Curriculum Innovation


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Curriculum Innovation

  1. 1. Curriculum Innovation Eylin Carolina Diaz
  2. 2. <ul><li>Change, is the same as innovation? </li></ul>
  3. 3. Innovation and change as different processes <ul><li>Change is an ongoing, almost unconscious process that involves reworking familiar elements into new relationship; innovation , is a willed intervention, which results in the development of ideas, practices, or beliefs that are fundamentally new (miles 1964; A. Nicholls 1983). </li></ul>
  4. 4. Changes <ul><ul><li>Immanent change </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Propose solutions to a perceived problem are all part of the same social system. </li></ul><ul><li>Internal change agents and promotes ownership .Induced immanent change occurs when outsiders identify problems but insiders develop the solutions to these problems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Selective contact change </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Occurs when insiders select an innovation that comes from outside their social system. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Directed contact change </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Occurs when outside change agents introduce new ideas or practices into a social system in order to fulfill goals that they (rather than the intended users) have determined are important </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Management theory </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ The planning of work, organizing the distribution of activities and tasks to other people, direction of subordinate staff and controlling the performance of other peoples’ work” </li></ul><ul><li>(Mullins 1985 : 123, cited by white et al. 1991:24). </li></ul>
  5. 5. “ Who” The social roles played by different participants <ul><li>Teachers are key players in all language teaching innovations </li></ul><ul><li>Ministry of educations officials, various personnel working for donor agencies, school superintendents, principals, deans, heads of department </li></ul><ul><li>All participants assume social roles that define their relationship with other stakeholders. </li></ul><ul><li>Lambright and Flynn (1980) suggest that stakeholders relate to each other as adopters (or resisters), implementers, clients, suppliers. </li></ul><ul><li>In new materials… </li></ul>
  6. 6. “ Adopts”: the decision-making processes of potential adopters <ul><li>Adoption is an extended evaluative process, phases according to Rogers 1983; Rogers and shoe-maker 1971:(1)Gaining knowledge about an innovation, (2) being persuaded of its value, (3) making a preliminary decision whether to adopt or reject the innovation and implementing this decision, and (4) confirming or disconfirming their previous decisions. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>Where an innovation is implemented is a sociocultural, not a geographical, issue. </li></ul><ul><li>The hierarchy of subsystems in which innovations have to operate </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>“ When”: A quantitative definition of diffusion </li></ul><ul><li>More specifically, we can quantify diffusion as the percentage of adopters in a social system who adopt an innovation over a given period of time </li></ul>
  9. 9. “ Why” do the adoption behaviors of individuals vary? <ul><li>The different psychological profiles of adopters effect implementation (Rogers 1983) </li></ul><ul><li>Different types of adopters also have different levels of social status and influence within their peer reference groups. </li></ul><ul><li>Innovations themselves possess attributes that either promote or inhibit their adoption. </li></ul><ul><li>The relative advantages of adopting an innovation, (2) its compatibility with previous practice, (3) its complexity, (4) its trialability, and (5) its observability. </li></ul>
  10. 10. To reflect… <ul><li>Is there any relation between fear and innovation? </li></ul><ul><li>When is innovation harmful? </li></ul>
  11. 11. “ How”: Five different approaches to effecting change <ul><li>The social interaction model </li></ul><ul><li>Center periphery model </li></ul><ul><li>Research, development, and diffusion model the RD&D </li></ul><ul><li>Problem solving model </li></ul><ul><li>The Linkage Model </li></ul>
  12. 12. Conclusions <ul><li>Innovation is a time bound phenomenon, and change is always constrained by sociocultural factors, individuals’ psychological profiles, and the attributes that potential adopters perceive a given innovation to posses. </li></ul><ul><li>Curricular innovation is a managed process of development whose principal products are teaching (and/or testing) materials, methodological skills, and pedagogical values that are perceived as new by potential adopters </li></ul><ul><li>Changes in teaching (and/or testing) materials, methodological skills, and pedagogical values constitute the core dimensions of teaching and learning </li></ul>