6.2 H5 The Transport System PPT

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6.2 H5 The Transport System PPT

  1. 1. Topic 6.2 + Option H5 Transport System<br />IB Biology <br />
  2. 2. Components of Transport System<br />Blood<br />Heart<br />Blood Vessels<br />
  3. 3. Types of Circulation<br />1) Pulmonary<br />heart – lungs – heart<br />2) Systemic<br />heart – body – heart<br />
  4. 4. Types of Circulation<br />3) Coronary<br />blood vessels that supply heart muscle with oxygen and nutrients / remove waste products<br />
  5. 5. Blood<br />Plasma – fluid<br />Red blood cells or erythrocytes – produced in the bone marrow of large bones / transport O2 and CO2 <br />White blood cells (lymphocytes and phagocytes) – produced in the bone marrow / belong to immune system<br />Platelets - cell fragments that help blood clotting<br />
  6. 6. (antibodies)<br />urea<br />+ HEAT<br />
  7. 7.
  8. 8.
  9. 9. Heart Structure<br />2 sides with different functions:<br /><ul><li>right: to receive + pump blood to the lungs
  10. 10. left: to receive + pump blood to the body</li></ul>2 types of chambers: atrium + ventricle<br />4 chambers: 2 atria/2 ventricles<br />Cardiac muscle: involuntary <br />Ultimate control:<br />Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)<br />
  11. 11. Heart Structure<br />
  12. 12. Blood Vessels<br />Arteries<br />carry blood Away from heart; strong thick walls; smooth muscle (elastic); fibrous coat; small lumen = ↑ pressure<br />Veins<br />carry blood back to heart; large lumen; thin wall/muscle; ↓ elastic; valves<br />Capillaries<br />connect arteries and veins; no valves; pores; no muscle/not elastic extremely thin (1 cell thick) = fast exchange<br />
  13. 13. Blood Pressure<br />Blood applies pressure to the walls<br />If it is too low - cells might not get enough O2<br />If it is too high - vessels can rupture (heart attack, stroke)<br />Salt can increase blood pressure<br />Normal blood pressure: 120/80 mm Hg<br />
  14. 14. Coronary Heart Disease<br />Slow build up of plaque (lipids, cholesterol) = ATHEROSCLEROSIS<br />Arteries become harder, less flexible<br />Less space for blood<br />Coronary arteries supply O2 to heart cells<br />Thrombosis = clot = heart attack = heart cells die<br />Factors affecting coronary heart disease (CHD):<br />Age, race, heredity, gender, cholesterol levels, blood pressure, obesity, diabetes, smoking, sedentary lifestyle, stress<br />
  15. 15.
  16. 16. Heartbeat Control<br />Myogenic muscle contraction: <br /><ul><li>Sino-Atrial Node (SAN) – specialized cells generate electrical impulse on their own with regular frequency (PACEMAKER)
  17. 17. Impulse spreads to both atria → atria contract together
  18. 18. Atrio-Ventricular node (AVN) picks up the impulse in lower right atrium septum and conduces to the ventricles through fibers
  19. 19. Ventricles contract: AV valves close / semi-lunar valves open (SISTOLE)
  20. 20. Contraction stops – ventricles relax (DIASTOLE)</li></li></ul><li>Heartbeat Control<br />Autonomic Nervous System and hormones can modify myogenic rhythm:<br /><ul><li>Nerves from brain stem (medulla) have involuntary control over heart rate = affect SA node
  21. 21. Exercise = ↑CO2 / ↓O2 = medulla oblongata (brainstem) takes over
  22. 22. Chemoreceptors detect ↑CO2 = H+ causes decrease in pH
  23. 23. Adrenaline targets sino-atrial node (SAN): stimulant</li></li></ul><li>
  24. 24. Cardiac Cycle<br />One whole heartbeat<br />Sistole = contraction / Diastole = relaxation<br />Valves prevent backflow<br />Sound = valves closing<br />1st = atrio-ventricular valves (mitral, tricuspid)<br />2nd = semilunar valves (aortic, pulmonary)<br />Important = valves open and close depending on pressure inside chambers/blood vessels<br />Atria systole = pressure not too great (thin walls, most blood already moved to ventricles)<br />Ventricular systole = pressure great inside both ventricles<br />

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