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This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This Web site reflects the views only of the autho...
This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This Web site reflects the views only of the autho...
This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This Web site reflects the views only of the autho...
This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This Web site reflects the views only of the autho...
This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This Web site reflects the views only of the autho...
This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This Web site reflects the views only of the autho...
This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This Web site reflects the views only of the autho...
This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This Web site reflects the views only of the autho...
This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This Web site reflects the views only of the autho...
This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This Web site reflects the views only of the autho...
This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This Web site reflects the views only of the autho...
This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This Web site reflects the views only of the autho...
This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This Web site reflects the views only of the autho...
This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This Web site reflects the views only of the autho...
This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This Web site reflects the views only of the autho...
This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This Web site reflects the views only of the autho...
This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This Web site reflects the views only of the autho...
This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This Web site reflects the views only of the autho...
This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This Web site reflects the views only of the autho...
This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This Web site reflects the views only of the autho...
This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This Web site reflects the views only of the autho...
This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This Web site reflects the views only of the autho...
This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This Web site reflects the views only of the autho...
This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This Web site reflects the views only of the autho...
This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This Web site reflects the views only of the autho...
This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This Web site reflects the views only of the autho...
This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This Web site reflects the views only of the autho...
This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This Web site reflects the views only of the autho...
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Migration Geographies –  some themes in recent academic Geography research - part 2 Slide 1 Migration Geographies –  some themes in recent academic Geography research - part 2 Slide 2 Migration Geographies –  some themes in recent academic Geography research - part 2 Slide 3 Migration Geographies –  some themes in recent academic Geography research - part 2 Slide 4 Migration Geographies –  some themes in recent academic Geography research - part 2 Slide 5 Migration Geographies –  some themes in recent academic Geography research - part 2 Slide 6 Migration Geographies –  some themes in recent academic Geography research - part 2 Slide 7 Migration Geographies –  some themes in recent academic Geography research - part 2 Slide 8 Migration Geographies –  some themes in recent academic Geography research - part 2 Slide 9 Migration Geographies –  some themes in recent academic Geography research - part 2 Slide 10 Migration Geographies –  some themes in recent academic Geography research - part 2 Slide 11 Migration Geographies –  some themes in recent academic Geography research - part 2 Slide 12 Migration Geographies –  some themes in recent academic Geography research - part 2 Slide 13 Migration Geographies –  some themes in recent academic Geography research - part 2 Slide 14 Migration Geographies –  some themes in recent academic Geography research - part 2 Slide 15 Migration Geographies –  some themes in recent academic Geography research - part 2 Slide 16 Migration Geographies –  some themes in recent academic Geography research - part 2 Slide 17 Migration Geographies –  some themes in recent academic Geography research - part 2 Slide 18 Migration Geographies –  some themes in recent academic Geography research - part 2 Slide 19 Migration Geographies –  some themes in recent academic Geography research - part 2 Slide 20 Migration Geographies –  some themes in recent academic Geography research - part 2 Slide 21 Migration Geographies –  some themes in recent academic Geography research - part 2 Slide 22 Migration Geographies –  some themes in recent academic Geography research - part 2 Slide 23 Migration Geographies –  some themes in recent academic Geography research - part 2 Slide 24 Migration Geographies –  some themes in recent academic Geography research - part 2 Slide 25 Migration Geographies –  some themes in recent academic Geography research - part 2 Slide 26 Migration Geographies –  some themes in recent academic Geography research - part 2 Slide 27 Migration Geographies –  some themes in recent academic Geography research - part 2 Slide 28
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Migration Geographies – some themes in recent academic Geography research - part 2

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A presentation from the GeoCapabilities 3 project from Dr. Ben Page (UCL Geography Department).. The is the second presentation which looks at research and studies of migration relevant to teaching about the topic in schools.

It deals with:
- How should migration be taught in school geography today?
- What are the current ideas (and recent shifts) in geographies of migration in the university discipline?
- How could / should these ideas be incorporated into school geography?

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Migration Geographies – some themes in recent academic Geography research - part 2

  1. 1. This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This Web site reflects the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. http://www.geocapabilities.org GeoCapabilities 3 GeoCapabilities Migration Geographies – some themes in recent academic Geography research - 2 With thanks to Dr Ben Page UCL Geography Department, June 2021
  2. 2. This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This Web site reflects the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. http://www.geocapabilities.org GeoCapabilities 3 6. Challenging popular stereotypes on (African) migration
  3. 3. This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This Web site reflects the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. http://www.geocapabilities.org GeoCapabilities 3 On a massive scale, and increasing Driven by poverty and conflict Mainly directed towards Europe Mainly irregular A threat to European security ‘In recent years, irregular migration from Africa to Europe has received extensive attention. Sensationalist media reportage and popular discourses give rise to an image of an ‘exodus’ of desperate Africans fleeing poverty at home in search of the European ‘El Dorado’. Source: Tim Luddemann Millions of Africans are believed to be waiting to cross to Europe at the first opportunity.’ (Flahaux & de Haas 2016)
  4. 4. This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This Web site reflects the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. http://www.geocapabilities.org GeoCapabilities 3 The overall share of Africans living abroad (i.e. outside of their country of birth) is not increasing Migration within and beyond Africa: trends and patterns Source: UN Population Division, in JRC Science Hub 2018
  5. 5. This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This Web site reflects the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. http://www.geocapabilities.org GeoCapabilities 3 Most migration occurs within the African continent (Schoumaker et al. 2015) – 53% of the estimated 36.3 million African migrants lived in other African countries in 2017 – But Between 1960 and 2010, the share of Sub-Saharan migrants residing outside Africa rose from 3% to 34% – Around a quarter of Africans living abroad in 2017 (8.9 million) were born in Western Africa/ECOWAS countries Main source for figures: (JRC Science Hub 2018) Migration within and beyond Africa: trends and patterns
  6. 6. This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This Web site reflects the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. http://www.geocapabilities.org GeoCapabilities 3 Diversification of destinations – not only Europe but also North & Latin America, Gulf, Asia (Bakewell & de Haas 2007) – Asia had an estimated 4.4 million African migrants in 2017 – the majority being temporary workers from North and East Africa, living in Gulf States and Jordan with limited rights – 2.6 million people born in Africa lived in the US and Canada in 2017 Main source for figures: (JRC Science Hub 2018) Migration within and beyond Africa: trends and patterns
  7. 7. This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This Web site reflects the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. http://www.geocapabilities.org GeoCapabilities 3 Africa’s migrants and diasporas Source: UN Population Division, in JRC Science Hub 2018
  8. 8. This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This Web site reflects the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. http://www.geocapabilities.org GeoCapabilities 3 Africa hosted 21.7 million migrants and refugees in 2017 – incl. 2.3 million immigrants from Asia (Middle East, China) and Europe 5.3 million registered international refugees in 2016 In West Africa, the largest immigrant community comes from Burkina Faso (1.3 million in Ivory Coast alone) Migration towards and within Africa Source: UN Population Division, in JRC Science Hub 2018
  9. 9. This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This Web site reflects the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. http://www.geocapabilities.org GeoCapabilities 3 South Africa has seen a considerable rise in immigration, becoming an attractive alternative to overseas destinations. In 2010, the country was home to 1.9 million migrants; 2.9 million by 2017, making it Africa’s most important receiving country Migration towards and within Africa Source: UN Population Division, in JRC Science Hub 2018
  10. 10. This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This Web site reflects the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. http://www.geocapabilities.org GeoCapabilities 3 Family formation and reunion are the main legal avenues for migration to Europe – not work or education. This is the consequence of increasingly restrictive EU immigration policies. While permits awarded for family reunion in the EU have remained stable over 2008- 2016, first residence permits awarded for work decreased by almost 70% (from 83,000 in 2008 to 26,000 in 2016). Africa-Europe migration: regular vs. irregular Source: JRC Science Hub 2018
  11. 11. This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This Web site reflects the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. http://www.geocapabilities.org GeoCapabilities 3 Sharp increase in irregular arrivals and asylum applications as a result of restrictive EU migrant policies. Most rejected asylum seekers stayed in the EU afterwards Africa-Europe migration: regular vs. irregular Source: JRC Science Hub 2018
  12. 12. This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This Web site reflects the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. http://www.geocapabilities.org GeoCapabilities 3 People move for a wide range of reasons, not exclusively economic – Need to rethink concepts like ‘labour migration’ – People also move for professional development, study, family, religious obligations, a desire to see the world… (Diouf 2000, Bakewell & Jόnsson 2011, Schoumaker et al. 2015) Migration as ‘rite of passage’ into social adulthood, and as means to accumulate enough resources to marry and establish a home – E.g. ‘brideprice’ inflation in the Senegambian region throughout 20th century, first with translocal wage migration (Lambert 2002), later transnational migration – Migration as a form of ‘initiation’ – overcoming obstacles to make & prove one’s character (common in Senegambia, especially for men) Is African migration distinctive?
  13. 13. This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This Web site reflects the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. http://www.geocapabilities.org GeoCapabilities 3 Migration and social reproduction – e.g. individuals marrying abroad to support relatives back home – Malagasy women and French men (Cole 2010, 2014); Mozambican women and European men (Groes-Green 2014); Senegalese men and European women (Neveu Kringelbach 2016) Femininization of migration – a recent trend? Is African migration distinctive?
  14. 14. This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This Web site reflects the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. http://www.geocapabilities.org GeoCapabilities 3 7. Distinguishing between migrants, refugees, IDPs and asylum seekers
  15. 15. This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This Web site reflects the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. http://www.geocapabilities.org GeoCapabilities 3 Source: IOM GMDAC 2018
  16. 16. This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This Web site reflects the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. http://www.geocapabilities.org GeoCapabilities 3 8. Will the Global Compact for Migration make a difference? First international pact on movements of people reached between 164 nations, despite US-led objections… Source: https://commons.wikimedia .org/wiki/File:La_alcaldesa _propone_oficinas_de_cont acto_entre_las_ciudades_q ue_generan_migraci%C3% B3n_y_las_ciudades_de_d estino_01.jpg
  17. 17. This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This Web site reflects the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. http://www.geocapabilities.org GeoCapabilities 3 9. Critical thinking about ‘representations’ of migration
  18. 18. This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This Web site reflects the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. http://www.geocapabilities.org GeoCapabilities 3 UK axes support for Mediterranean migrant rescue operation Refugees and human rights organisations react with anger as minister says saving people encourages others to risk voyage The Guardian, 27 October 2014 Caption: The official Italian operation, Mare Nostrum, which is due to end this week, has contributed over the past 12 months to the rescue of an estimated 150,000 people. Photograph: Giuseppe Lami/EPA
  19. 19. This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This Web site reflects the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. http://www.geocapabilities.org GeoCapabilities 3 Refugees give thanks after ‘ghost ship’ Ezadeen rescued in Mediterranean Out of the hold of the Ezadeen, 360 Syrians emerged, towed to shore after smugglers abandoned the controls The Observer, 3 January 2015 Caption: Syrian refugees from the Ezadeen in Corigliano Calabro harbour on Saturday. The rescue operation marks a new phase in people smuggling. Photograph: Antonino Condorelli /Reuters
  20. 20. This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This Web site reflects the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. http://www.geocapabilities.org GeoCapabilities 3 Refugee boat carrying 600 capsizes off Egypt coast, killing at least 29 Local officials said 150 of the 600 had been rescued, describing it as one of the largest operations off Egypt’s coast in the Mediterranean refugee crisis so far. Of the dead, 18 were men, 10 were women, and one was a child. The Independent, 21 September 2016 Caption: Officials say the boat likely sank because it was carrying more people than its limit Photo: Alva White/MSF
  21. 21. This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This Web site reflects the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. http://www.geocapabilities.org GeoCapabilities 3 Non-linear relationship between migration and development ‘The idea that much African migration is essentially driven by poverty ignores evidence that demographic and economic transitions and ‘development’ in poor countries are generally associated to increasing rather than decreasing levels of mobility and migration and that the relation between development and migration is fundamentally non-linear.’ (Flahaux & De Haas 2016) 10. Conceptualizing migration & development
  22. 22. This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This Web site reflects the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. http://www.geocapabilities.org GeoCapabilities 3 ‘Migration transition’ theory (Zelinsky 1971, Czaika & De Haas 2012) vs. classical ‘push-pull’ theories? – Push-pull models assume that people react in predictable ways to poverty, conflict, environmental degradation or population pressure – Proponents of ‘migration transition’ theory conceptualize mobility as a combined function of capabilities AND aspirations to move As countries become wealthier, initially migration increases (increased aspirations, more resources for migration projects) 10. Conceptualizing migration & development
  23. 23. This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This Web site reflects the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. http://www.geocapabilities.org GeoCapabilities 3 Remittances are good for the individuals who receive them. Money sent as remittances are spent in five basic ways by the recipients: Savings and Investments 10% Long term household goods (house-building) Health and Education Home comforts (appliances, furniture, transport, communications) Household consumption 70% of total remittances (food, rent, services, medicines) Source: UNDP (2005). International Financial Flows and Worker Remittances: Best Practices UNCTAD (2010). Maximizing the development impact of remittances
  24. 24. This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This Web site reflects the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. http://www.geocapabilities.org GeoCapabilities 3 “We are taking immediate steps to protect our borders and tackle people smuggling. But the only way to resolve this crisis in the long term is to address the root causes. We need to create jobs across Africa and provide its growing population with a route out of poverty where they are.” [my emphasis] Priti Patel, former International Development Secretary, July 2017 Preventing migration as a justification for development spending
  25. 25. This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This Web site reflects the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. http://www.geocapabilities.org GeoCapabilities 3 • It is rarely the poorest who migrate because of high costs / risks • Development raises aspirations to be mobile. • Development increases education and skills, and therefore the potential for mobility. • Increasing GDP/capita is often accompanied by increasing emigration, at least until ‘middle income’ status is reached ($7,500 GDP/capita, PPP 2005). • Development policies and development assistance are, therefore, unlikely to prevent migration. Does more ‘development’ mean less ‘migration’?
  26. 26. This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This Web site reflects the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. http://www.geocapabilities.org GeoCapabilities 3 Border control within Africa becoming a conditionality for aid EU outsourcing border control through Frontex and other programmes (incl. bilateral programmes such as Senegal-Spain cooperation) See documentary film ‘The Gatekeepers of Europe - Outsourcing border controls to Africa’: http://www.dw.com/en/the-gatekeepers-of-europe-outsourcing-border-controls-to-africa/av- 45599271 Border control as a bargaining chip in Europe-Africa relations
  27. 27. This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This Web site reflects the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. http://www.geocapabilities.org GeoCapabilities 3 Migration and security Migration and mental health Migration and public health Migration and masculinity Migration and technology Migration and creativity Other things academics are interested in … at the moment
  28. 28. This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This Web site reflects the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. http://www.geocapabilities.org GeoCapabilities 3 Additional Useful References Anderson, B. and Blinder, S. (2014) Who Counts as a Migrant: Definitions and their Consequences. Migration Observatory Policy Briefing, 14 August 2014. Available at http://www.migrationobservatory.ox.ac.uk/briefings/who-counts- migrant-definitions-and-their-consequences. Flahaux and De Haas African migration: trends, patterns, drivers, Comparative Migration Studies (2016) 4:1 Massey, D. et al (2005) Worlds in Motion: Understanding International Migration at the End of the Millennium. Oxford: Oxford University Press. JRC Science Hub (European Commission) 2018. ‘Many more to come? Migration from and within Africa’ https://ec.europa.eu/jrc/en/publication/eur-scientific-and-technical-research- reports/many-more-come-migration-and-within-africa

A presentation from the GeoCapabilities 3 project from Dr. Ben Page (UCL Geography Department).. The is the second presentation which looks at research and studies of migration relevant to teaching about the topic in schools. It deals with: - How should migration be taught in school geography today? - What are the current ideas (and recent shifts) in geographies of migration in the university discipline? - How could / should these ideas be incorporated into school geography?

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