Spanish empire in the americas


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Spanish empire in the americas

  1. 1. SPANISH EMPIRE IN THE AMERICAS Victoria Herrera History 140 Online
  2. 2. CHAPTER 2: DIEGO VASICUIO PERU  Time when they lived: (1580-1670s) Vasicuio was over 90 years old when he appeared in 1671 to answer to charges against him  The place/colony where they lived: Village of Salamanca  Their group: Sorimana cult, permanent settlement of Buenos Aires  Their gender: male  Their occupation: Native Priest *He and others would try to convert others to Christianity  General history: *Scribe who recorded the testimonies given in the heresy investigations (1671- San Francisco de los Chichas) *Vasicuio was the chief priest and custodian of the god, Sorimana, and a huge promoter of his cult
  3. 3. CHAPTER 7: MARTIN OCELOT MEXICO-NEW SPAIN  Time when they lived: (1496-1537)  The place/colony where they lived: *Him and his family lived in the Village of Chinanta *He moved to The City of Tetzcoco  Their group: Aztecs  Their gender: male  Their occupation: *He was a cult leader *Tried to convert Indians to Christianity  General history: *He was a youthful religious prodigy *He predicted the coming of men who would try to take over Tlatoani *It was thought that he was impending the Christianization of the natives
  4. 4. CHAPTER 9: JUAN DE MORGA & GERTRUDIS DE ESCOBAR MEXICO-NEW SPAIN  Time when they lived: middle years of the 17th century (Juan was born 1627)  The place/colony where they lived: *Juan-Oazaca *Gertrudis-Mexico City  Their group: Spanish American Coloney-Mulatta  Their gender: *Juan-male *Gertrudis-female  Their occupation: Both rebellious slaves *Juan fought to stay alive *Gertrudis escaped and escaped again always to be found and brought back  General history: *Juan’s master was brutal and cruel *Juan had his own ideas and wouldn’t be told what to do easily *He seemed to always be in trouble or punished by him owner *He made a pact with the Devil *Gertrudis was sold into slavery at only 14 by her own family *She worked on a sugar cane farm where her owner was incredibly cruel to her *She was always trying to escape and getting found and then punished
  5. 5. CHAPTER 11: ISABEL MOCTEZUMA MEXICO-NEW SPAIN  Time when they lived: (1509- 1550)  The place/colony where they lived: Central Mexico, Tenochtitlan City  Their group: Aztecs  Their gender: female  Their occupation: Pioneer of Mestizaje, one of the prominent Indian women in colonial Mexico  General history: *Isabel received the revenues and income from the town of Marquesado, this made her a very wealthy woman *She had many husbands because they didn’t survive long *She served as an example to the natives of Tacuba of a devout Catholic woman who bridged the Spaniard and Indian worlds *When Isabel died her estate was to be split between her newest children *This ended up creating a was within the family
  6. 6. CHAPTER 13: BEATRIZ DE PADILLA MEXICO-NEW SPAIN  Time when they lived: (1620-c.1650)  The place/colony where they lived: town of Lagos, near Guadalajara in western New Spain  Their group: Morisca  Their gender: female  Their occupation: Mistress and Mother  General history: *She was accused of causing dreadful and mysterious things to two of her lovers *She was once a slave herself and now was cruel to her own slaves *Her accusers thought that there was no way that a women like her could catch the eye of such important men without using magic procedures *Beatriz was acquitted of all charges
  7. 7. CHAPTER 16: MIGUEL HERNANDEZ MEXICO-NEW SPAIN  Time when they lived: (1550- 1604)  The place/colony where they lived: Born in Mexico City and moved to Qúeretaro, a small farming town  Their group: Mulatto  Their gender: male  Their occupation: Master of Mule Trains  General history: *He created a rich and rewarding life in the face of difficult circumstances *Hernandez became one of the leading mulatto citizens because he was free, literate, and skilled *Miguel began building a freight business which became more and more lucrative *His property and family made him a man of the town *He managed to over come the stereotypes of mulattos by his excellent business and people skills
  8. 8. CHAPTER 18: ENRICO MARTINEZ MEXICO-NEW SPAIN  Time when they lived: (1557-1632)  The place/colony where they lived: Born in Hamburg, parents moved to Seville, tried to establish himself in Mexico City, in his 30’s landed in Veracruz  Their group: Artisan subgroup of Seville  Their gender: male  Their occupation: *Printer and engineer, scientist and public official *Chief engineer of the drainage works designed to prevent flooding in Mexico City  General history: *Enrico was very educated *He wrote a book called The Reportorio, it was the only book of its kind published in Spanish America *Enrico was imprisoned in 1629 for sabotaging his own work on desagüe *That year there was unusually heavy rains that lead to the worst flood in the colony's history. The drainage works that Enrico built failed badly. *He often went against the grain
  9. 9. THE AZTECS CHAPTER 1: TULA, THE MYTHICAL BEGINNING  The Toltecs of Tula will always remain the unequaled masters of all material, technical, and intellectual refinements of civilization  Toward the middle of the 12th century the Toltec period collapsed  Toltec was synonymous with nobility, authority, and legitimacy  Aztec is generally used to refer to the people of the Valley of Mexico  The Mexica had been waiting for a sign, an eagle perched on a cactus, this showed them where to settle at Tlatelolco  Texcoco (Athens of America) became the center of refined civilization  The Triple Alliance of the Mexica broke Tepance power and took control of Tepance land. The Triple Alliance was soon to be the “Aztec empire”
  10. 10. CHAPTER 2: THE EMPIRE BUILDERS  Moctezuma I was to be known as the father of the Aztec empire  A series of catastrophes like flooding, locusts, frosts, and disastrous harvests spread panic through the valley  The Aztecs would capture people to sacrifice to the gods. They would organize campaigns to find offerings. They called this Wars of the Flowers.  Moctezuma seized Coixtlahuaca in 1458  Your rank was marked with clothing and jewelry and was fixed with strict rules  The empire resembled a spider web, the Triple Alliance at the center with thousands of networks  Moctezuma conquered Chalco after 20 years of war
  11. 11. CHAPTER 3: THE AZTECS, CONQUERING HEROES  In 1473 Tlatelolco rose up against Tenochtitlan  Thousands of men and women were sacrificed in 1487  The Aztecs thought that if the gods were not fed the world would come to a end  Under Moctezuma II, the Aztec system was changed from crude democracy to one of absolute power
  12. 12. CHAPTER 4: THE CLASH OF TWO WORLDS  In 1517 the first Spanish expedition made it to the coasts of Mexico  Moctezuma thought that the explores were the prophesied return of the god Quetzalcoatl  Cortes made a union with those who stood up to the Aztecs  The Aztecs weaknesses were: the inferiority of their weapons, Moctezuma’s hesitation, and the discontent of the subject peoples  The Aztecs and the Spaniards were in different worlds  The Spaniards are said to have killed ten thousand Aztecs  On 1521 the Aztecs empire collapsed  240,000 people are said to have died in Tenochtitlan
  13. 13. CHAPTER 5: FROM RESISTANCE TO COLLABORATION  Cortes demanded that all Indians convert to Christianity and demanded an end to human sacrifices  The Aztecs clergy was forced to leave its sanctuaries and practice its rite in secret  Over a hundred languages were spoken in New Spain  Monks tried to Christianize the ruling class hoping that the rest of the population would follow  Moctezuma’s daughter, Tecuichpotzin was baptized after the conquest and married a conquistador  Indians learned to read and write under the Monks guidance  Christianity ruined the rules of the way of life and even the way of life itself for the Indians
  14. 14. CHAPTER 6: THE AFTERMATH OF THE CONQUEST  The 17th and 18th centuries were filled with conflicts and lawsuits between Indians and hacendados  In the 17th century Indians started to create a unique Christianity that allowed them to intragrate their cultures  Alcoholism struck a huge part of the indigenous people  The revolution in 1910 put slavery to a end
  15. 15. HISTORY OF SPAIN  The Kingdom of Spain was created in 1492  Christopher Columbus set out to develop the Spanish Empire  Spain was the most powerful state in Europe and the biggest global power during the 16th and 17th centuries  The earliest record of hominids living in Europe was found in the Spanish cave of Atapuerca  Medieval Spain was the scene of almost constant warfare between Muslims and Christians  The Spanish Empire was one of the first modern global empires  Between 1975 and 1982 Spain moved from a dictatorship to a democratic state
  16. 16. VICEROYALTY OF PERU  Viceroyalty of Peru was a Spanish colonial administrative district and contained Spanish-ruled South America  The Spanish conquested Peru in (1532-37)  Buenos Aires and Paraguay were both dependencies of the Viceroyalty of Peru  The independence of Peru was on July 28, 1821  Spain kept trying to take back Peru but their attempts didn’t work and in 1879 Spain finally recognized Peru’s independence  Once the Viceroyalty of Peru was established, gold and silver enriched the conquerors and Peru became the principal source of Spanish wealth and power in South America
  17. 17. SPANISH EAST INDIES  Spanish East Indies are Spanish territories in Asia- Pacific  Territories in Asia claimed by the Spanish crown were governed by the Viceroyalty of New Spain in Mexico City  For over 256 years the Spanish East Indies were governed by a governor-captain general and an audiencia  Spain left great influence to the Asia-Pacific colonies: religion, tools, technology, and cuisine  Descendants of Spanish and Latin American settlers are known as mestizos