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Section 12.1 Lecture for Honors & Prep Chemistry

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- 1. <ul><li>Balance the following chemical equations by adding coefficients in front of the compounds. </li></ul><ul><li>Example- 2 H 2 + O 2 2 H 2 O </li></ul><ul><li>1 . MgCl 2 + AgNO 3 AgCl + Mg(NO 3 ) 2 </li></ul><ul><li>2. C 3 H 8 + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O </li></ul><ul><li>3. Al + AgNO 3 Ag + Al(NO 3 ) 3 </li></ul><ul><li>4. C 12 H 22 O 11 C + H 2 O </li></ul><ul><li>An unbalanced equation is mathematically useless! </li></ul>Bellwork
- 2. <ul><li>Balance the following chemical equations by adding coefficients in front of the compounds. </li></ul><ul><li>Example- 2 H 2 + O 2 2 H 2 O </li></ul><ul><li>1 . MgCl 2 + AgNO 3 AgCl + Mg(NO 3 ) 2 </li></ul><ul><li>2. C 3 H 8 + O 2 CO 2 + H 2 O </li></ul><ul><li>3. Al + AgNO 3 Ag + Al(NO 3 ) 3 </li></ul><ul><li>4. C 12 H 22 O 11 C + H 2 O </li></ul><ul><li>An unbalanced equation is mathematically useless! </li></ul>Bellwork NEVER change subscripts
- 3. <ul><ul><ul><li>A balanced chemical equation provides the same kind of quantitative information that a recipe does. </li></ul></ul></ul>
- 4. <ul><ul><li>Mass and atoms are conserved in every chemical reaction. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mass of reactants = mass of products </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Number and type of atoms in reactants = number & type atoms in products </li></ul></ul>
- 5. <ul><ul><ul><li>A balanced chemical equation can be interpreted in terms of different quantities. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>numbers of atoms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Molecules </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Moles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mass </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>volume. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>N 2 (g) + 3H 2 (g) 2NH 3 (g) </li></ul></ul></ul>
- 6. N 2 (g) + 3H 2 (g) 2NH 3 (g) 2 N + 6 H = 2 N + 6H Atoms are conserved!!
- 7. Coefficients tell us the RATIO of molecules N 2 (g) + 3H 2 (g) 2NH 3 (g)
- 8. Coefficients tell us the RATIO of molecules one N 2 + three H 2 two NH 3 molecule molecules molecules N 2 (g) + 3H 2 (g) 2NH 3 (g)
- 9. Coefficients tell us the RATIO of moles N 2 (g) + 3H 2 (g) 2NH 3 (g)
- 10. one mole + three moles two moles N 2 H 2 NH 3 Coefficients tell us the RATIO of moles N 2 (g) + 3H 2 (g) 2NH 3 (g)
- 11. Find the molar mass of each compound & multiply by the coefficient N 2 (g) + 3H 2 (g) 2NH 3 (g)
- 12. 28g + 3 x 2g 2 x 17g N 2 (g) + 3H 2 (g) 2NH 3 (g) Find the molar mass of each compound & multiply by the coefficient
- 13. 28g + 3 x 2g 2 x 17g Why do you multiply the molar mass by three? N 2 (g) + 3H 2 (g) 2NH 3 (g) Find the molar mass of each compound & multiply by the coefficient
- 14. 28g + 3 x 2g 2 x 17g 28g + 6g 34g N 2 (g) + 3H 2 (g) 2NH 3 (g) Find the molar mass of each compound & multiply by the coefficient
- 15. 34g = 34g Mass is conserved! 28g + 3 x 2g 2 x 17g 28g + 6g 34g N 2 (g) + 3H 2 (g) 2NH 3 (g) Find the molar mass of each compound & multiply by the coefficient
- 16. N 2 (g) + 3H 2 (g) 2NH 3 (g) At STP, one mole of gas occupies 22.4 liters.
- 17. 22.4L N 2 + 3 22.4L H 2 2 22.4L NH 3 N 2 (g) + 3H 2 (g) 2NH 3 (g) At STP, one mole of gas occupies 22.4 liters.
- 18. N 2 (g) + 3H 2 (g) 2NH 3 (g) At STP, one mole of gas occupies 22.4 liters. 22.4L N 2 + 3 22.4L H 2 2 22.4L NH 3 22.4L 22.4L 22.4L 22.4L 22.4L 22.4L
- 19. N 2 (g) + 3H 2 (g) 2NH 3 (g) At STP, one mole of gas occupies 22.4 liters. 22.4L N 2 + 67.2L H 2 44.8L NH 3 22.4L N 2 + 3 22.4L H 2 2 22.4L NH 3 22.4L 22.4L 22.4L 22.4L 22.4L 22.4L
- 20. <ul><ul><ul><li>Chemists use stoichiometry and mole ratios to calculate how much reactant is needed or how much product will be formed. </li></ul></ul></ul>
- 21. <ul><ul><ul><li>The first step in stoichiometry is to get a balanced equation. </li></ul></ul></ul>
- 22. <ul><ul><ul><li>The first step in stoichiometry is to get a balanced equation. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>H 2 + O 2 H 2 O unbalanced (why?) </li></ul></ul></ul>
- 23. <ul><ul><ul><li>The first step in stoichiometry is to get a balanced equation. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>H 2 + O 2 H 2 O unbalanced (why?) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2H 2 + O 2 2H 2 O balanced </li></ul></ul></ul>
- 24. <ul><ul><ul><li>The first step in stoichiometry is to get a balanced equation. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>H 2 + O 2 H 2 O unbalanced (why?) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2H 2 + O 2 2H 2 O balanced </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>simple stoichiometry- How many moles of hydrogen gas are needed to make two moles of water? </li></ul></ul></ul>
- 25. <ul><ul><ul><li>The first step in stoichiometry is to get a balanced equation. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>H 2 + O 2 H 2 O unbalanced (why?) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2H 2 + O 2 2H 2 O balanced </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>simple stoichiometry- How many moles of hydrogen gas are needed to make two moles of water? </li></ul></ul></ul>2 moles of H 2 ( g )
- 26. <ul><ul><ul><li>2H 2 + O 2 2H 2 O </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How many moles of O 2 are needed to completely react with 4 moles of H 2 ? </li></ul></ul></ul>
- 27. <ul><ul><ul><li>2H 2 + O 2 2H 2 O </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>How many moles of O 2 are needed to completely react with 4 moles of H 2 ? </li></ul></ul></ul>2 moles of O 2 ( g )
- 28. Conceptual Problem 12.1
- 29. Conceptual Problem 12.1
- 30. Conceptual Problem 12.1
- 31. <ul><ul><li>Production of iron metal from iron ore– </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fe 2 O 3 •H 2 O( s ) + 3CO( g ) 2Fe( s ) + 3CO 2 ( g ) + H 2 O( g ) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In this equation, the volume of gas at STP that reacts and the volume of gas at STP produced will be </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3 L and 4 L. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>67.2 L and 89.6 L. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>67.2 L and 67.2 L </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3 L and 3 L </li></ul></ul></ul>
- 32. <ul><ul><li>What is conserved in the following reaction? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>H 2 ( g ) + Cl 2 ( g ) 2HCl( g ) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>only mass </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>only mass and number of moles </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>only mass, number of moles, and number of molecules </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>mass, number of moles, number of molecules, and volume </li></ul></ul></ul>

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