0 (Clients) Release 1.5.0 (Work Orders) Release 1.6.0 (Pick / Pack & Logistics) Business Process As Release Driver © 2013 Blacktower, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 27 Global Promotions Ad/Pub Packer Ad/Pub Picker International Logistics Shipping Ad/Pub Distribution CSS Management Customer Sales & Service Rep International Marketing Aprimo Order Report «printed» Distribution List «standing order» Shipping Notice Distribution List w/o Hold & Domestic Work Order «printed» Distribution List «printed» Distribution List «email» Shipment Priorities CSV Summary List «printed»DistributionList Packed Order Picked Order «printed»WorkOrder «global promotion» Shipping Notice 4.4.3.1.1 Create Distribution List 4.4.3.1.7 Create Shipping Order 4.4.3.1.8 Ship Order 4.4.3.1.5 Pick Order 4.4.3.1.6 Pack Order F G
  28. 28. Enabling your limitless growthEnabling your LIMITLESS growth When to Make Decision Unilaterally • A leader sometimes needs to make decisions – Lives are not at risk – Financial statement accuracy is not at risk – Business processes are vaguely defined – The business is undergoing radical change • The very act of implementing a new system and automating numerous manual processes would change the business in ways we could not predict – Better to release early and often if possible © 2013 Blacktower, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 28
  29. 29. Enabling your limitless growthEnabling your LIMITLESS growth Organize and Baseline the Models • We used the APQC Process Classification Framework to organize our business processes • The taxonomy provided us a structure to catalog each process such that we could baseline them against other business units within The Company – For example, the distribution of DVDs in our Home Entertainment division © 2013 Blacktower, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 29 © 2006 APQC (www.apqc.org)
  30. 30. Enabling your limitless growthEnabling your LIMITLESS growth After Applying the APQC PCF • 4.0 Deliver Products and Services – 4.4 Deliver Product Service to Customer • 4.4.3 Provide the service to specific customers – 4.4.3.1 Organize daily service order fulfillment (Level 1) – 4.4.3.1.1 Create Distribution List (Level 2) – 4.4.3.1.1.1 Create Shipping List from Premium Orders (Level 3) • Notice the concept of levels is subjective – This challenge never goes away – Always important to pick your perspective and be consistent © 2013 Blacktower, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 30
  31. 31. Enabling your limitless growthEnabling your LIMITLESS growth Benefits of a Classification System • Standardizing process names enables us to compare processes across the enterprise • Enables us to see repeating patterns across business divisions • Helps to normalize technology portfolios by consolidating systems when possible • Allows us to compare ourselves to external organizations © 2013 Blacktower, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 31
  32. 32. Enabling your limitless growthEnabling your LIMITLESS growth The Live System © 2013 Blacktower, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 32
  33. 33. Enabling your limitless growthEnabling your LIMITLESS growth References • Sharp, A. & McDermott, P. Workflow Modeling: Tools for Process Improvement and Application Development, Artech House, Inc. 2001 • BPMN 1.0, BPMI.org, 2004, Object Management Group, 2006, (www.bpmn.org) • Rational Unified Process, IBM, 2006 (www.ibm.com/rational) • National Institute of Standards and Technology, Integration Definition For Function Modeling (IDEF0), NIST FIPSP183, 1993 (http://www.itl.nist.gov/fipspubs/idef02.doc) • APQC, APQC Process Classification Framework v4.0.0, APQC, 2006 (www.apqc.org) © 2013 Blacktower, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 33
  34. 34. Enabling your limitless growthEnabling your LIMITLESS growth About Blacktower, Inc. • We provide management and technology guidance to companies seeking to increase operational efficiencies, implement new software systems, and develop technology strategies that better align their corporate objectives to the market conditions. • Contact us at limitless@blacktower.com to find out how we can help you too. © 2013 Blacktower, Inc. All Rights Reserved. 34
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How do we help a project in jeopardy of delivering a solution that does not meet customer needs? During this session we will describe how we answered that question by applying business process mapping techniques. The project goal was to automate multiple manual processes that had been developed over time to fulfill marketing orders. The customer had successfully implemented these processes using a collection of desktop spreadsheet and email applications and were asking for help to modernize. We will analyze the initial approach used to gather requirements and how changing to a process centric approach to allowed us to better understand which requirements were missed. We will also review how we incorporated elements of the Business Process Model Notation specification into our overall approach. By using this approach we brought IT and the business together, speaking the same language, and provided a solution that met their needs.

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