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  1. 1. Satellites 1
  2. 2. Presented by Steven Cornelius December 11,2009
  3. 3. Table of Contents <ul><li>Definition of Satellites </li></ul><ul><li>Components of a Satellite </li></ul><ul><li>History </li></ul><ul><li>Evolution </li></ul><ul><li>Uses of Satellites </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental Impact </li></ul><ul><li>Summary and Conclusion </li></ul><ul><li>References </li></ul><ul><li>Questions </li></ul>
  4. 4. What is a Satellite <ul><li>By definition a Satellite is anything that orbits around a planet in a circular or elliptical path </li></ul>
  5. 5. What is a Satellite <ul><li>The moon is the earths first and largest satellite. It serves many purposes such as regulating the tides and providing reflective light to earth. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Components of a Satellite <ul><li>With varying shapes and sizes, all satellites have a few things in common </li></ul><ul><li>Power supply, can consist of solar panels and batteries, fuel cells, or in some cases nuclear power </li></ul><ul><li>A computer system to run its functions </li></ul><ul><li>A radio system, to communicate with ground control </li></ul><ul><li>Altitude Control system, the ACS allows the satellite to maintain a position in space </li></ul>
  7. 7. History This is Sputnik. It was a 58cm 83 kg aluminum ball launched into earth orbit from Baikonur, Kazakhstan, on an R-7/Semiorka rocket by the USSR on October 4, 1957 It contained A battery A thermometer A radio transmitter Sputnik was filled with pressurized nitrogen gas, had 4 antennas which sent information back via short-wave frequency and only lasted 92 days in space.
  8. 8. History <ul><li>The first successful U.S. satellite, Explorer I, was launched into Earth orbit by the Army on Jan. 31, 1958, at Cape Canaveral, Florida, four months after Russia orbited Sputnik. The 8.1 kg satellite had a cylindrical shape and was 80 inches long and six inches in diameter. </li></ul><ul><li>Explorer I's small package of instruments produced the first major discovery of the Space Age—The Van Allen radiation belts surrounding the Earth. Explorer I burned up in the atmosphere on March 30, 1970. </li></ul>
  9. 9. History <ul><li>September 29, 1962 Canada becomes the third country to have a satellite in space, after Russia and the U.S. We successfully launch the science satellite Alouette 1 from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California, at an altitude of 1000 km. Designed with a one-year lifetime, it transmits useful data for over 10 years. It studies the ionosphere, the electrically-charged layer of the upper atmosphere that can affect long-distance radio transmission. Alouette 2 is launched on November 29, 1965. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Evolution of the Satellite <ul><li>Partially due to the Cold War and the American need to be First, Spunik launched the space age </li></ul><ul><li>From humble beginnings to the multi million dollar technical marvels of today </li></ul>Cdn Radarsat
  11. 11. Evolution of the Satellite <ul><li>Since the 1960’s the US military has been sending satellites into space </li></ul><ul><li>The US military has pioneered most uses of satellites other than science (GPS, communication, Imaging) </li></ul><ul><li>1962 AT&T sent the first commercial satellite into orbit </li></ul><ul><li>The first N.A. satellite to carry TV was Canada’s Anik1 in 1972 </li></ul><ul><li>The first commercial GPS satellite was launched in 1989 </li></ul>
  12. 12. Evolution of the Satellite <ul><li>Since these early satellites, thousands more have been launched. There are limited details on the costs of the pioneering models but current satellites can cost up to a Billion dollars </li></ul>
  13. 13. Japanese satellite Akebono
  14. 14. Uses of Satellites <ul><li>The most common purposes for satellites are for weather monitoring, GPS, communications and science </li></ul><ul><li>Within communications, satellites transmit broadcast signals, data, and telephony </li></ul>
  15. 16. Environmental Impact
  16. 17. Environmental Impact <ul><li>There are millions of man made objects orbiting the earth </li></ul><ul><li>Of those millions, 25 thousand or so are considered space junk </li></ul><ul><li>All of the objects are traveling at thousands of Km/hr with varying orbits </li></ul><ul><li>If they are they are not being controlled eventually they will impact something </li></ul>
  17. 18. Environmental Impact <ul><li>Space junk have varying degree of toxicity due to the materials they were made with and materials they carried </li></ul><ul><li>Many objects burn up when they re-enter earths atmosphere, but if they are large enough they can make it to the surface </li></ul>
  18. 19. Summary and Conclusion <ul><li>As technology goes satellites have advanced our lives in so many ways </li></ul><ul><li>We can track major storms around the globe </li></ul><ul><li>We can get instant video footage of event around the world </li></ul><ul><li>We can communicate with almost anyone almost anywhere around the world </li></ul>
  19. 20. Summary and Conclusion <ul><li>The downside is that we have just have a new place where pollution is going unchecked </li></ul><ul><li>The carelessness of the early years will eventually will be problems of the future </li></ul><ul><li>Maybe there will be a day where we cannot safely launch a spacecraft into orbit for fear of a collision with space junk. </li></ul>
  20. 21. Image Resources <ul><li>, The Moon As seen from the Northern Hemisphere , Michael Myers </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> ,Opus 2 Satellite </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>www. how </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  21. 22. References <ul><li>, How Stuff works, How Satellelites work, Gary Brown </li></ul><ul><li> , Health and Science/ Space Exploration, First U.S. Satelite </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> , Space Junk Threatens Orbiting Satellites, Jonathan Lipman, August 25 1999 </li></ul>
  22. 23. Thank You <ul><li>Question and answer period </li></ul>