Elaich module 6 topic 6.7 - Environmental management for preserving Venice

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Environmental management for preserving Venice

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Elaich module 6 topic 6.7 - Environmental management for preserving Venice

  1. 1. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Prof. Guido Biscontin & Dr. Francesca Caterina Izzo – University Ca’Foscari of Venice Ing. Pierpaolo Campostrini, Arch. Enrico Rinaldi- CORILA, Venice Management and Use Module 6 Basic Cour s e Teaching Material Topic 6 . 7 Environmental management for preserving Venice Educational Toolkit
  2. 2. Prof. Guido Biscontin – Ca’ Foscari University of Venice Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Copyright ©ELAICH Beneficiaries 2009-2012 This material is an integral part of the “ELAICH – educational toolkit” and developed as part of the project ELAICH – Educational Linkage Approach in Cultural Heritage within the framework of EuroMed Cultural Heritage 4 Programme under grant agreement ENPI 150583. All rights reserved to the ELAICH Beneficiaries.   This material, in its entirety only, may be used in "fair use" only as part of the ELAICH – educational toolkit for the educational purposes by non-profit educational establishments or in self-education, by any means at all times and on any downloads, copies and or, adaptations, clearly indicating “©ELAICH Beneficiaries 2009-2011” and making reference to these terms.   Use of the material amounting to a distortion or mutilation of the material or is otherwise prejudicial to the honor or reputation of ELAICH Beneficiaries 2009-2011 is forbidden.   Use of parts of the material is strictly forbidden. No part of this material may be: (1) used other than intended (2) copied, reproduced or distributed in any physical or electronic form (3) reproduced in any publication of any kind (4) used as part of any other teaching material in any framework; unless prior written permission of the ELAICH Beneficiaries has been obtained. Pictures © Corila, Venice – Insula Spa, Venice Disclaimer This document has been produced with the financial assistance of the European Union. The contents of this document are the sole responsibility of the ELAICH Consortium and can under no circumstances be regarded as reflecting the position of the European Union.
  3. 3. Prof. Guido Biscontin – Ca’ Foscari University of Venice Abstract Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage The topic 6.7 “ Environmental management for preserving Venice” introduces you to the delicate case of the city of Venice. A unique city like Venice deserves a special care, that means a proper environmental management and a correct use of its Cultural Heritage (the palaces, the canals, the bridges, the islands…the city itself!). Every year more than 9 millions tourists visit Venice, thousands of cruise boats cross the St. Mark’s Basin, numerous buildings foundation need maintenance, many “acqua alta” occur…all these events should be considered for preserving Venice and its lagoon , which were inserted in the UNESCO World Heritage sites in 1987.
  4. 4. Prof. Guido Biscontin –Ca’Foscari University of Venice Content Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage <ul><li>Table of contents of this presentation: </li></ul><ul><li>Venice in numbers </li></ul><ul><li>The traditional building method in Venice </li></ul><ul><li>Venice: the sinking city </li></ul><ul><li>Damages and defences in the the past </li></ul><ul><li>How to solve these complicated problems now? Sustainable solutions for a complicate environment </li></ul><ul><li>A more responsible use of the city from tourists and habitants </li></ul><ul><li>Buildings maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>What about the city? </li></ul><ul><li>What about outside the city? </li></ul>
  5. 5. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Prof. G. Biscontin – 6.7 Environmental management for preserving Venice Venice in numbers Perimeter: 157km Total surface: 540km 2 8% land above sea level (littorals, reclaimed areas, islands, embankments) 92% “water system”: channels (11,9%), shallows, mud flats and salt marshes (80,1%) Channels and open waters (depth >150cm): 66km 2 . First houses ~ 800 B.C. Bridges < 400 Habitants ~ 60.000 Tourist per year ~ 9 millions!! Pigeons ~ 25 millions!! Adriatic Sea Chioggia inlet Malamocco inlet Lido inlet Porto Marghera Venezia Mestre
  6. 6. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Prof. G. Biscontin – 6.7 Environmental management for preserving Venice Drawings of the 1824 describing the structure of the city Venice was originally a collection of muddy islands. In order to construct buildings, workers drove millions of through the mud and into the marginally more solid base of sand and clay beneath Venice: A city that should not exist Wood piles Wood platform Bricks, ground and stones Building walls Water and soft sand
  7. 7. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Prof. G. Biscontin – 6.7 Environmental management for preserving Venice The traditional building method in Venice <ul><li>Wood piles through the mud and into the marginally more solid base of sand and clay beneath </li></ul><ul><li>Oak planks placed on top of the pilings </li></ul><ul><li>Several thick layers of marble (which is impermeable by water) formed the foundations of the buildings </li></ul>The building method was thought for defending the city form the water and increment the available surface wood Istrian stone At the time the buildings were constructed, the foundations in Istrian Stone was well above the high water line, so there was nothing to worry about.
  8. 8. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Prof. G. Biscontin – 6.7 Environmental management for preserving Venice Over the centuries, the weight of the buildings has driven the pilings deeper into the mushy seabed Venice: the sinking city <ul><li>earth subsidence ( moldy sand!!) </li></ul><ul><li>centuries of poor environmental and administrative management in the entire region </li></ul>few centimeters per century Living at sea level is bound to bring in the sea from time to time and Venice was no exception throughout its long history. However, these abnormal high tides are becoming more common Acqua alta (high water) is the most serious threat to the survival of Venice, yet the main cause behind the acqua alta is a more global concern: rising sea levels.
  9. 9. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Prof. G. Biscontin – 6.7 Environmental management for preserving Venice Water level become higher and higher every years Earth subsidence Necessity to change the building strategies and to defend the city Motor boats , large cruise ships in the lagoon, create small but powerful waves that lap the stones lining the canals. Underneath, the waves and salt caused by this boat traffic is eroding away the stone and brick as well as the very earth Venice is built upon.
  10. 10. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Prof. G. Biscontin – 6.7 Environmental management for preserving Venice Damages and defences in the the past The main problem in the city caused by floods was the contamination of potable water, taken by public wells (rain cistern) with a filtering system sand-based; the sand must be completely renovated if such an accident occurs. The only defense possibility was to lift up the pavements, re-building them higher The defense from the sea was made by wood poles and fascine (“palade”), which were not strong not durable. In the XVIII century, the Republic decided to build a much more robust Istrian stone system: the “Murazzi”, completed in 1794.
  11. 11. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Acropolis of Athens Prof. G. Biscontin – 6.7 Environmental management for preserving Venice How to solve these complicated problems now? Sustainable solutions for a complicate environment Wood platform during high water Artificial barrier for shops and houses Maintenance, cleaning, consolidation and reconstruction of canals and foundations
  12. 12. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Prof. G. Biscontin – 6.7 Environmental management for preserving Venice Alerting high water system – high water last only 3 hours and it is not every day!! The official definition of “acqua alta” is when the water level at high tide is over 90 mm above the normal water level. When the level is higher than 1m 10cm  consistent problem for the city…7-8 times per year ... becoming more and more frequent  http://www.comune.venezia.it/flex/cm/pages/ServeBLOB.php/L/IT/IDPagina/13333?4ede3a6c0777b?4ede3a6fa5295
  13. 13. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Acropolis of Athens Reduce the number of pigeons Incentivate the ricicle of the rubbish Reduce the number of boats and big cruises Prof. G. Biscontin – 6.7 Environmental management for preserving Venice A more responsible use of the city from tourists and habitants Increase the way to access the city: trains, local transports from the mainland, etc.
  14. 14. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Acropolis of Athens Prof. G. Biscontin – 6.7 Environmental management for preserving Venice Buildings maintenance Necessity of a high maintanance of buildings, canals, water access, pavements, etc Raising pavements bricked-up section new steps Nowadays the tide goes over the Istrian stone layer, which prevent capillary salt ingression in bricks  much faster deterioration 
  15. 15. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Acropolis of Athens Prof. G. Biscontin – 6.7 Environmental management for preserving Venice anti-filtration and underground reconfiguration elevation of pavements How does the water flood Saint Mark’s Square? Management of the banks By surmounting the canal banks By flowing back through the drains By filtering up from underground
  16. 16. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Prof. G. Biscontin – 6.7 Environmental management for preserving Venice Coastal reinforcement <ul><li>creation of new beaches </li></ul><ul><li>widening of existing ones </li></ul>What about outside the city? Opposing erosion and protecting the lagoon and inhabited areas near the sea from sea storms. <ul><li>construction or reinforcement of breakwater embankments, restoration of the ancient sea defences and of the dune belt. </li></ul>
  17. 17. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Prof. G. Biscontin – 6.7 Environmental management for preserving Venice Moses Project -> mobile flood barriers at the Venice lagoon entrances These barriers are designed to rest on the sea floor until Venice is threatened by an acqua alta event. When needed, the barriers then spring into action by rising to form a dam across the three entrances to the Venice Lagoon, thereby keeping the high water away from the city.
  18. 18. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Prof. G. Biscontin – 6.7 Environmental management for preserving Venice
  19. 19. Educational Linkage Approach In Cultural Heritage Acropolis of Athens Prof. G. Biscontin – 6.7 Environmental management for preserving Venice This presentation was done with the collaboration between CORILA (Consortium for the Coordination of Research Activities Conserning the Venice Lagoon System ): Ing. Pierpaolo Campostrini, Arch. Enrico Rinaldi Ca’ Foscari University of Venice: Prof. Guido Biscontin, Prof. Elisabetta Zendri, M.Sc. Eleonora Balliana and Dr. Francesca Caterina Izzo INSULA Spa: Ing. Ivano Turlon

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