Spanish empire in the americas


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Spanish empire in the americas

  1. 1. The Spanish Empire in the Americas Paige Ellis
  2. 2. Diego Vasicuio- Peru • Time Period: – Born in the 1580’s – Died in the 1670’s • Location: – The village of Salamanca • Group: – Native • Gender: – Male • Occupation: – Cult leader/Priest • General History: – For most of his life, Diego was the chief priest and cult leader of the God Sorimana. – Father de Prado, the parish priest, discovered that people were still worshipping idols, and ordered them to stop. – The cult pretended to repent, but continued worshipping Sorimana in secret
  3. 3. Martín Ocelotl- New Spain • Time Period: – Born in 1496 • Location: – Mexico • Group: – Aztec Indian • Gender: – Male • Occupation: – Cult Leader • General History: – He came from a family of priests. – He foretold the coming of the Europeans. – When they did come, he was baptized to escape persecution, but he continued his old practices. – He still had a reputation as a sorcerer, and he was put on trial and imprisoned.
  4. 4. Juan de Morga/ Gertrudis de Escobar- New Spain • Time Period: – Middle years of the 17th Century • Location: – Central Mexico • Group: – Mulatto Slaves • Gender: – Juan- Male – Gertrudis- Female • Occupation: – Slaves • General History: – Juan was born a slave and escaped several times, but he was caught and punished. – He made a pact with the devil to overcome his master’s cruelty. – Gertrudis was also born into slavery, and was sold to a plantation. – Her master was cruel and she endured many floggings for attempting to escape.
  5. 5. Isabel Moctezuma- New Spain • Time Period: – Born in 1509 – Died in 1550 • Location: – Tenochtitlan • Group: – Aztec Indian • Gender: – Female • Occupation: – Heiress/Princess • General History – She was the illegitimate daughter of the Aztec emperor Moctezuma II. – She was married 5 times and bore many children, including an illegitimate child with Cortés. – She converted to Catholicism and served as an example to the natives of an Indian woman who bridged the gap between the Spaniards and Indians.
  6. 6. Beatriz de Padilla- New Spain • Time Period: – Born around 1620 • Location: – Guadalajara • Group: – Mulatto • Gender: – Female • Occupation: – Mistress/Mother • General History: – She was an unmarried ex-slave, with a mulatto mother and white father. – She was accused of poisoning one lover and driving the other insane, and using sorcery to make important men fall in love with her. – A priest fell in love with her and left his entire estate to her when he died.
  7. 7. Miguel Hernandez- New Spain • Time Period: – Born in 1550 – Died in 1604 • Location: – Mexico • Group: – Mulatto • Gender: – Male • Occupation: – Muleteer • General History: • He was a free mulatto who got an education • He built and expanded a freighting business. • He earned most of his income selling mules and bringing goods to markets in the south. • He earned an excellent reputation in the business world, despite his background as a mulatto.
  8. 8. Enrico Martinez- New Spain • Time Period: – Born in 1557 – Died in 1632 • Location: – Mexico • Group: – European • Gender: – Male • Occupation: – Printer • General History: – He was an educated immigrant from Seville who wanted to make a fortune in the New World. – Wrote a book on science that risked getting him in trouble with the Inquisition. – He built a drainage system for the city that failed, and he was imprisoned for “sabotaging his own work”
  9. 9. Tula, the Mythical Beginning • By 1000 AD, the largest civilization in the Americas was the Toltecs, in Tula, but they dispersed in the 12th century. • There were now dozens of tiny domains, living not too far from each other. • The Mexica people migrated into the area and settled in Tenochtitlan. • They chose a prince from another tribe to lead them, and a dynasty was founded. • Two other tribes formed an alliance with the Mexica, and they formed the Aztec empire.
  10. 10. The Empire Builders • In 1440 Moctezuma I came to power, just in time for several natural disasters and wars to ravage the land. • In an effort to appease the gods and prevent the end of the world, he made perpetual war with the surrounding peoples, and sacrificed the prisoners. • In the process, the Aztec empire expanded. • The empire was sustained through the use of violent force and terrorizing the conquered peoples into paying tribute.
  11. 11. The Aztecs, Conquering Heroes • They performed ritual sacrifices to: – Feed the gods, whom they believed were mortal. – Uphold a policy of terror and kill off the most dangerous conquered people. – Allow divine power to manifest itself, uniting god and man. • Warriors were constantly pushing the borders, and when Moctezuma II came to power, he focused on conquering new lands. • Before the Europeans arrived, the Aztec influence covered almost 78,000 square miles and millions of people.
  12. 12. The Clash of Two Worlds • At the beginning of the 16th century, the Aztecs were anxious because various signs led them to predict a calamity. • The Spanish arrived in 1517, headed by Cortés, and Moctezuma was unsure whether to treat them as gods or enemies. • Cortés united with the Aztecs’ enemies. • When Cortés and Moctezuma finally met, Moctezuma was friendly. • Cortés’ forces killed many of the Aztec rulers. • Was ensued, and the Aztecs lost.
  13. 13. From Resistance to Collaboration • Cortés ordered an end to idolatry, human sacrifice, and polygamy, and tried to enforce Christianity. • The daughters of Aztec nobility were married off to the conquistadors. • The nobles learned to use weapons, ride horses, and conduct business and legislation. • They adapted the European alphabet, learned latin, and translated European texts into their own language.
  14. 14. Aftermath of the Conquest • After about a century under Spanish rule, the Indians invented a new combination of Catholicism and their native practices. • By the 18th century, a common culture developed, that mixed all kinds of beliefs. • They also picked up negative aspects of Spanish culture, like alcoholism and prostitution. • In the 19th century, the crown abolished all legal difference between Indians and Spanish.
  15. 15. Viceroyalty of New Spain • New Spain was established after the conquest of the Aztecs • The capital, Mexico City, was built out of the former Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan. • Its territory included much of North America, Central America, and the Spanish East and West Indies. • It was ruled by a viceroy in Mexico city, who governed on behalf of the king. • In 1821, Mexico and Central America declared their independence from Spain, forming the Mexican Empire.
  16. 16. Spanish Conquest of the Inca Empire • When the Spanish arrived in Peru in 1528, the Inca Empire included about 16 million people, all under direct control of their Emperor, Atahualpa. • The empire was weakened by civil war, difficult terrain, and smallpox. • The first meeting between Francisco Pizarro and Atahualpa was tense, and ended in a battle at Cajamarca. • It grew into a war in which Atahualpa was executed, and Spain conquered the Incas.
  17. 17. Viceroyalty of Peru • It was created in 1542, and contained most of Spanish-ruled South America. • Smaller viceroyalties were created at the expense of Peru’s territory, and Spain did not resist when Portugal expanded Brazil across the meridian. • National independence movements eventually caused the viceroyalty to crumble in the early 1800’s. • The modern-day republics of Peru, Chile, Colombia, Panama, and others were formed from the former viceroyalty.