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FreihFreih OdehOdeh Abu HassanAbu HassanFreihFreih OdehOdeh Abu HassanAbu Hassan
F.R.C.SF.R.C.S.(.(Eng.), F.R.C.S.(Tr.&Eng.), F.R.C.S.(Tr.& Orth.).Orth.).F.R.C.SF.R.C.S.(.(Eng.), F.R.C.S.(Tr.&Eng.), F.R.C.S.(Tr.& Orth.).Orth.).
ProfessorProfessor of Orthopedicsof Orthopedicspp
University of JordanUniversity of Jordan -- AmmanAmman
11/15/2011 Professor Freih Abuhassan - University of
Jordan
•• Mechanism of injuryMechanism of injuryj yj y
•• Associated symptoms:Associated symptoms:
Bl dd / b l f ti»Bladder / bowel function
»Fevers / chills
»Sleep disturbance
»Numbness / tingling
•• Prior injuries,Prior injuries, treatment & outcomestreatment & outcomesPrior injuries,Prior injuries, treatment & outcomestreatment & outcomes
•• MedicationsMedications
21/15/2011 Professor Freih Abuhassan - University of
Jordan
••Family historyFamily history
••Social history:Social history:
Function: ADLs & Mobility
Liti tiLiti ti••LitigationLitigation
31/15/2011 Professor Freih Abuhassan - University of
Jordan
Pain SpecificsPain Specifics
Quality:Quality: sharp, dull, shooting, burning, etc.
Location / Distribution:Location / Distribution:Location / Distribution:Location / Distribution:
• Radicular: Dermatomal distribution,
dysesthesiasdysesthesias
• Radiating: Nondermatomal
O tO tOnset:Onset:
• Gradual: DDD
Di b lit t i i f t• Acute: Disc abnormality, strain, compression fractures
41/15/2011 Professor Freih Abuhassan - University of
Jordan
Severity / IntensitySeverity / Intensity
Frequency:Frequency: Constant vs. Intermittent
DurationDuration
E b ti d All i ti F tE b ti d All i ti F tExacerbating and Alleviating FactorsExacerbating and Alleviating Factors
Time of Day:Time of Day: If nocturnal considerTime of Day:Time of Day: If nocturnal, consider
malignancy
5
g y
1/15/2011 Professor Freih Abuhassan - University of
Jordan
Red FlagsRed FlagsRed FlagsRed Flags
Significant trauma history or minor in older adultsSignificant trauma history or minor in older adultsSignificant trauma history, or minor in older adultsSignificant trauma history, or minor in older adults
Nocturnal pain in supine position with history of cancerNocturnal pain in supine position with history of cancer
Bladder or bowel incontinence or dysfunctionBladder or bowel incontinence or dysfunction
C tit ti l tC tit ti l tConstitutional symptoms:Constitutional symptoms:
• Fever / chills
• Wt loss
L N l t• L.N enlargement
61/15/2011 Professor Freih Abuhassan - University of
Jordan
R d FlR d FlRed FlagsRed Flags
Risk factors for spinal infectionRisk factors for spinal infection
•Recent infection
•IV drug use
I i•Immunosuppression
Major motor weaknessMajor motor weaknessMajor motor weaknessMajor motor weakness
71/15/2011 Professor Freih Abuhassan - University of
Jordan
A. PhysicalA. PhysicalA. PhysicalA. Physical
Posture:Posture:Posture:Posture:
Splinting
Body languageBody language
Gait:Gait:Gait:Gait:
Antalgia
Heel / Toe patternHeel / Toe pattern
Trendelenburg
81/15/2011 Professor Freih Abuhassan - University of
Jordan
••Musculoskeletal:Musculoskeletal:
»ROM
L l th»Leg length
V l»Vascular
Atrophy»Atrophy
91/15/2011 Professor Freih Abuhassan - University of
Jordan
AbdomenAbdomen••Abdomen:Abdomen:
»Presence of masses»Presence of masses
••Back:Back:••Back:Back:
»Inspection»Inspection
»Palpation»Palpation
»ROM»ROM
»Scoliosis
10
Scoliosis
1/15/2011 Professor Freih Abuhassan - University of
Jordan
••Neurological:Neurological:eu o og caeu o og ca
»Sensation
»Motor
»DT Reflexes
••Rectal if indicated:Rectal if indicated:
»Evaluation of sphincter tone
111/15/2011 Professor Freih Abuhassan - University of
Jordan
B. Symptom Magnification Examination:B. Symptom Magnification Examination:
AA W dd ll iW dd ll iAA-- Waddell signs:Waddell signs:
Presence of non- organic signs
suggesting symptom magnification
and psychological distress
121/15/2011 Professor Freih Abuhassan - University of
Jordan
W dd ll iW dd ll iWaddell signs:Waddell signs:
= Superficial or non anatomic distribution of tenderness= Superficial or non-anatomic distribution of tenderness
= Non-anatomic or regional disturbance of motor or
sensory impairment
= Inconsistency on positional SLR= Inconsistency on positional SLR
=Inappropriate/excessive verbalization of pain or
gesturing
=Pain with axial loading or rotation of spinePain with axial loading or rotation of spine
131/15/2011 Professor Freih Abuhassan - University of
Jordan
BB-- GiveGive--away weakness:away weakness:yy
Inconsistent effort on manual motor
testing with “ratcheting” rather thang g
smooth resistance
141/15/2011 Professor Freih Abuhassan - University of
Jordan
CC-- SpurlingSpurling’’s maneuver:s maneuver:
Lateral rotation and extension of spine
l i i f i l iresulting in neuroforaminal narrowing
and nerve root encroachment clinicallyand nerve root encroachment, clinically
reproducing extremity pain, usually in
dermatomal distribution.
151/15/2011 Professor Freih Abuhassan - University of
Jordan
DD St i htSt i ht l i (SLR)l i (SLR)DD-- StraightStraight--leg raise (SLR):leg raise (SLR):
Elevation of lower extremity, seated
Or standing, neural tension at S1
nerve root with extremity painnerve root with extremity pain
161/15/2011 Professor Freih Abuhassan - University of
Jordan
EE-- PatrickPatrick’’s maneuver:s maneuver:
Crossed leg with unilateral pain indicative of
sacroiliac (SI) joint dysfunctionsacroiliac (SI) joint dysfunction
FF-- Femoral stretch:Femoral stretch:FF-- Femoral stretch:Femoral stretch:
Hip extension stretch with heel pushed top e e s o s e c w ee pus ed o
buttock inlateral supine or prone position
resulting in anterior thigh pain
171/15/2011 Professor Freih Abuhassan - University of
Jordan
181/15/2011 Professor Freih Abuhassan - University of
Jordan
A E id i lA E id i lA. Epidemiology:A. Epidemiology:
Incidence of LBP:Incidence of LBP:
• 60-90 % lifetime incidence
• 30% are referred to Ortho;
• 3% admitted; 0 5% operated• 3% admitted; 0.5% operated.
9090 %% of cases of LBP resolve without treatment withinof cases of LBP resolve without treatment within 66--1212
weeks,weeks, 4040--5050 % resolve in% resolve in 11 WW
7575 %% of cases with nerve root involvement can resolve inof cases with nerve root involvement can resolve in 66
monthsmonths
191/15/2011 Professor Freih Abuhassan - University of
Jordan
LBP d l bLBP d l bLBP and lumbar surgery are:LBP and lumbar surgery are:
2 d d 3 d hi h t f• 2nd and 3rd highest reasons for
physician visitsphysician visits
• 5th leading cause for hospitalizationg p
• 3rd leading cause for surgery
201/15/2011 Professor Freih Abuhassan - University of
Jordan
B Di biliB Di biliB. Disability:B. Disability:
Prevalence rate:Prevalence rate:
•Nearly 5 million people in the U.S. arey p p
on disability for LBP
• Overall cost of LBP in 1993 was £6 billion.
• 14 million consultations in 1993.
211/15/2011 Professor Freih Abuhassan - University of
Jordan
C Diff ti l DiC Diff ti l DiC. Differential DiagnosesC. Differential Diagnoses
Lumbar strainLumbar strain
Disc bulge / protrusion / extrusionDisc bulge / protrusion / extrusion
producing radiculopathyproducing radiculopathyproducing radiculopathyproducing radiculopathy
Degenerative disc diseaseDegenerative disc diseaseDegenerative disc diseaseDegenerative disc disease
Spinal stenosisSpinal stenosispp
Spondylosis, SpondylolisthesisSpondylosis, Spondylolisthesis
221/15/2011 Professor Freih Abuhassan - University of
Jordan
D Dx according to AgeD.Dx according to Age
Children
1.Developmental disorders.
2 I f ti2.Infection
3 Primary tumours – E G E sarcoma metastatic3.Primary tumours E.G, E. sarcoma, metastatic
neuroblastoma, spinal cord tumours
231/15/2011 Professor Freih Abuhassan - University of
Jordan
Young Adultsg
1. Disc disease
2 S d l li th i2. Spondylolisthesis
3. Fractures
4. Scheuermann's disease
5 Ankylosing spondylitis5. Ankylosing spondylitis
241/15/2011 Professor Freih Abuhassan - University of
Jordan
Older Adults
1. Spinal stenosis
2 M t t ti di2. Metastatic disease
3 Osteopenic fractures3. Osteopenic fractures
4. Infection
251/15/2011 Professor Freih Abuhassan - University of
Jordan
Types of Back PainTypes of Back Pain
1 Discogenic back pain1.Discogenic back pain
Pain from the innervated ligamentous layer of
The annulous fibrosis when it is stretched with
a bulging disc it is midline & worse witha bulging disc it is midline & worse with
lordotic postures, bending & lifting
261/15/2011 Professor Freih Abuhassan - University of
Jordan
2.Radicular back pain
P i t di t th b tt k d/ lPain extending to the buttock and/or leg
associated withassociated with
= Disc herniation or
= Spinal stenosis or
= Intraspinal pathology.
271/15/2011 Professor Freih Abuhassan - University of
Jordan
3 R f d b k i3. Referred back pain
o Aortic Aneurysmo Aortic Aneurysm
o Visceral (ulcer, PID, endometriosis,
G.B disease, pleural disease)
o Infectiono Infection
o UTI, PID
Hi A th itio Hip Arthritis
281/15/2011 Professor Freih Abuhassan - University of
Jordan
4. Iatrogenic back pain
D l dh io Dural adhesions
o Post surgical instabilityo Post surgical instability
o Post operative discitis; arachnoiditisp ;
291/15/2011 Professor Freih Abuhassan - University of
Jordan
5.Psychogenic back pain
o Must exclude organic pathology
o Waddell's inappropriate signs presento Waddell's inappropriate signs present
301/15/2011 Professor Freih Abuhassan - University of
Jordan
311/15/2011 Professor Freih Abuhassan - University of
Jordan
Specificity / SensitivitySpecificity / SensitivitySpecificity / SensitivitySpecificity / Sensitivity
Diagnosis Test Sensitivity Specificity
CT 0 90 0 70Di CT 0.90 0.70
MRI 0.90 0.70
Disc
“Herniation”
CT Myelo 0.90 0.70
CT 0.90 0.80-0.95
MRI 0 90 0 75 0 95
Spinal
Stenosis MRI 0.90 0.75-0.95
Myelogram 0.77 0.70
321/15/2011 Professor Freih Abuhassan - University of
Jordan
T t tT t tTreatmentTreatment
MedicationsMedications
1- NSAIDS
2 M b t bili2-Membrane stabilizers
»TCA / Neurontin»TCA / Neurontin
»re-establish sleep pain
»reduce radicular dysesthesias
331/15/2011 Professor Freih Abuhassan - University of
Jordan
3 M l l t3-Muscle relaxants:
»re establish sleep patterns»re-establish sleep patterns
»more useful in myofascial/muscular»more useful in myofascial/muscular
pain
4-Narcotics: rarely indicated
5-Steroids: more useful for radiculitis
6 N ti l i6-Non-narcotic analgesics
341/15/2011 Professor Freih Abuhassan - University of
Jordan
Physical therapyPhysical therapyPhysical therapyPhysical therapy
•Electrical stimulation/TENS
•Postural education / body mechanics
M / bili ti / f i l• Massage / mobilization / myofascial
release
•Stretching
Exercise / strengthening•Exercise / strengthening
•Traction
•Pre-conditioning / work-conditioning
351/15/2011 Professor Freih Abuhassan - University of
Jordan
InjectionsInjections
•Epidural blocks
•Facet blocks
T i i t•Trigger point
•SI joint•SI joint
361/15/2011 Professor Freih Abuhassan - University of
Jordan
SurgerySurgerySurgerySurgery
L i t• Laminectomy
• Fusion• Fusion
• DiscectomyDiscectomy
• Percutaneous Lumbar Discectomyy
–Success rate variable 50 -85 %
371/15/2011 Professor Freih Abuhassan - University of
Jordan
ChemonucleolysisChemonucleolysisyy
IDETIDET:: Intradiscal ElectrotherapyIDETIDET:: Intradiscal Electrotherapy
381/15/2011 Professor Freih Abuhassan - University of
Jordan
C l iC l iConclusionConclusion
It is theIt is the patient,patient, not the diagnostic test, thatnot the diagnostic test, that
is treatedis treatedis treatedis treated
8080 % of patients will recover from acute low% of patients will recover from acute low
b k i ithib k i ithi 33 d td t 33 kk ithithback pain withinback pain within 33 days todays to 33 weeks,weeks, with orwith or
without treatment,without treatment, with up towith up to 9090 % resolved in% resolved inwithout treatment,without treatment, with up towith up to 9090 % resolved in% resolved in
66--1212 weeksweeks
391/15/2011 Professor Freih Abuhassan - University of
Jordan
401/15/2011 Professor Freih Abuhassan - University of
Jordan

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الم الظهر Back pain- - استشاري جراحة العظام والعمود الفقري- البروفيسور فريح ابوحسان

  • 1. FreihFreih OdehOdeh Abu HassanAbu HassanFreihFreih OdehOdeh Abu HassanAbu Hassan F.R.C.SF.R.C.S.(.(Eng.), F.R.C.S.(Tr.&Eng.), F.R.C.S.(Tr.& Orth.).Orth.).F.R.C.SF.R.C.S.(.(Eng.), F.R.C.S.(Tr.&Eng.), F.R.C.S.(Tr.& Orth.).Orth.). ProfessorProfessor of Orthopedicsof Orthopedicspp University of JordanUniversity of Jordan -- AmmanAmman 11/15/2011 Professor Freih Abuhassan - University of Jordan
  • 2. •• Mechanism of injuryMechanism of injuryj yj y •• Associated symptoms:Associated symptoms: Bl dd / b l f ti»Bladder / bowel function »Fevers / chills »Sleep disturbance »Numbness / tingling •• Prior injuries,Prior injuries, treatment & outcomestreatment & outcomesPrior injuries,Prior injuries, treatment & outcomestreatment & outcomes •• MedicationsMedications 21/15/2011 Professor Freih Abuhassan - University of Jordan
  • 3. ••Family historyFamily history ••Social history:Social history: Function: ADLs & Mobility Liti tiLiti ti••LitigationLitigation 31/15/2011 Professor Freih Abuhassan - University of Jordan
  • 4. Pain SpecificsPain Specifics Quality:Quality: sharp, dull, shooting, burning, etc. Location / Distribution:Location / Distribution:Location / Distribution:Location / Distribution: • Radicular: Dermatomal distribution, dysesthesiasdysesthesias • Radiating: Nondermatomal O tO tOnset:Onset: • Gradual: DDD Di b lit t i i f t• Acute: Disc abnormality, strain, compression fractures 41/15/2011 Professor Freih Abuhassan - University of Jordan
  • 5. Severity / IntensitySeverity / Intensity Frequency:Frequency: Constant vs. Intermittent DurationDuration E b ti d All i ti F tE b ti d All i ti F tExacerbating and Alleviating FactorsExacerbating and Alleviating Factors Time of Day:Time of Day: If nocturnal considerTime of Day:Time of Day: If nocturnal, consider malignancy 5 g y 1/15/2011 Professor Freih Abuhassan - University of Jordan
  • 6. Red FlagsRed FlagsRed FlagsRed Flags Significant trauma history or minor in older adultsSignificant trauma history or minor in older adultsSignificant trauma history, or minor in older adultsSignificant trauma history, or minor in older adults Nocturnal pain in supine position with history of cancerNocturnal pain in supine position with history of cancer Bladder or bowel incontinence or dysfunctionBladder or bowel incontinence or dysfunction C tit ti l tC tit ti l tConstitutional symptoms:Constitutional symptoms: • Fever / chills • Wt loss L N l t• L.N enlargement 61/15/2011 Professor Freih Abuhassan - University of Jordan
  • 7. R d FlR d FlRed FlagsRed Flags Risk factors for spinal infectionRisk factors for spinal infection •Recent infection •IV drug use I i•Immunosuppression Major motor weaknessMajor motor weaknessMajor motor weaknessMajor motor weakness 71/15/2011 Professor Freih Abuhassan - University of Jordan
  • 8. A. PhysicalA. PhysicalA. PhysicalA. Physical Posture:Posture:Posture:Posture: Splinting Body languageBody language Gait:Gait:Gait:Gait: Antalgia Heel / Toe patternHeel / Toe pattern Trendelenburg 81/15/2011 Professor Freih Abuhassan - University of Jordan
  • 9. ••Musculoskeletal:Musculoskeletal: »ROM L l th»Leg length V l»Vascular Atrophy»Atrophy 91/15/2011 Professor Freih Abuhassan - University of Jordan
  • 10. AbdomenAbdomen••Abdomen:Abdomen: »Presence of masses»Presence of masses ••Back:Back:••Back:Back: »Inspection»Inspection »Palpation»Palpation »ROM»ROM »Scoliosis 10 Scoliosis 1/15/2011 Professor Freih Abuhassan - University of Jordan
  • 11. ••Neurological:Neurological:eu o og caeu o og ca »Sensation »Motor »DT Reflexes ••Rectal if indicated:Rectal if indicated: »Evaluation of sphincter tone 111/15/2011 Professor Freih Abuhassan - University of Jordan
  • 12. B. Symptom Magnification Examination:B. Symptom Magnification Examination: AA W dd ll iW dd ll iAA-- Waddell signs:Waddell signs: Presence of non- organic signs suggesting symptom magnification and psychological distress 121/15/2011 Professor Freih Abuhassan - University of Jordan
  • 13. W dd ll iW dd ll iWaddell signs:Waddell signs: = Superficial or non anatomic distribution of tenderness= Superficial or non-anatomic distribution of tenderness = Non-anatomic or regional disturbance of motor or sensory impairment = Inconsistency on positional SLR= Inconsistency on positional SLR =Inappropriate/excessive verbalization of pain or gesturing =Pain with axial loading or rotation of spinePain with axial loading or rotation of spine 131/15/2011 Professor Freih Abuhassan - University of Jordan
  • 14. BB-- GiveGive--away weakness:away weakness:yy Inconsistent effort on manual motor testing with “ratcheting” rather thang g smooth resistance 141/15/2011 Professor Freih Abuhassan - University of Jordan
  • 15. CC-- SpurlingSpurling’’s maneuver:s maneuver: Lateral rotation and extension of spine l i i f i l iresulting in neuroforaminal narrowing and nerve root encroachment clinicallyand nerve root encroachment, clinically reproducing extremity pain, usually in dermatomal distribution. 151/15/2011 Professor Freih Abuhassan - University of Jordan
  • 16. DD St i htSt i ht l i (SLR)l i (SLR)DD-- StraightStraight--leg raise (SLR):leg raise (SLR): Elevation of lower extremity, seated Or standing, neural tension at S1 nerve root with extremity painnerve root with extremity pain 161/15/2011 Professor Freih Abuhassan - University of Jordan
  • 17. EE-- PatrickPatrick’’s maneuver:s maneuver: Crossed leg with unilateral pain indicative of sacroiliac (SI) joint dysfunctionsacroiliac (SI) joint dysfunction FF-- Femoral stretch:Femoral stretch:FF-- Femoral stretch:Femoral stretch: Hip extension stretch with heel pushed top e e s o s e c w ee pus ed o buttock inlateral supine or prone position resulting in anterior thigh pain 171/15/2011 Professor Freih Abuhassan - University of Jordan
  • 18. 181/15/2011 Professor Freih Abuhassan - University of Jordan
  • 19. A E id i lA E id i lA. Epidemiology:A. Epidemiology: Incidence of LBP:Incidence of LBP: • 60-90 % lifetime incidence • 30% are referred to Ortho; • 3% admitted; 0 5% operated• 3% admitted; 0.5% operated. 9090 %% of cases of LBP resolve without treatment withinof cases of LBP resolve without treatment within 66--1212 weeks,weeks, 4040--5050 % resolve in% resolve in 11 WW 7575 %% of cases with nerve root involvement can resolve inof cases with nerve root involvement can resolve in 66 monthsmonths 191/15/2011 Professor Freih Abuhassan - University of Jordan
  • 20. LBP d l bLBP d l bLBP and lumbar surgery are:LBP and lumbar surgery are: 2 d d 3 d hi h t f• 2nd and 3rd highest reasons for physician visitsphysician visits • 5th leading cause for hospitalizationg p • 3rd leading cause for surgery 201/15/2011 Professor Freih Abuhassan - University of Jordan
  • 21. B Di biliB Di biliB. Disability:B. Disability: Prevalence rate:Prevalence rate: •Nearly 5 million people in the U.S. arey p p on disability for LBP • Overall cost of LBP in 1993 was £6 billion. • 14 million consultations in 1993. 211/15/2011 Professor Freih Abuhassan - University of Jordan
  • 22. C Diff ti l DiC Diff ti l DiC. Differential DiagnosesC. Differential Diagnoses Lumbar strainLumbar strain Disc bulge / protrusion / extrusionDisc bulge / protrusion / extrusion producing radiculopathyproducing radiculopathyproducing radiculopathyproducing radiculopathy Degenerative disc diseaseDegenerative disc diseaseDegenerative disc diseaseDegenerative disc disease Spinal stenosisSpinal stenosispp Spondylosis, SpondylolisthesisSpondylosis, Spondylolisthesis 221/15/2011 Professor Freih Abuhassan - University of Jordan
  • 23. D Dx according to AgeD.Dx according to Age Children 1.Developmental disorders. 2 I f ti2.Infection 3 Primary tumours – E G E sarcoma metastatic3.Primary tumours E.G, E. sarcoma, metastatic neuroblastoma, spinal cord tumours 231/15/2011 Professor Freih Abuhassan - University of Jordan
  • 24. Young Adultsg 1. Disc disease 2 S d l li th i2. Spondylolisthesis 3. Fractures 4. Scheuermann's disease 5 Ankylosing spondylitis5. Ankylosing spondylitis 241/15/2011 Professor Freih Abuhassan - University of Jordan
  • 25. Older Adults 1. Spinal stenosis 2 M t t ti di2. Metastatic disease 3 Osteopenic fractures3. Osteopenic fractures 4. Infection 251/15/2011 Professor Freih Abuhassan - University of Jordan
  • 26. Types of Back PainTypes of Back Pain 1 Discogenic back pain1.Discogenic back pain Pain from the innervated ligamentous layer of The annulous fibrosis when it is stretched with a bulging disc it is midline & worse witha bulging disc it is midline & worse with lordotic postures, bending & lifting 261/15/2011 Professor Freih Abuhassan - University of Jordan
  • 27. 2.Radicular back pain P i t di t th b tt k d/ lPain extending to the buttock and/or leg associated withassociated with = Disc herniation or = Spinal stenosis or = Intraspinal pathology. 271/15/2011 Professor Freih Abuhassan - University of Jordan
  • 28. 3 R f d b k i3. Referred back pain o Aortic Aneurysmo Aortic Aneurysm o Visceral (ulcer, PID, endometriosis, G.B disease, pleural disease) o Infectiono Infection o UTI, PID Hi A th itio Hip Arthritis 281/15/2011 Professor Freih Abuhassan - University of Jordan
  • 29. 4. Iatrogenic back pain D l dh io Dural adhesions o Post surgical instabilityo Post surgical instability o Post operative discitis; arachnoiditisp ; 291/15/2011 Professor Freih Abuhassan - University of Jordan
  • 30. 5.Psychogenic back pain o Must exclude organic pathology o Waddell's inappropriate signs presento Waddell's inappropriate signs present 301/15/2011 Professor Freih Abuhassan - University of Jordan
  • 31. 311/15/2011 Professor Freih Abuhassan - University of Jordan
  • 32. Specificity / SensitivitySpecificity / SensitivitySpecificity / SensitivitySpecificity / Sensitivity Diagnosis Test Sensitivity Specificity CT 0 90 0 70Di CT 0.90 0.70 MRI 0.90 0.70 Disc “Herniation” CT Myelo 0.90 0.70 CT 0.90 0.80-0.95 MRI 0 90 0 75 0 95 Spinal Stenosis MRI 0.90 0.75-0.95 Myelogram 0.77 0.70 321/15/2011 Professor Freih Abuhassan - University of Jordan
  • 33. T t tT t tTreatmentTreatment MedicationsMedications 1- NSAIDS 2 M b t bili2-Membrane stabilizers »TCA / Neurontin»TCA / Neurontin »re-establish sleep pain »reduce radicular dysesthesias 331/15/2011 Professor Freih Abuhassan - University of Jordan
  • 34. 3 M l l t3-Muscle relaxants: »re establish sleep patterns»re-establish sleep patterns »more useful in myofascial/muscular»more useful in myofascial/muscular pain 4-Narcotics: rarely indicated 5-Steroids: more useful for radiculitis 6 N ti l i6-Non-narcotic analgesics 341/15/2011 Professor Freih Abuhassan - University of Jordan
  • 35. Physical therapyPhysical therapyPhysical therapyPhysical therapy •Electrical stimulation/TENS •Postural education / body mechanics M / bili ti / f i l• Massage / mobilization / myofascial release •Stretching Exercise / strengthening•Exercise / strengthening •Traction •Pre-conditioning / work-conditioning 351/15/2011 Professor Freih Abuhassan - University of Jordan
  • 36. InjectionsInjections •Epidural blocks •Facet blocks T i i t•Trigger point •SI joint•SI joint 361/15/2011 Professor Freih Abuhassan - University of Jordan
  • 37. SurgerySurgerySurgerySurgery L i t• Laminectomy • Fusion• Fusion • DiscectomyDiscectomy • Percutaneous Lumbar Discectomyy –Success rate variable 50 -85 % 371/15/2011 Professor Freih Abuhassan - University of Jordan
  • 38. ChemonucleolysisChemonucleolysisyy IDETIDET:: Intradiscal ElectrotherapyIDETIDET:: Intradiscal Electrotherapy 381/15/2011 Professor Freih Abuhassan - University of Jordan
  • 39. C l iC l iConclusionConclusion It is theIt is the patient,patient, not the diagnostic test, thatnot the diagnostic test, that is treatedis treatedis treatedis treated 8080 % of patients will recover from acute low% of patients will recover from acute low b k i ithib k i ithi 33 d td t 33 kk ithithback pain withinback pain within 33 days todays to 33 weeks,weeks, with orwith or without treatment,without treatment, with up towith up to 9090 % resolved in% resolved inwithout treatment,without treatment, with up towith up to 9090 % resolved in% resolved in 66--1212 weeksweeks 391/15/2011 Professor Freih Abuhassan - University of Jordan
  • 40. 401/15/2011 Professor Freih Abuhassan - University of Jordan