April 1 , 1960 stLaunching of the first weather satellitePresented by: Louie D’Amico
Research QuestionHow was the launching of the firstweather satellite significant; andhow can we use it as a lens to lookinto the satellites we have todayand their affects on our lives?
Launching the first weather satelliteLaunched on April 1st, 1960Name: TIROS-1 Television Infa-Red Observation SatelliteLaunched from Cape Canaveral, FloridaPolar satellite Passes (close enough) over the north andsouth pole during its orbit
What was the first weather satellite?Made of aluminum and stainless steal42” diameter, 19” high 270 lbs9,200 solar cells2 TV cameras 1 hi-resolution 1 low-resolution5 Antennae 1 received control signals from Earth 4 sent TV images to Earth
Who built this thing?“One of the nations largest and most prestigious electronic firms”Planning began in 1955Radio Corporation of America (RCA)The leading TV makers Fitting to make a satellite with 2 TVs on itThey couldn’t handle it
Lavelle helped outIn 1957 the project was turned over to Tomas Lavelle and the Lavelle companyMaker of precision aircraft during WWIIAbandoned RCATurned in a completed satellite in 1959 RCA then put their 2 TVs onIt was ready for launch
Guess What!Lavelle Aircraft’s factory was in Bucks County, Pennsylvania
What did the first weather satellite do?It took pictures of the Earth that’s about it…It was in the orbit for 78 days only because it suffered a power failure on day 77It was claimed to be there to study weather patterns which it took 22,952 pictures ofAfter discussion with my uncle…
…Was it a spy satellite?Russians launched Sputnik-1 1957 “Designed to shoot innocent Americans sitting on their front porches”Due to the ‘Red Scare’ Americans wear terrified of the fact that Russia was inSpace
What Americans thought it looked like lasers America
Was TIROS-1’s underlying objective tospy on Soviets?
No… TIROS-1 was not a spy satelliteIt opened the door to reconnaissance space technologyIn 1956 planning had begun for reconnaissance space technology 3 sections CORONA Took pictures and shot the developed copies out of orbit SAMOS Photos would be sent back via radio signals Closest to real-time Images received within 90 minutes MIDAS Missile Defense Alarm System Warned US of a missile attack
August 17, 1960The first successful reconnaissance flight takes placeDiscovered 64 air bases and 26 new SAM sites within the Soviet UnionPhotos taken by satellite “Discovery 14” part of CORONA program1 week later, when Eisenhower saw the pictures, the NRO was started
Who was in charge of this stuff?National Reconnaissance office (NRO)Secret organization funded by the CIAWorked under the Air Force’s Office of Space Systems in the PentagonResponsible for all U.S. reconnaissance satellites As well as the development of modern U-2 and SR-71A spy planesThe public did not know about the organization until September 18th, 1992The “blackest” (most secret) organization in the military at the time
TIROS-1 videoStart at 1:24http://en.sevenload.com/shows/NASA-Goddard-Shorts/episodes/bd2PPf3-TIROS-1-The-Fore
Now that you’ve all waken up…TIROS-1 proved the feasibility of an “eye in the sky”Helped weathermen create more accurate forecasts Before TIROS-1 weathermen compiled data taken from variousground locations for their forecasts Not very accurateHelped to better understand weather patterns and storm systems
…a hurricane“Before the (first) weather satellite, nobody hadany idea what a hurricane (or any storm) lookedlike” –James Greaves, administrator at NASAShows how clueless people were beforehandHurricanes used to hit ‘out-of-the-blue’Puerto Rico called after they got hitU.S. informed FloridaNo other early warningTIROS changed that
Why does this matter?TIROS-1 proved that a weather observation was possible If it weren’t for this and the hype of the space race who knowshow long it would have been before a satellite was launchedThis would put back the advancements in meteorology and many otherthings
So what?How many people checked the weather this morning?How many used their cell phone or SATELLITE TV?Did the report influence your planning for the day?So, there you have it
The First one worked…now what?A look at life after the first weathersatellite.
Modern Polar OperationalEnviromental Satellites (POES)Similar in concept to TIROS satellitesFly at low altitudePass over the poles in orbitTakes a lot of coverage Good for mapping and weather
Modern POES- TIROS-NLaunched in 2009Last of the TIROS original POES program (TIROS)TIROS program to be replaced in 2013Orbits every 102 minutes TIROS-1 orbited every 90 minutes
Geostationary OperationalEnvironmental Satellites (GOES)Evolved from POESPositioned to orbit around the same point on Earth usually in a band around the EquatorAverage altitude– 22,223 miles 1/10 the distance to the moon
Modern GOES- GOES-NNewest geostationary satellite in orbitMonitor weather patternsProvide information on environmental “triggers” for sever weather
Congestion in the parking lotThe band around the Equator is know as the “Satellite parking lotIt is filling up All communication and TV satellites are Geostationary
Global Positioning Systems (GPS)Use satellites to pinpoint your location on the EarthHelpful when driving and are often built into carsAlso are available handheld to access ones exact geographic location
Emergency BeaconsAlso have GPS’s that send emergency ‘beacon’ (signals) to satellites when in distress Trapped in woods hunting Trapped in mountains hiking Trapped anywhereTo date 30,000+ people saved since 1982
Answering the Research QuestionQ: How was the launching of the first weather satellite significant; and how can we use it as a lens to look into the modern satellites we have today and their affects on our lives?A: The first weather satellite opened the door to modern Space observation technology. Through the original TIROS satellites to the modern POES and GOES, it has been the starting point. It has also created some life- saving possibilities as well as some tactical options during war. It also influences the lives of people through satellite TV, cell phones, and GPS.
Bibliographyhttp://www.astronautix.com/craft/tirosn.htmhttp://www.sarsat.noaa.gov/http://science.howstuffworks.com/satellite6.htmhttp://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/goes-n/main/index.htmlhttp://webster.hibo.no/asf/Cold_War/report1/williame.htmlhttp://explorepahistory.com/hmarker.php?markerId=1-A-2F5http://celebrating200years.noaa.gov/foundations/satellites/welcome.html#polarhttp://www.wired.com/science/discoveries/news/2008/03/dayintech_0401http://en.sevenload.com/shows/NASA-Goddard-Shorts/episodes/bd2PPf3-TIROS-1-The-Forecast-Revolution-Beginshttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=md0jc-IaGWA (primary)Google ImagesJanuary 10, 1969 issue of LIFE Magazine (primary)Interviewed: Pat Nugent John Nugent George Kazas Dan Bratich Lou D’Amico Angela D’Amico