The study of heterosis over environment in bread wheat, Triticum aestivum


Published on

1 Like
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Total views
On SlideShare
From Embeds
Number of Embeds
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide

The study of heterosis over environment in bread wheat, Triticum aestivum

  2. 2. INTRODUCTION TO BREAD WHEAT:- • Bread wheat is more widely cultivated than any other crop. Bread wheat is one of the world’s three main cereal crops, along with rice and maize. • Triticum aestivum, common or bread wheat, is an annual grass, native to the Mediterranean region and southwest Asia, which is one of several species of cultivated wheat. • A significant portion of it is used for livestock feed and biofuel, rather than human food. • Wheat is one of the most ancient of domesticated crops, with archaeological evidence of the cultivation of various species in the Fertile Crescent dating back to 9,600 B.C.
  3. 3. • The various species have been developed into thousands of cultivars (over 25,000, by one estimate). • Cultivars are categorized according to 1. horticultural requirements (spring vs. winter wheat), 2. texture and food uses (hard wheat, which often contains more gluten and is used for bread; vs. pastry or flour wheat, used for cakes, biscuits, and cookies), 3. or by growth form and 4. seed characteristics (the varieties aestivum, compactum, and spelta are among the six major categories recognized).
  4. 4. NUTRITIONAL INTRODUCTION:- • Wheat is high in carbohydrates, protein and vitamins B and E and is used in countless breads and baked goods, and is an important source of calories for over 1 billion people in the world. • Wheat can be refined into starch and wheatgerm oil, and wheat gluten (the proteins that make it sticky) is used in many products. • Wheat is also used to make beer and as animal fodder.
  6. 6. WHEAT HYBRID:- • The wheat hybrid is produced by crossing two pure lines. • The hybrid is seen to have a higher agronomic value than its parents. • The term used to describe this is hybrid vigour or heterosis. • This trait is expressed in the yield potential and yield consistency and the grain quality. • The hybrid wheat thus show heterosis, heterobeltiosis, in different environments, and therefore heighlights economic, agronomic, technological and environmental advantages. • The hybrid wheat varieties are more productive than conventional wheat due to the hybrid vigour (heterosis). • Some hybrid wheats can increase the yield by more than 15%, when compared to average of their parents, and even more in stressful conditions.
  7. 7. Heterosis over environment:- • When we cross two pure lines, we get F1 Hybrid. • In hybrids we study heterosis. • Utilization of heterosis through hybrid wheat is more attractive than conventional plant breeding methods, which obtain lower yield gain. • NOW; The study of heterosis over environment has a direct bearing on the breeding methodology to be employed for varietal improvement. • Studies of heterosis also provide useful information about combining ability of the parents and their usefulness in breeding programs. • Estimation of heterosis over the better parent (heterobeltiosis) may be useful in identifying true heterotic cross combinations. • Wheat breeders dealing with various aspects of hybrid wheat found that the standard heterosis for grain yield, on a large plot basis, ranged from 6% (BORGHI et al. 1986) to as high as 41% (ZEHR et al. 1997).
  8. 8. THE EFFECT OF HETEROSIS APPARENT IN BREAD WHEAT:- • Grain productivity higher than the parental lines. • Outstanding tillering ability. • A more developed root system that penetrates more extensively into soil compared with self-pollinating varieties. • Greater tolerance to stress (cold, excess water, drought), thereby contributing to more regular yields from one year to next. • The combination of parental genes and plant’s growth habitat make hybrid wheats behave in a very interusting fashion, faced with certain diseases.
  9. 9. ? What I Want To Say…….
  10. 10. • The present literature revealed that a satisfactory bread making properties combined with high yields can be obtained with at least first generation of hybrids. • Parental lines having superior quality parameters when combined with genetically diverse high yielding superior ideotype may result in hybrid combinations which may be superior in economic yield or quality over the best check.
  11. 11. INNOVATIVE APPROACH:- • Enough experience has been gained to start this project. • The project will be used to invite the B.Sc students to visit, and get the basic information. • The project will be used to train M.Sc students. • The project will be used as a part of the Ph.D dissertation for training a Ph.D scholar.
  12. 12. SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES:- • To get significant positive heterobeltiosis for grain yield per plant in different environment/seasons. • To Increase thousand grain weight. • To improve tolerance to disease. • To determine high quality protein varieties. • To Stabilize technological baking quality.
  13. 13. 1ST YEAR:- • Selection of parents. • Crosses will be made in all possible combinations in a randomized block design with three replications under early (E1- 1st November), normal (E2- 20th November) and late (E3- 10th December) sown conditions/ environments. • 40-70% of the hybrids retained by crossing will be assessed to see the mid parent heterosis, or heterobeltiosis (best parent heterosis) in the above given three environmental conditions
  14. 14. 2ND YEAR:- • The varieties retained will undergo further trials in the second years with wider systems in the large wheat-producing areas throughout KPK. • During this time, every hybrid will be scored regularly in order to characterize its health profile. • Bread making trials will be also carried out to identify clearly the technological quality offered by each variety. •
  15. 15. 3RD YEAR:- • The hybrids and their parents will undergo official trials. The high yielding hybrids will be listed officially and will become marketable. • Statistical analysis of the data, completion of results, drawing of conclusions and recommendations and suggestion for further research will be done. • Writing of final report.
  16. 16. SOCIO-ECONOMIC BENEFITS:- • In our developing society most of the people are not capable to afford the high rates, so the hybrids produced will be of low rates and will also provide balanced diet, sufficiently rich in protein. • It will be an initiative step to make our country self sufficient in wheat production.
  18. 18. • Scientific personnel required for the project: One Research Officer Full Time • Existing institutional facilities: Offices and library equipped with recent books and journals. • Scheme has been submitted to some other aid giving agency: No
  19. 19. TOTAL BUDGET Year Recurring Non-recurring Total 1st Year 596000 - 596000 2nd Year 596000 - 596000 3rd Year 596000 - 596000 Grand Total 1788000 - 1788000 1788000/- RS
  20. 20. Post & Pay Scale No. of Posts 1st year 2nd year 3rd year Total Research Officer @ Rs 20,000/Month Field Assistant @ Rs. 5000/M Typist/Accountant@ Rs. 5000/m (I)Honoraria Principal Investigator Co- Principal Investigator (Ii)Allowance Professional/Technical Personnel Other Personnel (Ii)Travel Within Province (For Project Involving Field Work Only) 1 1 1 1 1 2,40,000 60,000 60,000 80,000 40,000 50,000 2,40,000 60,000 60,000 80,000 40,000 50,000 2,00,000 60,000 60,000 80,000 40,000 50,000 7,20,000 1,80,000 1,80,000 2,40,000 1,20,000 1,50,000
  21. 21. S. No. Item 1st 2nd 3rd Total 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Permanent Equipment Consumable Store (Fertilizer, insecticides bags, tags, etc.) Glass-ware Stationery Literature Daily paid labor 10,000 10,000 10,000 6000 30,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 6000 30,000 10,000 10,000 10,000 6000 30,000 30,000 30,000 30,000 18000 90000 Total 66000 66000 66000 198000 Expenditure on Equipment & Supplies
  22. 22. • LITERATURE CITED:- • aestivum-bread-wheat • • file:///C:/Users/HOME/Desktop/PBG%20stuff/The%20hybrid%20whe at%20website.htm • Borghi B., Corbellini M., Cattaneo M. M. et al., (1986). Modification of the sink/source relationships in bread wheat and its influence on grain yield and grain protein. J. Agron. Crop Sci. 157: 245–254. • Borghi B., Perenzin M. and Nash R. J., (1988). Agronomic and qualitative characteristics of ten bread wheat hybrids produced a chemical hybridizing agent. Euphytica. 39: 185–194 • Darrell G. W. and Charles L. L., (1970). Hybrid vigour in hard red spring wheat crosses. Crop Sci. 10: 220–223.