The Spanish Empire


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The Spanish Empire

  1. 1. The Spanish Empire Rebecca Wasmund
  2. 2. Chapter 2 - Diego Vasicuio <ul><li>Spanish tried to convert Indians of Peru to Catholicism </li></ul><ul><li>Spanish conducted visitas to find/punish idolaters </li></ul><ul><li>Indian males took turns serving in the mita - unfair/brutal labor </li></ul><ul><li>Catholic church found worship of Sorimana intolerable </li></ul><ul><li>Father de Prado forced Diego Vasicuio to produce the Sorimana guaca </li></ul><ul><li>Most likely situation: the idol that Vasicuio produced was not Sorimana, and Sorimana remained hidden. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Chapter 5 - Francisco Baquero <ul><li>Buenos Aires thrived during 18th century reforms </li></ul><ul><li>Master shoemakers agreed to form a guild </li></ul><ul><li>Wealthy white merchants favored a system of racial discrimination within the guild </li></ul><ul><li>After lengthy process constitution was adopted that relegated nonwhites to smaller positions </li></ul><ul><li>Baquero took cause to royal court in Madrid </li></ul><ul><li>White guild ultimately dissolved, and beginning in 19th century nonwhite master shoemakers enjoyed equality with their white counterparts </li></ul>
  4. 4. Chapter 11 - Isabel Moctezuma <ul><li>Daughter of Moctezuma - Aztec princess - wed to five husbands </li></ul><ul><li>Was married to a conquistador at fall of Aztec empire - became “model of Hispanicized Indian womanhood” </li></ul><ul><li>Hastened the evangelization of her country </li></ul><ul><li>Gave birth to seven children </li></ul><ul><li>After her death, there was much litigation over the fact that she (and in turn, her children) was the only legitimate heir to Moctezuma II. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Chapter 13 - Beatriz de Padilla <ul><li>Beatriz de Padilla was a mulatta, accused of unspeakable acts against two of her lovers </li></ul><ul><li>Many witnesses and accusers, but original accusations were launched by jealous relatives </li></ul><ul><li>Colored women such as Beatriz enjoyed freedoms that more “respectable” white women could not enjoy </li></ul><ul><li>Women such as Beatriz made life easier for other colored women later on in history </li></ul>
  6. 6. Chapter 16 - Miguel Hernandez <ul><li>Miguel was a literate, free mulatto </li></ul><ul><li>Was aggressive and enterprising and owned his own freighting business </li></ul><ul><li>Was successful for a man of his race - owned a house, land, and a black slave </li></ul><ul><li>Many of his relationships crossed racial and social boundaries </li></ul><ul><li>Lived a careful life and avoided traps that caught many mulattos - secret to his success </li></ul>
  7. 7. Chapter 18 - Enrico Martinez <ul><li>Printer originally from Seville, had traveled and studied in Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Was a scientist and writer - liked to hypothesize on scientific topics that interested him </li></ul><ul><li>In particular, astrology, which was a dangerous topic to be interested in during the time of the Inquisition </li></ul><ul><li>Was hired as chief engineer of drainage works and failed - lost confidence in himself and faith of others </li></ul>
  8. 8. Chapter 20 - Micaela Angela Carrillo <ul><li>Married, had children, but husband died early </li></ul><ul><li>Micaela supported herself and her family by making “pulque” spirit </li></ul><ul><li>Distributed some property amongst her children during life, left remaining property to her youngest daughter when she died </li></ul><ul><li>Rose from poor woman to landowner </li></ul><ul><li>Proof that some women can share male independence and be self sufficient </li></ul>
  9. 9. Manila Galleon <ul><li>Trading ships - sailed between Manila and Acapulco </li></ul><ul><li>Total of 110 ships in the 250 years of trade </li></ul><ul><li>Carried spices, porcelain, ivory, silk </li></ul><ul><li>Only 2 ships sailed per year </li></ul><ul><li>Largest ships known to that time period </li></ul><ul><li>4 month journey between the ports </li></ul><ul><li>Questions about whether galleons may have discovered Hawaii </li></ul>
  10. 10. Bartolomé de las Casas <ul><li>Historian, social reformer, and bishop in the 16th century </li></ul><ul><li>Spent 50 years advocating for Indians and against enslaving and abusing them </li></ul><ul><li>One of first people to view all humans as universally equal </li></ul><ul><li>Early in life he participated in injustices against native peoples, but changed his mind and devoted rest of life to advocating for them </li></ul><ul><li>Had a hand in Pope Paul III proclaiming that Indians should be converted peacefully </li></ul>
  11. 11. Viceroyalty of New Spain <ul><li>Viceroyalty of the Spanish colonial empire </li></ul><ul><li>Ruled by viceroy in Mexico City </li></ul><ul><li>Bourbon reforms - attempt to end control the bureaucracy had </li></ul><ul><li>From 1806 to 1821, much of land either sold to other countries or lost when nations declared themselves independent </li></ul><ul><li>Many regions and provinces all over, united by the viceroyalty </li></ul>
  12. 12. Cabeza de Vaca <ul><li>One of four survivors of the Narvaez expedition </li></ul><ul><li>Became trader, traveled from tribe to tribe of natives and developed sympathy for them </li></ul><ul><li>10 years later found Spaniards and traveled back to Spain </li></ul><ul><li>Eventually returned to America to reestablish the Buenos Aires settlement </li></ul><ul><li>Was arrested for poor administration but eventually exonerated </li></ul>
  13. 13. The Black Legend <ul><li>Historical writing that paints the Spanish Empire as cruel and violent </li></ul><ul><li>First contributor: Bartolomé de las Casas </li></ul><ul><li>Characterized by exaggeration </li></ul><ul><li>Dealt with treatment of individuals during the Spanish Inquisition and treatment of natives during colonization of the Americas </li></ul><ul><li>Attempt to do the opposite (debunk myths of cruelty): White Legend </li></ul>