Dart Unit 11 Psychology


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Psychology module for the Disaster Animal Response Team (DART).

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  • PEP Team Training 04/07/10
  • PEP Team Training 04/07/10
  • PEP Team Training 04/07/10
  • PEP Team Training 04/07/10
  • PEP Team Training 04/07/10
  • PEP Team Training 04/07/10
  • PEP Team Training 04/07/10
  • PEP Team Training 04/07/10
  • PEP Team Training 04/07/10 � This concept goes by many names � � Secondary Stress Disorder � Parallel Process � Compassion Fatigue � Insidious Trauma � Secondary Trauma
  • PEP Team Training 04/07/10
  • PEP Team Training 04/07/10
  • PEP Team Training 04/07/10
  • Dart Unit 11 Psychology

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    2. 2. Unit 11: Psychology © 2006-2010 Frans Hoffman
    3. 3. <ul><li>In the impact phase survivors do not panic and may show no emotion </li></ul><ul><li>In the inventory phase survivors assess damage and try to locate other survivors </li></ul><ul><li>In the rescue phase survivors are prepared to take directions from rescuers </li></ul><ul><li>In the recovery phase survivors appear to pull together against their rescuers (emergency personnel) </li></ul><ul><li>Expect survivors to show psychological effects - some of it may be directed toward you! </li></ul>
    4. 4. <ul><li>Post Traumatic Stress May Affect: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive functioning (act irrationally, difficulty making decisions, act out of character) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical health (symptoms range from exhaustion to health problems) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interpersonal relationships may be difficult </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Post Traumatic Stress also impacts animals </li></ul>
    5. 5. <ul><li>Prior experience (same or similar event) can lead to cumulative emotions, leading to greater stress reactions </li></ul><ul><li>Intensity of disruption: the more intense the greater the psychological and physiological reactions may become </li></ul><ul><li>Perceived meaning of the event: the more catastrophic the more intense reaction </li></ul><ul><li>Emotional well-being and coping resources </li></ul><ul><li>Length of time elapsed - reality sinks in </li></ul>“ I still get up at 5:30 to milk cows I no longer have. It is eerie. No sounds at all in the dale, nothing from sheep or cattle. Only the birds.” Paul Bolland, a farmer in the UK who lost 1,500 animals to foot and mouth disease in 2001
    6. 6. <ul><li>In spite of best preparations loss of companion and livestock animals may be unavoidable </li></ul><ul><li>Owners of pets and livestock may experience intense grief over the death of a beloved animal </li></ul><ul><li>Similarly, farmers may experience serious problems if they have to cull healthy herds </li></ul><ul><li>All this on top of the trauma of the disaster itself </li></ul>In one study, researchers determined that more than one-third of the dog owners in the study felt closer to their dogs than to any human family member.
    7. 7. <ul><li>Listen: talking about feelings is often needed for processing them </li></ul><ul><li>Show that you hear their concerns: they want to know that someone else shares their feelings of pain and grief </li></ul><ul><li>Break isolation: connect to natural support systems such as family, friends, clergy </li></ul>
    8. 8. <ul><li>Allow silence - Silence gives the survivor time to reflect and become aware of feelings. Silence can prompt the survivor to elaborate. </li></ul><ul><li>Attend nonverbally - Eye contact, head nodding, caring facial expressions, and occasional &quot;uh-huhs”. </li></ul><ul><li>Paraphrase - When you repeat portions of what the survivor has said, understanding, interest, and empathy are conveyed. </li></ul><ul><li>Reflect feelings - The survivor's tone of voice or nonverbal gestures may suggest anger, sadness, or fear. Possible responses are, &quot;You sound angry, scared etc., does that fit for you?&quot; This helps the survivor identify and articulate his or her emotions. </li></ul><ul><li>Allow expression of emotions - Expressing intense emotions through tears or angry venting is an important part of healing; it often helps the survivor work through feelings so that he or she can better engage in constructive problem-solving. </li></ul>
    9. 9. <ul><li>Cover the body, treat it with respect </li></ul><ul><li>Have one family member look at the body and decide if the rest of the family should see it </li></ul><ul><li>Allow family members time with the deceased animal. Stay close, but don’t watch </li></ul><ul><li>Let the family grieve. </li></ul>
    10. 10. <ul><li>Separate family members from others in a quiet, private place </li></ul><ul><li>Have family members sit down if possible </li></ul><ul><li>Make eye contact and use a calm, kind voice </li></ul><ul><li>Use words like these: “I’m sorry, but your animal has died. I am so sorry.” </li></ul><ul><li>If you are not comfortable doing this, let your supervisor know </li></ul>
    11. 11. <ul><li>Vicarious Trauma (Bearing Witness To Another’s Trauma): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The process of change in the rescuer resulting from empathic engagement with survivors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Do not over-identify with survivors and do not take their feelings as your own. This will only compound your stress and reduce your effectiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Accept that you can not save everyone </li></ul><ul><li>Talk to someone about your feelings! </li></ul><ul><li>Shannon Hartwick Moore </li></ul><ul><li>July 22, 1969 ~ May 30, 2006 </li></ul><ul><li>Shannon's house was hit hard by Katrina. Nonetheless, in Katrina's aftermath, her priorities were the animals: </li></ul><ul><li>She formed HayThere to get feed from growers to horses </li></ul><ul><li>She volunteered with Animal Rescue New Orleans as a project coordinator providing food, water, and foster care </li></ul><ul><li>She served as community coordinator for the Alley Cat Allies' Feline Frenzy spay/neuter event that fixed over 1,100 New Orleans-area cats during a 3-week drive </li></ul><ul><li>She worked as a Stealth Volunteer reuniting rescued animals with owners </li></ul><ul><li>She founded Save Our Pets and was instrumental in pushing SB-607, The Pet Evacuation Bill through the Louisiana Senate unanimously </li></ul>
    12. 12. <ul><li>During an emergency or a disaster you will see and hear things that will be extremely unpleasant </li></ul><ul><li>Be alert to signs of trauma in yourself as well as in other team members, so that you can take steps to alleviate stress </li></ul><ul><li>Is everyone taking breaks and having quiet time? </li></ul><ul><li>Is everyone talking/communicating normally and frequently? </li></ul><ul><li>What can you do to help relieve the stress? </li></ul>Emergency response teams should be trained to regularly evaluate levels of stress in themselves and each other and to understand the need for adequate rest and nutrition; they should also have access to mental health professionals who are knowledgeable in stress management
    13. 13. <ul><li>Irritability or anger </li></ul><ul><li>Self blame or blaming others </li></ul><ul><li>Isolation and withdrawal </li></ul><ul><li>Fear of recurrence </li></ul><ul><li>Feeling stunned, numb, or overwhelmed </li></ul><ul><li>Feeling helpless </li></ul><ul><li>Mood swings </li></ul><ul><li>Sadness, depression and grief </li></ul><ul><li>Denial </li></ul><ul><li>Concentration and memory problems </li></ul><ul><li>Relationship conflicts </li></ul><ul><li>Loss of appetite </li></ul><ul><li>Headaches or chest pain </li></ul><ul><li>Diarrhea, stomach pain or nausea </li></ul><ul><li>Hyperactivity </li></ul><ul><li>Increase in alcohol or drug consumption </li></ul><ul><li>Nightmares </li></ul><ul><li>Inability to sleep </li></ul><ul><li>Fatigue or low energy </li></ul>
    14. 14. <ul><li>Before deployment, think about ways to reduce your stress. Preventive steps are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Get enough sleep </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exercise </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eat a balanced diet </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Balance work, play and rest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allow yourself to receive as well as give </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Connect with others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use spiritual resources </li></ul></ul>The world breaks everyone and afterward many are strong in the broken places. Ernest Hemingway A Farewell to Arms (1929)
    15. 16. <ul><li>While Frans Hoffman, the author of this training course, provides the information in this presentation for free (as hand-outs) to anyone who attends a Disaster Animal Response Training (DART), he and his licensors retain copyright on all text and graphic images. </li></ul><ul><li>Text and graphic images are protected by worldwide copyright laws and treaty provisions. This means that YOU MAY NOT copy, reproduce, modify, publish, upload, post, or include this information in your training or documents, reuse the text or graphics, transmit or distribute the text or graphics to others without the express written permission of the author. The author reserves all other rights. Except as expressly provided herein, he does not grant any express or implied right to you under any patents, copyrights, trademarks or trade secret information. </li></ul><ul><li>The DART logo is a service mark of Frans Hoffman. </li></ul><ul><li>For more information on how to legally use these materials, please contact Frans Hoffman at fhoffman@iRescue.us. </li></ul>