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RADIATION
PHYSICS

Presented by: Fathimath Shibana
Msc. Biotechnology
First semester 2012
University of Mysore

Guided by:...
Radiation :
It is defined as the process by which
energy is emitted from a source and
propagated through the surrounding
m...
NUCLEAR INTERACTIONS
Radioactivity : It is the act of emitting radiation
spontaneously from the unstable
atoms.
 Unstable atoms differ from st...
CLASSIFICATION OF RADIATION
Radiation

Non-ionizing

Ionizing

Directly ionizing (charged
particles: electrons, protons,
e...
NON-IONIZING RADIATION
Non-ionizing radiation refers to any type of
electromagnetic radiation that does not carry enough
e...
IONIZING RADIATION








Ionizing radiation has sufficient energy to ionize an
atom or molecule.
Ionization is a pr...
TYPES OF IONIZING RADIATION
ALPHA RADIATION
Characteristics of alpha radiation:




Alpha radiation is not able to penetrate skin.

Alpha emitting materials can be ...
Alpha radiation travels a very short distance
through air.
 A variety of instruments have been designed to
measure alpha ...
USES OF ALPHA RADIATIONS
Alpha particles are most commonly used in
smoke alarms (smoke detectors). The alpha
particles ion...
BETA RADIATION


Beta radiation is a stream of electrons called beta
particles. When a beta particle is ejected, a neutro...


Beta radiation is more hazardous because it can also
cause ionization of living cells. If the particles hits a
molecule...
Beta emitting contaminants may be harmful if deposited
internally
 Most beta emitters can be detected with survey
instrum...


Beta radiation cannot be detected with an ionization
chamber such as a CD V-715.



Clothing and turnout gear provide ...
USES OF BETA RADIATIONS
Beta radiation are widely used in medicine. In branchy
therapy, beta radioisotopes can be used to ...
Beta radiation is used in leak detection in the pipeline.
This is achieved by adding small amount of beta
radiation to the...
GAMMA RADIATION
Gamma radiation is electromagnetic radiation of high
frequency and therefore high photons with a very shor...
X-RAYS
X-ray photons carry enough energy to ionize atoms and
disrupt molecular bond.
 This makes it a type of ionizing ra...
Characteristics of gamma radiation and x-rays:
Gamma radiation and X-rays are electromagnetic
radiation like visible light...


Gamma radiation is able to travel many meters in air and
many centimeters in human tissue.

Radioactive materials that ...
Gamma radiation is detected with survey instruments,
including civil defense instruments. Low levels can be
measured with ...
USES OF GAMMA RADIATIONS


Even after it has been packaged, gamma rays can be
used to kill bacteria, mould and insects in...
The most common tracer is called Technetium-99 and is very
safe because it only emits gamma rays and doesn't cause
much io...
Checking welds. If a gamma source is placed on one
side of the welded metal, and a photographic film on the
other side, we...
USES OF X-RAYS


X-rays are used in medicine for medical analysis.
Dentists use them to find complications, cavities and
...


In Science x-rays are used to analyze the arrangement
of atoms in many kinds of substances, particularly
crystals. Arch...
REFERENCES
 http://www.darvill.clara.net/nucrad/uses.htm
 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oFdR_yMKOCw&feature=related
 h...
THANK YOU
Radiation physics
Radiation physics
Radiation physics
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Radiation physics

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Radiation physics

  1. 1. RADIATION PHYSICS Presented by: Fathimath Shibana Msc. Biotechnology First semester 2012 University of Mysore Guided by: Dr. H.S. Aparna Associate professor DOS in Biotechnolog
  2. 2. Radiation : It is defined as the process by which energy is emitted from a source and propagated through the surrounding medium.
  3. 3. NUCLEAR INTERACTIONS
  4. 4. Radioactivity : It is the act of emitting radiation spontaneously from the unstable atoms.  Unstable atoms differ from stable atoms because they have an excess of energy or mass or both.  Unstable atoms are known as radioactive atoms. E.g. Carbon 14, Uranium 238
  5. 5. CLASSIFICATION OF RADIATION Radiation Non-ionizing Ionizing Directly ionizing (charged particles: electrons, protons, etc Indirectly ionizing (neutral particles: photons, neutrons.
  6. 6. NON-IONIZING RADIATION Non-ionizing radiation refers to any type of electromagnetic radiation that does not carry enough energy to ionize an atom or molecule. Near ultraviolet radiation infrared radiation, microwave, radio waves, etc 
  7. 7. IONIZING RADIATION      Ionizing radiation has sufficient energy to ionize an atom or molecule. Ionization is a process in which a charged portion of a molecule (usually electron) is given enough energy to break away from the atom. Ionization results in the formation of charged particles or ions; the molecule with net positive charge and the free electron with a net negative charge. All ionizing radiation is capable, directly and indirectly of removing electrons from most of the molecules. Ionizing radiation has enough energy to damage DNA in cells which in turn may lead to cancer.
  8. 8. TYPES OF IONIZING RADIATION
  9. 9. ALPHA RADIATION
  10. 10. Characteristics of alpha radiation:   Alpha radiation is not able to penetrate skin. Alpha emitting materials can be harmful to humans if the materials are inhaled, swallowed or absorbed through open wounds.
  11. 11. Alpha radiation travels a very short distance through air.  A variety of instruments have been designed to measure alpha radiation. Instruments can not detect alpha radiation even a thin layer of water, blood, dust, paper or other material, because alpha radiation is not penetrating 
  12. 12. USES OF ALPHA RADIATIONS Alpha particles are most commonly used in smoke alarms (smoke detectors). The alpha particles ionize air between a small gap. A small current is pass through the ionized air. Smoke particles from fire that enter the air gap reduces the current flow, sounding the alarm.  Alpha decay can produce safe power sources for radioisotope thermoelectric generators used for space probes and artificial heart pacemakers. 
  13. 13. BETA RADIATION  Beta radiation is a stream of electrons called beta particles. When a beta particle is ejected, a neutron in the nucleus is converted to a proton, so the mass number of nucleus is unchanged, but the atomic number increases by one unit.
  14. 14.  Beta radiation is more hazardous because it can also cause ionization of living cells. If the particles hits a molecule of DNA it can cause spontaneous mutation and cancer. Characteristics of beta radiation: Beta radiation may travel meters in air and is moderately penetrating.  It can penetrate human skin to “germinal layer” where new cells are produced. 
  15. 15. Beta emitting contaminants may be harmful if deposited internally  Most beta emitters can be detected with survey instruments. (e.g. CD-V-700). Some beta emitters, however produce very low energy, poorly penetrating radiation that may be difficult or impossible to detect. Examples of these are carbon-14, tritium, and sulfur-35. 
  16. 16.  Beta radiation cannot be detected with an ionization chamber such as a CD V-715.  Clothing and turnout gear provide some protection against most beta radiation. Turnout gear and dry clothing can keep beta emitters off of the skin.
  17. 17. USES OF BETA RADIATIONS Beta radiation are widely used in medicine. In branchy therapy, beta radioisotopes can be used to irradiate areas inside a patient to prevent the growth of certain tissues. Beta particles are also used in some forms of therapy to kill cancer cells.  Beta particles are used in quality control to test the thickness of an item, such as paper, coming through a system of rollers. 
  18. 18. Beta radiation is used in leak detection in the pipeline. This is achieved by adding small amount of beta radiation to the fluid. The area above the ground where high intensity of beta radiation is detected will pin point the leak sources in the pipeline.  Carbon-14 is used as tracers in chemical and biological research. The age of the ancient organic materials can also be found by measuring the amount of Carbon-14 that is left. 
  19. 19. GAMMA RADIATION Gamma radiation is electromagnetic radiation of high frequency and therefore high photons with a very short wavelength.  The emission of gamma radiation results from an energy change within the atomic nucleus.  Gamma radiation change neither the atomic number nor the atomic mass.  Alpha and beta emission are often accompanied by gamma emission, as an excited nucleus drops to a lower and more stable energy change. 
  20. 20. X-RAYS X-ray photons carry enough energy to ionize atoms and disrupt molecular bond.  This makes it a type of ionizing radiation and thereby harmful to living tissues.  X-ray machine sends individual x-ray particles through the body. The image is recorded on a computer or film. 
  21. 21. Characteristics of gamma radiation and x-rays: Gamma radiation and X-rays are electromagnetic radiation like visible light, radio waves, and ultraviolet light. These electromagnetic radiations differ only in the amount of energy they have. Gamma rays and X-rays are the most energetic of these.  X-rays are like gamma rays. They, too, are penetrating radiation. 
  22. 22.  Gamma radiation is able to travel many meters in air and many centimeters in human tissue. Radioactive materials that emit gamma radiation and Xrays constitute both an external and internal hazard to humans  Gamma radiation or X-rays frequently accompany the emission of alpha and beta radiation 
  23. 23. Gamma radiation is detected with survey instruments, including civil defense instruments. Low levels can be measured with a standard Geiger counter, such as the CD V-700. High levels can be measured with an ionization chamber, such as a CD V-715.  Instruments designed solely for alpha detection will not detect gamma radiation  Pocket chamber (pencil) dosimeters, film badges, thermo luminescent, and other types of dosimeters can be used to measure accumulated exposure to gamma radiation. 
  24. 24. USES OF GAMMA RADIATIONS  Even after it has been packaged, gamma rays can be used to kill bacteria, mould and insects in food. This process prolongs the shelf-life of the food, but sometimes changes the taste.  Gamma rays are also used to sterilise hospital equipment, especially plastic syringes that would be damaged if heated.
  25. 25. The most common tracer is called Technetium-99 and is very safe because it only emits gamma rays and doesn't cause much ionization. • Radioisotopes can be used for medical purposes, such as checking for a blocked kidney. To do this a small amount of Iodine-123 is injected into the patient, after 5 minutes 2 Geiger counters are placed over the kidneys. • Also radioisotopes are used in industry, to detect leaking pipes. To do this, a small amount is injected into the pipe. It is then detected with a GM counter above ground. 
  26. 26. Checking welds. If a gamma source is placed on one side of the welded metal, and a photographic film on the other side, weak points or air bubbles will show up on the film, like an X-ray.  Because Gamma rays can kill living cells, they are used to kill cancer cells without having to resort to difficult surgery. This is called "Radiotherapy", and works because cancer cells can't repair themselves when damaged by gamma rays, as healthy cells can 
  27. 27. USES OF X-RAYS  X-rays are used in medicine for medical analysis. Dentists use them to find complications, cavities and impacted teeth. Soft body tissue are transparent to the waves. Bones also block the rays.  X-rays are used in industry to inspect products made by various kinds of materials. X-ray machines are used in airports to check luggage etc.
  28. 28.  In Science x-rays are used to analyze the arrangement of atoms in many kinds of substances, particularly crystals. Archaeologists used X-rays to examine ancient objects covered by a crust of dirt.  X-rays are also used in consumer goods the manufactures treat certain kinds of plastic to check the quality of many mass produced products.
  29. 29. REFERENCES  http://www.darvill.clara.net/nucrad/uses.htm  http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oFdR_yMKOCw&feature=related  http://www.ksre.ksu.edu/agsafe/p.aspx?tabid=47  http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/ocr_gateway_pre_20 11/living_future/4_nuclear_radiation1.shtml  http://www.nuc.berkeley.edu/News/HTW/radiation-basics  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ionizing_radiation  http://johnjackson.hubpages.com/hub/The-Three-Types-of-Radiation  http://chemistry.about.com/od/chemistryfaqs/f/radioactivity.htm  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/X-ray  http://www.stmary.ws/highschool/physics/xray_1.htm
  30. 30. THANK YOU

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