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Dart Unit 08 Sanitization


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Sanitization module for the Disaster Animal Response Team (DART).

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Dart Unit 08 Sanitization

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  2. 2. Unit 8: Sanitization © 2006-2010 Frans Hoffman
  3. 3. <ul><li>Protecting people </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical safety, zoonotic disease (transmissible from animals to humans) risks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Owners, general public, staff, volunteers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Protecting animals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical safety, security, diseases </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Protecting other property and the environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Shelter site, owner equipment, waterways, etc. </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Any concentration of animals will trigger all kinds of diseases </li></ul><ul><li>A Pet Friendly Shelter can house 300 animals at a given time, with animals arriving and leaving from time to time and owners entering the shelter to take care of their animals </li></ul><ul><li>Proper decontamination and strict hygiene are needed to minimize the occurrence and impact of diseases </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Abrupt changes in diet often result in diarrhea. You will see a lot of diarrhea when working in an animal shelter during and after an emergency </li></ul><ul><li>Note diarrhea on cage cards so that a vet tech or veterinarian can determine whether the diarrhea lasts an abnormal time </li></ul><ul><li>For diseases other than rabies, immediately isolate the animal. Notify a supervisor, or a veterinary technician. Do not allow the animal near other animals </li></ul><ul><li>If you suspect rabies do NOT attempt to catch the animal. One person should get a veterinarian while the others monitor location and behavior of the animal from a safe distance </li></ul>Photo courtesy of Frans Hoffman
  6. 6. <ul><li>Required if animal is contaminated </li></ul><ul><li>Main method of decontamination: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bathe! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Daily decontamination of: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Kennels and cages </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Litter pans </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Food and water bowls </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Always check with owner before bathing (bathing may impact skin and fur) </li></ul><ul><li>Bathing may be dangerous to handler </li></ul><ul><li>Bathing may reveal injuries </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Assess the areas to be cleaned </li></ul><ul><li>Remove all visible debris </li></ul><ul><li>Clean with water and detergent or soap </li></ul><ul><li>Thoroughly rinse cleaned area </li></ul><ul><li>Allow the area to dry completely </li></ul><ul><li>Select and apply disinfectant </li></ul><ul><li>Allow proper contact time </li></ul><ul><li>Rinse </li></ul><ul><li>Leave the area free of animals for a sufficient amount of time </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate and monitor </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Label information </li></ul><ul><li>Statements of efficacy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Medical environment claims </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Broad spectrum/general purpose </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dilution and use instructions </li></ul><ul><li>Storage and stability </li></ul><ul><li>Safety information Make sure you read the Material Safety Data Sheet on every chemical you use BEFORE using it! </li></ul><ul><li>Environmental considerations </li></ul>
  9. 9. Alcohol Bleach Chlorhexidine Potassium peroxymonosulfate Quaternary ammonium Other
  10. 10. <ul><li>Parvo, panleukopenia or calicivirus: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>bleach (1/2 cup per gallon) or potassium peroxymonosulfate* </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ringworm: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>bleach at 1.5 cups per gallon </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Organic matter (mop buckets, foot baths, play yards): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>potassium peroxymonosulfate (Caroat/Oxone) or quaternary ammonium compounds ((Roccal, Parvosol, A33, Maxxon, many others) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Anything that’s really hard to kill: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mechanical cleaning no matter what </li></ul></ul><ul><li>* Trifectant or Virkon-S </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>Good: get stuff really clean </li></ul><ul><li>Bad: aerosolization of germs and irritants </li></ul><ul><li>Use only when no animals in area </li></ul><ul><ul><li>E.g. double sided runs when all animals are moved to one side </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Roll cage banks outside </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Special caution during parvo outbreaks </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Airline kennels, cat cages, litter pans </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Disassemble and remove all visible debris </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Clean with soap and water </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rinse </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Apply 1:32 diluted bleach (3% solution) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Wait 10 minutes </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rinse and allow to dry </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Reassemble </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Repeat 2 or 3 times if diseases reported! </li></ul></ul></ul>Bleach is an effective disinfectant against many viruses. However, if the area is soiled bleach is neutralized quickly before it can disinfect. Always clean thoroughly before disinfecting.
  13. 13. <ul><li>Cleaning equipment, signs etc. can easily become biohazards </li></ul><ul><li>Object or substance capable of carrying infectious organisms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mops </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brooms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dustpans </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Skin cells, hair, clothing, and bedding are common hospital sources of contamination. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Respiratory irritant </li></ul><ul><li>Use with paper towels or single use rags </li></ul><ul><li>Mark and measure disinfectant </li></ul><ul><li>Light-proof containers for bleach </li></ul><ul><li>Make fresh routinely </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Alternative to spray bottles </li></ul><ul><li>Use paper towels or single use rags to apply </li></ul><ul><li>Less respiratory irritation than spray bottles </li></ul><ul><li>Nicer for staff and cats </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>Ideally, you could have separate equipment for each cage / kennel. </li></ul><ul><li>Without it you will have to disinfect equipment after each use. </li></ul><ul><li>This animal rescue even had separate boot covers for its volunteers – in addition to the trays with disinfectant that volunteers step into before entering a kennel. </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Pre-vaccination areas </li></ul><ul><li>High contact surfaces </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Animals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Humans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Animal housing between occupants </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sick animal surfaces </li></ul><ul><li>Food preparation areas </li></ul><ul><li>Food and water bowls </li></ul><ul><li>YOU! </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Clean gently around cat </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wipe walls (remove snot marks from day to day to permit monitoring); no need to rinse if disinfectant or mild detergent used at correct dilution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hard core disinfection not needed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Do not spray around cat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Brush out spilled litter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Replace litter pan (prepare fresh litter and dump soiled litter away from cats if possible) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leave bedding with cat unless heavily soiled or cat has serious infection (ok to leave URI cats with bedding, but avoid with ringworm, panleukopenia, coccidia, Giardia) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Deep clean only between cats or when cage is heavily soiled </li></ul><ul><li>Have a few carriers available for litters of kittens or cats that need to be removed to clean heavily soiled cages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clean carriers between uses </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. <ul><li>Lower cost </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced chemical use </li></ul><ul><li>Less work </li></ul><ul><li>Less stress </li></ul><ul><li>Less fomite transmission </li></ul><ul><li>Frees time to carefully clean between occupants </li></ul><ul><li>What’s not to like? </li></ul><ul><li>Step by step at:, type “spot cleaning”into search box </li></ul><ul><li>Temporary housing while cleaning cage </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>One empty kennel per side </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Everyone move down one </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use ear tags, clipboard or other movable kennel numbers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each animal only exposed to those on either side </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inadequate contact time but better than most alternatives </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Commercial high heat dishwasher preferred </li></ul><ul><li>If hand washing, WASH before disinfecting </li></ul><ul><li>Separate dishes from litter pans </li></ul><ul><li>Use stainless or disposable if at all possible </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial strength dishwashers usually not available – manual disinfection of all bowls is norm </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>Must be active in the face of organic matter </li></ul><ul><li>Must be active against the germs in question </li></ul><ul><li>Deep enough to cover shoe treads! </li></ul><ul><li>Adequate contact time </li></ul><ul><li>Changed frequently </li></ul><ul><li>Boots or shoe covers when it really counts! </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>Isolate high-risk animals </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Showing signs of illness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relocate to veterinary facility if possible </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use written cleaning and disinfection protocols </li></ul><ul><li>Limit access </li></ul><ul><ul><li>A shelter is not a petting zoo </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Wash hands between contacts </li></ul>Outbreaks of zoonosis have been traced to human interaction with and exposure to animals at fairs, petting zoos, and in other settings In 1988, a person became ill with swine influenza virus (swine flu) and died after visiting the display area of the pig barn at a Wisconsin county fair. Three healthcare personnel treating the case patient also developed flu-like illness with laboratory evidence of swine influenza virus infection
  24. 24. <ul><li>Guidelines/policies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevention/safety training </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Post-bite protocols-medical treatment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quarantine protocols (10 days) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Risk recognition in companion animals, livestock and wildlife! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>REPORT ALL BITES </li></ul><ul><li>Cat scratch disease is a disease caused by Bartonella bacteria. It is believed to be transmitted by cat scratches and bites, or exposure to cat saliva. </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>Use caution when approaching any animal that may be sick, wounded or stressed </li></ul><ul><li>If available use thick gloves, restraints or sedation to handle aggressive animals </li></ul><ul><li>If bitten or scratched, thoroughly wash wound with soap and water and immediately seek medical care </li></ul><ul><li>Report any bite to your supervisor </li></ul><ul><li>Animals that bite a person must be quarantined, the incident must be documented and the victim should seek immediate medical attention </li></ul>Photo Courtesy of Noah’s Wish DART Team members will provide owners with food and water and tools that will let them take care of their animals. Notice that the cage door is left open. This could pose a problem. When one dog ‘gets out’ the entire population will react. It might be a good idea to keep cages closed.
  26. 27. <ul><li>Minimum PPE: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gloves (latex or vinyl) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eye protection (goggles) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Apron, smock or coverall </li></ul></ul>
  27. 28. <ul><li>Wear disposable gloves whenever possible </li></ul><ul><li>Wash hands with soap and water </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Before and after handling each animal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After coming into contact with animal saliva, urine, feces or blood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>After cleaning cages </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Before eating meals, taking breaks, smoking or leaving the shelter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Before and after using the restroom </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Enforce proper hygiene for anyone touching animals </li></ul>A hand sanitizer is not a disinfectant. Disinfectants kill microorganisms on surfaces and instruments. They are not safe for use on human skin. (Ex. bleach) Antiseptics are used to prevent sepsis, the presence of the microorganisms, or their products in the bloodstream. They inhibit the growth of the microorganisms, but do not necessarily kill them. They are safe for use on human skin. (ex. ethyl alcohol) Hand sanitizers are used for decontamination when hand washing is not available . They are most commonly made of ethyl alcohol, an antiseptic.
  28. 29. <ul><li>Wear gloves when handling sick or wounded animals </li></ul><ul><li>Wear gloves when cleaning cages </li></ul><ul><li>Consider use of goggles or face protection if splashes from contaminated surfaces may occur </li></ul><ul><li>Facemasks should be worn when handling ill birds to minimize the risk of contracting psittacosis </li></ul><ul><li>Bring a change of clothes to wear home at the end of the day </li></ul><ul><li>Bag and thoroughly clean clothes worn at the shelter </li></ul><ul><li>Do not allow rescued animals to &quot;kiss&quot; you or lick your face </li></ul>
  29. 30. <ul><li>Do not eat in animal care areas </li></ul><ul><li>Whenever possible, caretakers should have completed a 3-dose prophylactic vaccination series for rabies </li></ul><ul><li>Pregnant women and immuno-compromised persons should not volunteer for positions involving direct animal contact </li></ul><ul><li>Our job is to feed and water the animals and to keep them safe and healthy. Socialization may be a luxury. </li></ul>Photo Courtesy of Noah’s Wish This is an owner playing with her/his dog. While we will not tell owners how to handle their animal or how to show affection, we must protect the general population. Before this owner can touch another animal or leave the shelter s/he should be asked to wash/disinfect her/his hands.
  30. 31. <ul><li>If you don’t think you should….. </li></ul><ul><li>DON’T DO IT! </li></ul><ul><li>If asked to do something that…. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You are not qualified for </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You think is dangerous </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DON’T DO IT! </li></ul><ul><li>Find appropriate personnel/equipment </li></ul><ul><li>Seek appropriate supervision </li></ul><ul><li>Report to safety officer if unresolved </li></ul>
  31. 33. <ul><li>While Frans Hoffman, the author of this training course, provides the information in this presentation for free (as hand-outs) to anyone who attends a Disaster Animal Response Training (DART), he and his licensors retain copyright on all text and graphic images. </li></ul><ul><li>Text and graphic images are protected by worldwide copyright laws and treaty provisions. This means that YOU MAY NOT copy, reproduce, modify, publish, upload, post, or include this information in your training or documents, reuse the text or graphics, transmit or distribute the text or graphics to others without the express written permission of the author. The author reserves all other rights. Except as expressly provided herein, he does not grant any express or implied right to you under any patents, copyrights, trademarks or trade secret information. </li></ul><ul><li>The DART logo is a service mark of Frans Hoffman. </li></ul><ul><li>For more information on how to legally use these materials, please contact Frans Hoffman at </li></ul>
  32. 34. <ul><li>Daily Animal Care </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rounds: note any symptoms on the cage card and notify supervisor. Supervisor will notify Vet Tech or Vet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interaction: take all precautions, wear disposable gloves and clean hands with disinfectant. Use paper towels while cleaning. Remove anything soiled from a cage and have it laundered </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Returning home: wash all clothes worn in a bleach and water solution to protect your own pets </li></ul></ul>Photo Courtesy of Linda Swanson