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This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This Web site reflects the views only of the authors,
and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.
http://www.geocapabilities.org
GeoCapabilities 3
GeoCapabilities
Migration Geographies – some
themes in recent academic
Geography research - 2
With thanks to Dr Ben Page
UCL Geography Department, June 2021
This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This Web site reflects the views only of the authors,
and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.
http://www.geocapabilities.org
GeoCapabilities 3
6. Challenging popular
stereotypes on (African)
migration
This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This Web site reflects the views only of the authors,
and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.
http://www.geocapabilities.org
GeoCapabilities 3
On a massive scale, and increasing
Driven by poverty and conflict
Mainly directed towards Europe
Mainly irregular
A threat to European security
‘In recent years, irregular migration
from Africa to Europe has received
extensive attention. Sensationalist
media reportage and popular
discourses give rise to an image of
an ‘exodus’ of desperate Africans
fleeing poverty at home in search of
the European ‘El Dorado’.
Source: Tim Luddemann
Millions of Africans are
believed to be waiting to
cross to Europe at the first
opportunity.’
(Flahaux & de Haas 2016)
This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This Web site reflects the views only of the authors,
and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.
http://www.geocapabilities.org
GeoCapabilities 3
The overall share
of Africans living
abroad (i.e.
outside of their
country of birth)
is not increasing
Migration within and beyond Africa:
trends and patterns
Source: UN
Population
Division, in JRC
Science Hub 2018
This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This Web site reflects the views only of the authors,
and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.
http://www.geocapabilities.org
GeoCapabilities 3
Most migration occurs within the African continent
(Schoumaker et al. 2015)
– 53% of the estimated 36.3 million African migrants lived in
other African countries in 2017
– But Between 1960 and 2010, the share of Sub-Saharan
migrants residing outside Africa rose from 3% to 34%
– Around a quarter of Africans living abroad in 2017 (8.9
million) were born in Western Africa/ECOWAS countries
Main source for figures: (JRC Science Hub 2018)
Migration within and beyond Africa:
trends and patterns
This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This Web site reflects the views only of the authors,
and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.
http://www.geocapabilities.org
GeoCapabilities 3
Diversification of destinations – not only Europe but also
North & Latin America, Gulf, Asia (Bakewell & de Haas
2007)
– Asia had an estimated 4.4 million African migrants in 2017 –
the majority being temporary workers from North and East
Africa, living in Gulf States and Jordan with limited rights
– 2.6 million people born in Africa lived in the US and Canada
in 2017
Main source for figures: (JRC Science Hub 2018)
Migration within and beyond Africa:
trends and patterns
This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This Web site reflects the views only of the authors,
and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.
http://www.geocapabilities.org
GeoCapabilities 3
Africa’s
migrants
and
diasporas
Source: UN
Population
Division, in JRC
Science Hub 2018
This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This Web site reflects the views only of the authors,
and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.
http://www.geocapabilities.org
GeoCapabilities 3
Africa hosted 21.7 million
migrants and refugees in 2017
– incl. 2.3 million immigrants
from Asia (Middle East, China)
and Europe
5.3 million registered
international refugees in 2016
In West Africa, the largest
immigrant community comes
from Burkina Faso
(1.3 million in Ivory Coast
alone)
Migration towards and within
Africa
Source: UN Population
Division, in JRC Science Hub
2018
This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This Web site reflects the views only of the authors,
and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.
http://www.geocapabilities.org
GeoCapabilities 3
South Africa has seen a
considerable rise in
immigration, becoming an
attractive alternative to
overseas destinations.
In 2010, the country was
home to 1.9 million
migrants; 2.9 million by
2017, making it Africa’s
most important receiving
country
Migration towards and within
Africa
Source: UN Population
Division, in JRC Science
Hub 2018
This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This Web site reflects the views only of the authors,
and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.
http://www.geocapabilities.org
GeoCapabilities 3
Family formation and reunion
are the main legal avenues for
migration to Europe – not work
or education.
This is the consequence of
increasingly restrictive EU
immigration policies.
While permits awarded for
family reunion in the EU have
remained stable over 2008-
2016, first residence permits
awarded for work decreased by
almost 70% (from 83,000 in
2008 to 26,000 in 2016).
Africa-Europe migration: regular
vs. irregular
Source: JRC Science Hub
2018
This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This Web site reflects the views only of the authors,
and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.
http://www.geocapabilities.org
GeoCapabilities 3
Sharp increase in irregular
arrivals and asylum
applications as a result of
restrictive EU migrant
policies.
Most rejected asylum
seekers stayed in the EU
afterwards
Africa-Europe migration: regular
vs. irregular
Source: JRC Science Hub
2018
This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This Web site reflects the views only of the authors,
and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.
http://www.geocapabilities.org
GeoCapabilities 3
People move for a wide range of reasons, not exclusively economic
– Need to rethink concepts like ‘labour migration’
– People also move for professional development, study, family, religious
obligations, a desire to see the world… (Diouf 2000, Bakewell & Jόnsson
2011, Schoumaker et al. 2015)
Migration as ‘rite of passage’ into social adulthood, and as means
to accumulate enough resources to marry and establish a home
– E.g. ‘brideprice’ inflation in the Senegambian region throughout 20th century,
first with translocal wage migration (Lambert 2002), later transnational migration
– Migration as a form of ‘initiation’ – overcoming obstacles to make & prove one’s
character (common in Senegambia, especially for men)
Is African migration distinctive?
This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This Web site reflects the views only of the authors,
and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.
http://www.geocapabilities.org
GeoCapabilities 3
Migration and social reproduction – e.g. individuals
marrying abroad to support relatives back home
– Malagasy women and French men (Cole 2010, 2014); Mozambican
women and European men (Groes-Green 2014); Senegalese men and
European women (Neveu Kringelbach 2016)
Femininization of migration – a recent trend?
Is African migration distinctive?
This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This Web site reflects the views only of the authors,
and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.
http://www.geocapabilities.org
GeoCapabilities 3
7. Distinguishing between
migrants, refugees, IDPs and
asylum seekers
This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This Web site reflects the views only of the authors,
and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.
http://www.geocapabilities.org
GeoCapabilities 3
Source: IOM
GMDAC 2018
This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This Web site reflects the views only of the authors,
and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.
http://www.geocapabilities.org
GeoCapabilities 3
8. Will the Global Compact for
Migration make a difference?
First
international
pact on
movements of
people reached
between 164
nations, despite
US-led
objections…
Source:
https://commons.wikimedia
.org/wiki/File:La_alcaldesa
_propone_oficinas_de_cont
acto_entre_las_ciudades_q
ue_generan_migraci%C3%
B3n_y_las_ciudades_de_d
estino_01.jpg
This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This Web site reflects the views only of the authors,
and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.
http://www.geocapabilities.org
GeoCapabilities 3
9. Critical thinking about
‘representations’ of
migration
This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This Web site reflects the views only of the authors,
and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.
http://www.geocapabilities.org
GeoCapabilities 3
UK axes support for Mediterranean migrant rescue operation
Refugees and human rights organisations react with anger as
minister says saving people encourages others to risk voyage
The Guardian, 27 October 2014
Caption: The official Italian operation, Mare Nostrum, which is due to end this week,
has contributed over the past 12 months to the rescue of an estimated 150,000
people. Photograph: Giuseppe Lami/EPA
This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This Web site reflects the views only of the authors,
and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.
http://www.geocapabilities.org
GeoCapabilities 3
Refugees give thanks after ‘ghost ship’ Ezadeen rescued in Mediterranean
Out of the hold of the Ezadeen, 360 Syrians emerged, towed to shore after
smugglers abandoned the controls
The Observer, 3 January 2015
Caption: Syrian refugees from the Ezadeen in Corigliano Calabro harbour on Saturday.
The rescue operation marks a new phase in people smuggling. Photograph: Antonino
Condorelli /Reuters
This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This Web site reflects the views only of the authors,
and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.
http://www.geocapabilities.org
GeoCapabilities 3
Refugee boat carrying 600 capsizes off Egypt coast, killing at least 29
Local officials said 150 of the 600 had been rescued, describing it as one of the
largest operations off Egypt’s coast in the Mediterranean refugee crisis so far.
Of the dead, 18 were men, 10 were women, and one was a child.
The Independent, 21 September 2016
Caption: Officials say the boat likely sank because it was carrying more people than its
limit Photo: Alva White/MSF
This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This Web site reflects the views only of the authors,
and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.
http://www.geocapabilities.org
GeoCapabilities 3
Non-linear relationship between migration and
development
‘The idea that much African migration is essentially driven by
poverty ignores evidence that demographic and economic
transitions and ‘development’ in poor countries are generally
associated to increasing rather than decreasing levels of
mobility and migration and that the relation between
development and migration is fundamentally non-linear.’
(Flahaux & De Haas 2016)
10. Conceptualizing migration
& development
This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This Web site reflects the views only of the authors,
and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.
http://www.geocapabilities.org
GeoCapabilities 3
‘Migration transition’ theory (Zelinsky 1971, Czaika & De
Haas 2012) vs. classical ‘push-pull’ theories?
– Push-pull models assume that people react in predictable
ways to poverty, conflict, environmental degradation or
population pressure
– Proponents of ‘migration transition’ theory conceptualize
mobility as a combined function of capabilities AND
aspirations to move
As countries become wealthier, initially migration increases
(increased aspirations, more resources for migration projects)
10. Conceptualizing migration
& development
This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This Web site reflects the views only of the authors,
and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.
http://www.geocapabilities.org
GeoCapabilities 3
Remittances are good
for the individuals who
receive them. Money
sent as remittances
are spent in five basic
ways by the recipients:
Savings and
Investments
10%
Long term
household goods
(house-building)
Health and Education
Home comforts
(appliances, furniture, transport,
communications)
Household consumption
70% of total remittances
(food, rent, services, medicines)
Source: UNDP (2005).
International Financial Flows
and Worker Remittances: Best
Practices
UNCTAD (2010). Maximizing
the development impact of
remittances
This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This Web site reflects the views only of the authors,
and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.
http://www.geocapabilities.org
GeoCapabilities 3
“We are taking immediate steps to protect our
borders and tackle people smuggling. But the only
way to resolve this crisis in the long term is to
address the root causes. We need to create jobs
across Africa and provide its growing population
with a route out of poverty where they are.” [my
emphasis]
Priti Patel, former International Development Secretary, July 2017
Preventing migration as a justification
for development spending
This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This Web site reflects the views only of the authors,
and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.
http://www.geocapabilities.org
GeoCapabilities 3
• It is rarely the poorest who migrate because of high costs / risks
• Development raises aspirations to be mobile.
• Development increases education and skills, and therefore the
potential for mobility.
• Increasing GDP/capita is often accompanied by increasing
emigration, at least until ‘middle income’ status is reached
($7,500 GDP/capita, PPP 2005).
• Development policies and development assistance are,
therefore, unlikely to prevent migration.
Does more ‘development’
mean less ‘migration’?
This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This Web site reflects the views only of the authors,
and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.
http://www.geocapabilities.org
GeoCapabilities 3
Border control within Africa becoming a conditionality for aid
EU outsourcing border control through Frontex and other
programmes (incl. bilateral programmes such as Senegal-Spain
cooperation)
See documentary film ‘The Gatekeepers of Europe - Outsourcing border controls to Africa’:
http://www.dw.com/en/the-gatekeepers-of-europe-outsourcing-border-controls-to-africa/av-
45599271
Border control as a bargaining chip
in Europe-Africa relations
This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This Web site reflects the views only of the authors,
and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.
http://www.geocapabilities.org
GeoCapabilities 3
Migration and security
Migration and mental health
Migration and public health
Migration and masculinity
Migration and technology
Migration and creativity
Other things academics are
interested in … at the moment
This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This Web site reflects the views only of the authors,
and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.
http://www.geocapabilities.org
GeoCapabilities 3
Additional Useful References
Anderson, B. and Blinder, S. (2014) Who Counts as a Migrant: Definitions and
their Consequences. Migration Observatory Policy Briefing, 14 August 2014.
Available at http://www.migrationobservatory.ox.ac.uk/briefings/who-counts-
migrant-definitions-and-their-consequences.
Flahaux and De Haas African migration: trends, patterns, drivers, Comparative
Migration Studies (2016) 4:1
Massey, D. et al (2005) Worlds in Motion: Understanding International
Migration at the End of the Millennium. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
JRC Science Hub (European Commission) 2018. ‘Many more to come? Migration
from and within Africa’
https://ec.europa.eu/jrc/en/publication/eur-scientific-and-technical-research-
reports/many-more-come-migration-and-within-africa

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Migration Geographies – some themes in recent academic Geography research - part 2

  • 1. This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This Web site reflects the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. http://www.geocapabilities.org GeoCapabilities 3 GeoCapabilities Migration Geographies – some themes in recent academic Geography research - 2 With thanks to Dr Ben Page UCL Geography Department, June 2021
  • 2. This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This Web site reflects the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. http://www.geocapabilities.org GeoCapabilities 3 6. Challenging popular stereotypes on (African) migration
  • 3. This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This Web site reflects the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. http://www.geocapabilities.org GeoCapabilities 3 On a massive scale, and increasing Driven by poverty and conflict Mainly directed towards Europe Mainly irregular A threat to European security ‘In recent years, irregular migration from Africa to Europe has received extensive attention. Sensationalist media reportage and popular discourses give rise to an image of an ‘exodus’ of desperate Africans fleeing poverty at home in search of the European ‘El Dorado’. Source: Tim Luddemann Millions of Africans are believed to be waiting to cross to Europe at the first opportunity.’ (Flahaux & de Haas 2016)
  • 4. This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This Web site reflects the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. http://www.geocapabilities.org GeoCapabilities 3 The overall share of Africans living abroad (i.e. outside of their country of birth) is not increasing Migration within and beyond Africa: trends and patterns Source: UN Population Division, in JRC Science Hub 2018
  • 5. This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This Web site reflects the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. http://www.geocapabilities.org GeoCapabilities 3 Most migration occurs within the African continent (Schoumaker et al. 2015) – 53% of the estimated 36.3 million African migrants lived in other African countries in 2017 – But Between 1960 and 2010, the share of Sub-Saharan migrants residing outside Africa rose from 3% to 34% – Around a quarter of Africans living abroad in 2017 (8.9 million) were born in Western Africa/ECOWAS countries Main source for figures: (JRC Science Hub 2018) Migration within and beyond Africa: trends and patterns
  • 6. This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This Web site reflects the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. http://www.geocapabilities.org GeoCapabilities 3 Diversification of destinations – not only Europe but also North & Latin America, Gulf, Asia (Bakewell & de Haas 2007) – Asia had an estimated 4.4 million African migrants in 2017 – the majority being temporary workers from North and East Africa, living in Gulf States and Jordan with limited rights – 2.6 million people born in Africa lived in the US and Canada in 2017 Main source for figures: (JRC Science Hub 2018) Migration within and beyond Africa: trends and patterns
  • 7. This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This Web site reflects the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. http://www.geocapabilities.org GeoCapabilities 3 Africa’s migrants and diasporas Source: UN Population Division, in JRC Science Hub 2018
  • 8. This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This Web site reflects the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. http://www.geocapabilities.org GeoCapabilities 3 Africa hosted 21.7 million migrants and refugees in 2017 – incl. 2.3 million immigrants from Asia (Middle East, China) and Europe 5.3 million registered international refugees in 2016 In West Africa, the largest immigrant community comes from Burkina Faso (1.3 million in Ivory Coast alone) Migration towards and within Africa Source: UN Population Division, in JRC Science Hub 2018
  • 9. This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This Web site reflects the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. http://www.geocapabilities.org GeoCapabilities 3 South Africa has seen a considerable rise in immigration, becoming an attractive alternative to overseas destinations. In 2010, the country was home to 1.9 million migrants; 2.9 million by 2017, making it Africa’s most important receiving country Migration towards and within Africa Source: UN Population Division, in JRC Science Hub 2018
  • 10. This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This Web site reflects the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. http://www.geocapabilities.org GeoCapabilities 3 Family formation and reunion are the main legal avenues for migration to Europe – not work or education. This is the consequence of increasingly restrictive EU immigration policies. While permits awarded for family reunion in the EU have remained stable over 2008- 2016, first residence permits awarded for work decreased by almost 70% (from 83,000 in 2008 to 26,000 in 2016). Africa-Europe migration: regular vs. irregular Source: JRC Science Hub 2018
  • 11. This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This Web site reflects the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. http://www.geocapabilities.org GeoCapabilities 3 Sharp increase in irregular arrivals and asylum applications as a result of restrictive EU migrant policies. Most rejected asylum seekers stayed in the EU afterwards Africa-Europe migration: regular vs. irregular Source: JRC Science Hub 2018
  • 12. This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This Web site reflects the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. http://www.geocapabilities.org GeoCapabilities 3 People move for a wide range of reasons, not exclusively economic – Need to rethink concepts like ‘labour migration’ – People also move for professional development, study, family, religious obligations, a desire to see the world… (Diouf 2000, Bakewell & Jόnsson 2011, Schoumaker et al. 2015) Migration as ‘rite of passage’ into social adulthood, and as means to accumulate enough resources to marry and establish a home – E.g. ‘brideprice’ inflation in the Senegambian region throughout 20th century, first with translocal wage migration (Lambert 2002), later transnational migration – Migration as a form of ‘initiation’ – overcoming obstacles to make & prove one’s character (common in Senegambia, especially for men) Is African migration distinctive?
  • 13. This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This Web site reflects the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. http://www.geocapabilities.org GeoCapabilities 3 Migration and social reproduction – e.g. individuals marrying abroad to support relatives back home – Malagasy women and French men (Cole 2010, 2014); Mozambican women and European men (Groes-Green 2014); Senegalese men and European women (Neveu Kringelbach 2016) Femininization of migration – a recent trend? Is African migration distinctive?
  • 14. This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This Web site reflects the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. http://www.geocapabilities.org GeoCapabilities 3 7. Distinguishing between migrants, refugees, IDPs and asylum seekers
  • 15. This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This Web site reflects the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. http://www.geocapabilities.org GeoCapabilities 3 Source: IOM GMDAC 2018
  • 16. This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This Web site reflects the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. http://www.geocapabilities.org GeoCapabilities 3 8. Will the Global Compact for Migration make a difference? First international pact on movements of people reached between 164 nations, despite US-led objections… Source: https://commons.wikimedia .org/wiki/File:La_alcaldesa _propone_oficinas_de_cont acto_entre_las_ciudades_q ue_generan_migraci%C3% B3n_y_las_ciudades_de_d estino_01.jpg
  • 17. This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This Web site reflects the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. http://www.geocapabilities.org GeoCapabilities 3 9. Critical thinking about ‘representations’ of migration
  • 18. This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This Web site reflects the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. http://www.geocapabilities.org GeoCapabilities 3 UK axes support for Mediterranean migrant rescue operation Refugees and human rights organisations react with anger as minister says saving people encourages others to risk voyage The Guardian, 27 October 2014 Caption: The official Italian operation, Mare Nostrum, which is due to end this week, has contributed over the past 12 months to the rescue of an estimated 150,000 people. Photograph: Giuseppe Lami/EPA
  • 19. This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This Web site reflects the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. http://www.geocapabilities.org GeoCapabilities 3 Refugees give thanks after ‘ghost ship’ Ezadeen rescued in Mediterranean Out of the hold of the Ezadeen, 360 Syrians emerged, towed to shore after smugglers abandoned the controls The Observer, 3 January 2015 Caption: Syrian refugees from the Ezadeen in Corigliano Calabro harbour on Saturday. The rescue operation marks a new phase in people smuggling. Photograph: Antonino Condorelli /Reuters
  • 20. This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This Web site reflects the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. http://www.geocapabilities.org GeoCapabilities 3 Refugee boat carrying 600 capsizes off Egypt coast, killing at least 29 Local officials said 150 of the 600 had been rescued, describing it as one of the largest operations off Egypt’s coast in the Mediterranean refugee crisis so far. Of the dead, 18 were men, 10 were women, and one was a child. The Independent, 21 September 2016 Caption: Officials say the boat likely sank because it was carrying more people than its limit Photo: Alva White/MSF
  • 21. This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This Web site reflects the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. http://www.geocapabilities.org GeoCapabilities 3 Non-linear relationship between migration and development ‘The idea that much African migration is essentially driven by poverty ignores evidence that demographic and economic transitions and ‘development’ in poor countries are generally associated to increasing rather than decreasing levels of mobility and migration and that the relation between development and migration is fundamentally non-linear.’ (Flahaux & De Haas 2016) 10. Conceptualizing migration & development
  • 22. This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This Web site reflects the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. http://www.geocapabilities.org GeoCapabilities 3 ‘Migration transition’ theory (Zelinsky 1971, Czaika & De Haas 2012) vs. classical ‘push-pull’ theories? – Push-pull models assume that people react in predictable ways to poverty, conflict, environmental degradation or population pressure – Proponents of ‘migration transition’ theory conceptualize mobility as a combined function of capabilities AND aspirations to move As countries become wealthier, initially migration increases (increased aspirations, more resources for migration projects) 10. Conceptualizing migration & development
  • 23. This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This Web site reflects the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. http://www.geocapabilities.org GeoCapabilities 3 Remittances are good for the individuals who receive them. Money sent as remittances are spent in five basic ways by the recipients: Savings and Investments 10% Long term household goods (house-building) Health and Education Home comforts (appliances, furniture, transport, communications) Household consumption 70% of total remittances (food, rent, services, medicines) Source: UNDP (2005). International Financial Flows and Worker Remittances: Best Practices UNCTAD (2010). Maximizing the development impact of remittances
  • 24. This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This Web site reflects the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. http://www.geocapabilities.org GeoCapabilities 3 “We are taking immediate steps to protect our borders and tackle people smuggling. But the only way to resolve this crisis in the long term is to address the root causes. We need to create jobs across Africa and provide its growing population with a route out of poverty where they are.” [my emphasis] Priti Patel, former International Development Secretary, July 2017 Preventing migration as a justification for development spending
  • 25. This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This Web site reflects the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. http://www.geocapabilities.org GeoCapabilities 3 • It is rarely the poorest who migrate because of high costs / risks • Development raises aspirations to be mobile. • Development increases education and skills, and therefore the potential for mobility. • Increasing GDP/capita is often accompanied by increasing emigration, at least until ‘middle income’ status is reached ($7,500 GDP/capita, PPP 2005). • Development policies and development assistance are, therefore, unlikely to prevent migration. Does more ‘development’ mean less ‘migration’?
  • 26. This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This Web site reflects the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. http://www.geocapabilities.org GeoCapabilities 3 Border control within Africa becoming a conditionality for aid EU outsourcing border control through Frontex and other programmes (incl. bilateral programmes such as Senegal-Spain cooperation) See documentary film ‘The Gatekeepers of Europe - Outsourcing border controls to Africa’: http://www.dw.com/en/the-gatekeepers-of-europe-outsourcing-border-controls-to-africa/av- 45599271 Border control as a bargaining chip in Europe-Africa relations
  • 27. This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This Web site reflects the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. http://www.geocapabilities.org GeoCapabilities 3 Migration and security Migration and mental health Migration and public health Migration and masculinity Migration and technology Migration and creativity Other things academics are interested in … at the moment
  • 28. This project has been funded with support from the European Commission. This Web site reflects the views only of the authors, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein. http://www.geocapabilities.org GeoCapabilities 3 Additional Useful References Anderson, B. and Blinder, S. (2014) Who Counts as a Migrant: Definitions and their Consequences. Migration Observatory Policy Briefing, 14 August 2014. Available at http://www.migrationobservatory.ox.ac.uk/briefings/who-counts- migrant-definitions-and-their-consequences. Flahaux and De Haas African migration: trends, patterns, drivers, Comparative Migration Studies (2016) 4:1 Massey, D. et al (2005) Worlds in Motion: Understanding International Migration at the End of the Millennium. Oxford: Oxford University Press. JRC Science Hub (European Commission) 2018. ‘Many more to come? Migration from and within Africa’ https://ec.europa.eu/jrc/en/publication/eur-scientific-and-technical-research- reports/many-more-come-migration-and-within-africa

Editor's Notes

  1. 10 mins in groups of 4-